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(ScGbt: t. 593; Ibp. 179'6"; b. 30'0"; dr. 11'3"; s. 11 k.; cpl. 35; a. 1 100-pdr. P.r., 2 9" D. sb., 1 30pdr. P.r., 2 24-par. how., 2 12-par. r.)
The first Shamut screw gunboat begun on 2 February 1863 by the Portsmouth (N.H.) Navy Yard— was launched on 17 April 1863, sponsored by Miss Lucy Hall, departed Portsmouth on 20 October 1863, was towed to New York where her engine and machinery were installed by the South Brooklyn Works; was delivered to the Navy on 16 October 1864; and commissioned at the New York Navy Yard on 1 November 1864, Lt. Comdr. George U. Morris in command.
Two days later, Shamut got underway to search for Confederate Navy commerce raider, Tallahassee (renamed Olustee), which had recently preyed upon Northern shipping off the Delaware capes. After cruising in Nova Scotian waters without seeing or hearing of her quarry, Shawmut returned to the Portsmouth Navy Yard on the 20th.
On 9 January 1865, the gunboat was ordered to proceed to Wilmington, N.C., to join the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron. She participated in the attack on and capture of Fort Anderson, N.C., from 18 to 20 February. On the latter day, a boat from Shawmut was destroyed by a torpedo (the Civil War term for a mine) as it swept waters in the area.
In March, as Grant's operations around Richmond approached their climax, Shawmut was called back to Hampton Roads and stationed in the York River "to keep open free navigation between White House and the mouth of the York River." With the fall of Richmond and Lee's surrender, Shawmut was ordered north and decomissioned at the New York Navy Yard on 17 April 1865.
Refitted for foreign service, the gunboat was recommissioned on 15 June 1865 and soon sailed for Bahia, Brazil. Following over a year's service on the Brazil Station protecting "our flag from insult and the property of our citizens from unlawful seizure," Shawmut returned home and was decommissioned at the New York Navy Yard on 8 December 1866.
Recommissioned on 12 August 1867, Shawmut served in the North Atlantic Squadron until she was laid up again at New York on 7 July 1868. Reactivated once more on 18 March 1871, the ship resumed service in the North Atlantic and served along the Atlantic seaboard until finally laid up at the Norfolk Navy Yard on 22 January 1877. She was sold on 27 September to E. Stannard & Co., Westbrook, Conn.
The Massachusetts Turnpike is the southern boundary of the neighborhood, which coincides with the right-of-way of the former Boston and Worcester Railroad, laid down in the 1830s. Marginal Road and Cortes Street are the surface roads that parallel "the Pike". Across the Pike to the southwest lies the South End neighborhood to the southeast of the Pike and Tremont Street is the southern edge of Chinatown. To the west of Berkeley Street and north of Columbus Avenue (west of Arlington Street) is the Back Bay neighborhood. To the north of Stuart Street is Park Square, and to the east of Charles Street is the Washington Street Theatre District.  
In 1983, the area bounded by Cortes Street, Tremont Street, Piedmont Street, and Isabella Street was designated as the "Bay Village Historic District" by the Boston Landmarks Commission. The exterior appearance of buildings is protected by a Historic District designation administered by the Bay Village Historic District Commission. 
The narrow one-way network and irregular grid arrangement of the streets make the interior urban spaces of Bay Village relatively quiet and pedestrian-friendly, due to sparse automobile traffic. Most of the sidewalks are paved with brick, and are lit by gas streetlamps at night. One small street is still paved with original cobblestones, while the remainder have long ago been repaved with asphalt.
There are a few "vest-pocket parks" located within or nearby Bay Village, including Eliot Norton Park, which although technically located in the Theatre District, is just across Charles Street from the eastern boundary of the neighborhood.  The Boston Public Garden and Boston Common are located just two blocks away from the northern edge of Bay Village.
Traditionally middle to lower-middle class, the neighborhood has become relatively more expensive and upscale, beginning around the 1990s. [ citation needed ] The Bay Village Neighborhood Association (BVNA) is very active in controlling urban nuisances, such as traffic, litter, graffiti, and pet wastes (an approved dog walking area is located next to Eliot Norton Park). The BVNA is also known for organizing Spring and Fall Cleanup days, a book club, and the Bay Village Annual Neighborhood Block Party (which features restaurant tables and service literally in the middle of the narrow streets, when permitted by the weather). 
The western part of the neighborhood was originally part of the body of water known as the Back Bay, west of the Boston Neck isthmus. This area was once known as South Bay, as the original waterline was in the area of Charles Street and Broadway (formerly Carver Street and Pleasant Street).  In the 1820s, the neighborhood was landfilled by developer Ephraim Marsh,  in partnership with Francis Cabot Lowell Jr, before the more extensive landfills of the adjacent Back Bay and South End neighborhoods.  Through its history, the neighborhood has been known at different times as the Church Street District, South Cove, and Kerry Village. 
Architecturally, many Bay Village homes look like smaller versions of Beacon Hill townhouses. This is largely because many of the craftspeople who built the Beacon Hill residences settled in this area and built the local residences for their own use.  Fayette Street, named for the American Revolutionary War soldier Marquis de Lafayette, has numerous houses dating from the Federal Period. Grander five-story townhouses in the Greek Revival style may be found on Melrose Street. After the area west of Ferdinand Street was filled in, developers built luxury residential "hotels" in the Victorian style on Cortes and Isabella Streets.
Raising the Village Edit
In 1868, the majority of what is now Bay Village was raised in order to eliminate sewage problems created by the filling of the adjacent South End and Back Bay neighborhoods.  Some 457 houses and 24 other structures were raised by 12 feet (4m) to a grade of 18 feet (6m) above mean low water, with cellars, gardens and vacant lots raised to 6 feet (2m) above mean low water.  The total cost of this massive engineering feat was $632,700, compared to a total estimated value of $1,668,120 for all of the structures raised.  To complete the work, the City of Boston temporarily took possession of all the structures in the area, exchanging them for City bonds with the property owners. There were 3,528 displaced individuals in total, coming from 867 families, and the work took around two years to complete. Once the structures and streets were raised, and the new sewer system was functional, the structures were returned to the property owners. 
Many of the raised structures were modified with new entrances into what had previously been the second floor. Visitors can see evidence of this today by noting the location of the basement windows in some of the buildings on Fayette Street, as well as arches opening to horsewalks that ran under the houses to stables in the rear. In addition, some private gardens were never raised, and remain near their original elevations.  The Church Street Church, for which Church street was named, was raised and "much altered by 1868 (at the time of the raising of the district)."  The church, which was located between the current Winchester and Piedmont Streets, was later demolished in 1924.
Edgar Allan Poe Edit
The American writer Edgar Allan Poe was born at the edge of Bay Village his parents were both actors in the Theatre District nearby. A commemorative plaque on Boylston Street is a couple of blocks away from the actual location of Poe's birth.  The house which was his birthplace at 62 Carver Street no longer exists also, the street has since been renamed "Charles Street South".   A "square" at the intersection of Broadway, Fayette, and Carver Streets had once been named in his honor,  but it disappeared when the streets were rearranged. In 2009, the intersection of Charles and Boylston Streets (two blocks north of his birthplace) was newly designated "Edgar Allan Poe Square".  A residential condominium a few streets away within Bay Village is also named in his honor, but otherwise has no known connection to the author.
In 2014, a permanent memorial bronze sculpture by Stefanie Rocknak was installed at Edgar Allan Poe Square. Poe Returning to Boston depicts a life-sized Poe striding against the wind, accompanied by a flying raven his suitcase lid has fallen open, leaving a "paper trail" of literary works embedded in the sidewalk behind him.      
Cocoanut Grove fire Edit
Bay Village was the site of the November 1942 fire at the Cocoanut Grove nightclub, in which 492 people lost their lives. Its terrible aftermath led to the creation and enforcement of stringent fire codes across the US, in the hope of preventing other such tragedies. Marking the 50th anniversary of the incident, the Bay Village Neighborhood Association placed a memorial plaque in the brick sidewalk near the club's former site on Piedmont Street, now partially occupied by the Revere Hotel (formerly the Radisson Hotel).   The plaque states:
The Cocoanut Grove. Erected by the Bay Village Neighborhood Association, 1993. In memory of the more than 490 people who died in the Cocoanut Grove fire on November 28, 1942. As a result of that terrible tragedy, major changes were made in the fire codes, and improvements in the treatment of burn victims, not only in Boston but across the nation. "Phoenix out of the Ashes"
A smaller inscription in the lower left corner says, "This plaque crafted by Anthony P. Marra, youngest survivor of the Cocoanut Grove fire".
On November 30, 2013, a short street running through the former site of the Cocoanut Grove Club, and previously named "Shawmut Extension", was renamed "Cocoanut Grove Lane". The on-site renaming ceremony was attended by several survivors of the fire and around 250 guests and spectators. Speakers included Marty Walsh, who had recently been elected mayor of Boston, but not yet sworn into office.  
The plaque was removed in 2014 for the construction of new condominium residences on the site,  but was reinstalled in June 2016 as previously agreed to by the developer.  However a few weeks later, the plaque was relocated to the corner of Cocoanut Grove Lane nearby, at the request of some condominium owners. The relocation was objected to by the surviving daughter of Anthony P. Marra (who had designed the plaque), with support from other interested parties.   According to a Boston Globe article, the condo owners stated "We now occupy these homes with our families as part of the Bay Village neighborhood and would like to enjoy our homes in peace, without tragic memories, hanging wreaths at our doors and tourists peeking into our houses".  One of the condominium developers has claimed that the new placement of the plaque is closer to the original location of the infamous revolving door at the entrance to the nightclub, which had become jammed in the panic and had trapped many victims. 
Race and ancestry Edit
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|Two or more races||2.2%||2.4%||2.7%||–0.2%||–0.5%|
According to the 2012-2016 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, the largest ancestry groups in ZIP Codes 02116 are:  
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As of 2016 [update] , Walk Score rates Bay Village as the fourth most walkable neighborhood in the City of Boston, which itself is rated the third most walkable city in the US, and has a high Transit Score as well.  Bay Village has been assigned a Walk Score of 98, and a Transit Score of 100 its lower Bike Score of 71 is still considered "Very Bikeable". 
Several MBTA rapid transit stations are located just beyond the boundaries of Bay Village, which is also served by several local bus routes. Commuter rail and Amtrak long-haul trains stop at Back Bay Station and South Station, within walking distance to the west and east of Bay Village, respectively. Inter-city bus services depart from the regional South Station Bus Terminal.
Nearby MBTA stations include:
On-street parking is very scarce within Bay Village, and is mostly reserved for holders of Residential Parking stickers. Commercial parking is available in numerous surface lots and parking garages located near or in the neighborhood. Entrance ramps to the Massachusetts Turnpike (I-90) and the Central Artery (I-93) are a minute's drive away.
In addition to the larger metropolitan Boston publications, several local weekly newspapers are distributed free in Bay Village. The neighborhood is so small that it is often included in the South End or Back Bay neighborhoods.
The Boston Courant covered the Back Bay, Beacon Hill, Downtown, Fenway, South End, and the Waterfront neighborhoods of Boston, and included dedicated real estate listings for South End / Bay Village, and events calendar listings. However, the newspaper announced that it would permanently shut down, in its February 6, 2016 edition.
Shortly after that announcement, the Back Bay Sun changed its name to the Boston Sun, and expanded its coverage from the Back Bay to also include the South End and Fenway-Kenmore neighborhoods of Boston. The paper is owned by The Independent Newspaper Group (ING), which also publishes The Beacon Hill Times. This latter newspaper has had some coverage of Bay Village, and is of interest because of the close proximity and historical connections to the Beacon Hill neighborhood.
In 2016, the previous publisher of the defunct Boston Courant debuted a reborn publication under the new banner of the Boston Guardian, serving the Back Bay, Beacon Hill, Downtown, Fenway, South End, and North End/Waterfront districts of Boston. The new publication's title stirred up some controversy over the alleged appropriation of a historic journalistic name.   
In addition, the Bay Village Neighborhood Association occasionally distributes its free quarterly newsletter in the area, and back issues can be downloaded from its website.
Study reframes the history of LGBT mental health care
New research reveals that community-based clinics and clinicians play an essential role in reshaping both mental health care for LGBT people and broader attitudes about sexuality and gender.
Stephen Vider, assistant professor of history in the College of Arts and Sciences, is a co-author with David S. Byers, assistant professor at Bryn Mawr College Graduate School of Social Work and Social Research, of “Clinical Activism in Community-based Practice: The Case of LGBT Affirmative Care at the Eromin Center, Philadelphia, 1973–1984,” which was published Nov. 9 in American Psychologist.
Eromin Center executive director Anthony Silvestre, left, and clinical director Mary Cochran are pictured in the center’s office in Philadelphia in 1981.
Their paper uncovers the story of the Eromin Center, one of the first LGBT counseling centers in the United States, which was open in Philadelphia from 1973 to 1984. Eromin was a portmanteau for “erotic minorities.”
Historically, LGBT people struggled to find mental health care that didn’t treat divergence from sexual and gender norms as a mark of psychopathology. The authors show how Eromin’s proactive stance not only provided support for people who needed mental health care but also advanced a new model of LGBT affirmative clinical practice.
They describe Eromin’s approach as an example of what they call “clinical activism.” Without pre-existing models or research to draw upon, Eromin clinicians improvised new therapeutic approaches, guided by their own ethics and experiences.
This improvisational and community-responsive approach to care, the authors argue, was used by many early LGBT counseling centers in the United States, in spite of national leadership and mental health policy that was slower to change.
“Most histories of LGBT mental health point to the removal of homosexuality from the ‘Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders’ in late 1973 by the American Psychiatric Association as the crucial turning point in LGBT depathologization,” said Vider. “Our research shows, however, the critical role of clinicians working in developing models of affirmative LGBT counseling.”
Eromin, in fact, was founded six months before the APA decision.
Their paper, written with Amelia Smith, a social worker at the Mazzoni Center in Philadelphia, is part of an oral history and archival research project that Byers and Vider have been leading since 2015. The oral histories will be archived in Cornell University Library’s Rare and Manuscript Collections as part of its Human Sexuality Collection.
The Eromin Center, the authors wrote, “framed the major problem facing LGBT people not as inherent psychopathology but as marginalization.” One goal was to counteract the stigma and discrimination another was to help clients achieve self-acceptance and develop personal strengths. Most of Eromin’s counselors were gay or lesbian, and gave treatment rooted in their own experiences.
By 1977, more than 1,000 people had received care. Eromin also pioneered counseling and support services for transgender clients, and by the 1980s, was working to develop more programming for LGBT people of color.
The center closed in 1984, but the impact it and other LGBT clinics have had on counseling in the United States has been crucial, Vider said.
“The APA may have depathologized same-sex desire on paper,” he said, “but it was clinicians in programs like Eromin who ultimately made self-acceptance possible.”
Even after the APA decision, Vider said, many clinicians continued to treat same-sex sexuality and transgender identity as forms of mental illness that needed to be “cured.” Eromin provided and modeled a critical alternative.
Byers said there is still need for change.
“Today, many clinical training programs, social service agencies and professional organizations work to some degree to affirm LGBT people and other marginalized identities, experiences and expressions,” he said. “The care remains very uneven, though.”
It can be especially difficult, he said, to access thoughtful and individualized mental health care related to transgender identities and experiences. Another challenge is a still-active network of clinicians who claim they can change a client’s sexual orientation or gender expression.
Byers stressed the need for clinicians in the field to take a critical and anti-oppressive stance in their work, and for graduate programs and medical schools to empower new clinicians to be responsive to local needs. Byers said, “Today, social workers, psychiatrists and psychologists often fail to listen with an ear to the political aspects of their practice. We are not trained to work together with our clients or to be creative in the collaboration. However, clinicians today absolutely need to pursue new forms of clinical activism. The status quo in community-based mental health care is often ethically unacceptable.”
At the same time, Byers said there are many clinicians engaging in clinical activism throughout the country right now, though with little recognition.
“Clinicians face systemic challenges,” he said, “and lack of support while working with people with marginalized sexual orientations and gender identities with individuals experiencing poverty, racism, misogyny or trauma and in response to anti-immigrant and anti-refugee violence.”
“One lesson of the Eromin Center is that change at the level of policy and guidelines is often not enough,” said Vider. “Real and lasting change has to start within communities.”
Vider is director of the Cornell Public History Initiative. In the spring, he will teach a lecture course on the history of mental illness and a seminar, Making Public Queer History.
Byers will be a postdoctoral associate at the Bronfenbrenner Center for Translational Research, beginning in fall 2020.
Kate Blackwood is a writer for the College of Arts and Sciences.
Shawmut ScGbt - History
As we begin our celebration of LGBT History Month, we must recognize how LGBT history has been told. For decades, the trailblazing work of BIPOC LGBT pioneers has been eclipsed by white and cisgender narratives. Names like Marsha P. Johnson and Sylvia Rivera have not always been at the forefront of our history.
Far too often, we see the practice of whitewashing affect how history is told. This leaves the BIPOC community with the task of undoing this flawed storytelling. They cannot and should not do it alone, so it is up to white community members and allies to do better. That’s why SAGE dedicated this past Pride month to honoring the LGBT people of color who fought against police violence at Stonewall. We must continue to elevate the voices that show us that history isn’t just lived, it’s made.
LGBT elders deserve to have their history told accurately and told by them – especially during LGBT History Month.
Our community’s pioneers have always been on the front lines, and their resilience is what continues to propel us forward. We see our elders’ dedication in trans pioneer Miss Major Griffin Gracy, whose leadership continues to inspire activism in support of Black Lives Matter and trans women of color. We see it in history being made today, as the torch is passed to BIPOC trans leaders Cecilia Gentili and Tanya Asapansa-Johnson Walker. Their recent lawsuit challenged the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ removal of anti-discrimination protections for the trans community in the Affordable Care Act. We see it in so many of our trailblazing LGBT elders of color who continue to prove that history isn’t just lived it’s made.
Throughout LGBT History Month, SAGE will focus on stories of resilience across the community. We will amplify our BIPOC LGBT elders and older trans, non-binary, and gender-nonconforming people. It is our responsibility to showcase these fierce leaders and their continued influence on our community. From organizing the March on Washington and protesting police violence, to protecting the right to safe and effective healthcare, when it comes to making history, BIPOC LGBT pioneers refuse to be invisible.
Moynihan was born in Marietta, Ohio October 19, in 1959,  the sixth of eight children in a Catholic family of Irish descent.   Moynihan graduated from Brown University in 1981, where he majored in history, co-captained the rugby team, and met his future wife, classmate Susan E. Berry.   He earned a Juris Doctor from the University of Notre Dame Law School,  before returning to Providence, Rhode Island to join Edwards & Angell LLP, the city's largest corporate law firm. 
Moynihan held numerous banking positions before becoming President of Consumer and Small Business Banking (SBB) at Bank of America in January 2009. 
He joined Fleet Boston bank in April 1993 as a deputy general counsel.  From 1999 to April 2004, he served as Executive Vice President, managing Fleet's brokerage and wealth management division. After Bank of America (BoA) merged with FleetBoston Financial in 2004, he joined BoA as president of global wealth and investment management.  He was named CEO of Merrill Lynch after its sale to BoA in September 2008, and became the CEO of Bank of America after Ken Lewis stepped down in 2010. 
On August 25, 2011, CNBC's Drew Sandholm noted that "[d]espite having recently told investors Bank of America . doesn't need to raise capital, CEO Brian Moynihan will accept $5 billion in capital from famed investor Warren Buffett. The deal not only surprised the Fast Money traders on Thursday, it also caused them to question Moynihan's credibility." 
On September 12, 2011, CNBC's John Carney noted that Moynihan had "once again laid out his company's plan to meet regulatory capital requirements and denied that the bank will have to issue new stock to raise capital . [Moynihan] says that Warren Buffett's $5 billion counts as Tier 1 Capital. But the markets have largely ignored the investment, most likely because it looks a lot more like debt than capital." 
On October 26, 2011, Huffington Post blogger Jillian Berman noted that BoA "has also been hammered in the stock and bonds markets" and "was the worst performer in the Dow Jones Industrial Average for two-quarters straight . while Moody's downgraded the bank last month." She added while Jamie Dimon, JPMorgan Chase's CEO, received a $19 million raise in 2010, Moynihan's salary stayed level at $950,000. 
On December 27, 2011, Julia LaRoche wrote in Business Insider that Moynihan "admitted the proposed $5 monthly fee for debit card users wasn't the best idea". She quoted him as saying: "We struck a chord with customers that no one anticipated. We learned our lesson and stopped it."  It was later reported that the failed fee plan led to a 20% increase in account closures during the last three months of 2011. 
Business Insider noted that "a group of law professors and activists from a non-profit called Public Citizen sent a 24 page petition to Fed Chairman Ben Bernanke and Treasury Secretary Geithner asking them to consider breaking up and reforming Bank of America. 
In July 2020, Bank of America’s Brian T. Moynihan was named Chief Executive Magazine’s 2020 CEO Of The Year 
He currently lives in Wellesley, Massachusetts and frequently commutes between Boston and Bank of America's headquarters in Charlotte, North Carolina using Bank of America's private jets. This practice has come under scrutiny from some shareholders.   
The bank's 2012 shareholder meeting in Charlotte, North Carolina convened "as protests swirled inside and outside", according to the San Francisco Chronicle. There were complaints from shareholders regarding the bank's mortgage servicing operations, decreased share prices, and other issues. Protesters converged outside the building, which they were barred from entering by police and metal barricades. In response to the criticisms of the bank's mortgage servicing operations, Moynihan tried to reassure the audience, saying "you can call us and we will figure it out". 
In 2012, Moynihan, alongside several other CEO's, faced heavy criticism from Senator Bernie Sanders (I-Vt.) in a report titled "Top Corporate Tax Dodgers". According to the report, Moynihan's Bank of America paid no federal income tax in 2010 and received a $1.9 billion tax refund despite making $4.4 billion in profits. The report also includes criticisms of Bank of America's use of tax havens. 
From Pride to The Palace: Miami’s LGBT community through the years
Miami has had a gay nightlife scene as early as the 1930s. From then on, it would be a rollercoaster of ups and downs, filled with progress, failure, celebrations, and heartbreak in Miami LGBT history, leading to our current status as a gay mecca that attracts more than 1 million LGBT visitors a year. A place with its own chamber of commerce dedicated to the queer community since 1997, and where Art Smith hosted and officiated a mass gay wedding for more than two dozen couples this past February.
Of course, it didn’t happen right away, and the early gay nightlife scene of the 1930s was not long-lived. Raids would shut down queer establishments on an almost nightly basis, but they kept popping right back up again. This silent film shows a police raid on a Miami gay bar in 1957.
This mistreatment continued until the end of the 1960s, escalating to targeted murders, harassment, and public shaming via stories in local newspapers.
In 1964, a Florida legislative committee led by Senator Charley Johns published Homosexuality and Citizenship in Florida, also known as the Purple Pamphlet, as part of a witch hunt to seek out gays and bisexuals working in schools, universities, and government jobs, who they believed were determined to “subvert the American way of life by controlling academic institutions and by corrupting the nation’s moral fiber,” according to Carryin’ on in the Lesbian and Gay South. Filled with pornographic pictures, it attempted to portray queer people as degenerate disease carriers worse than child molesters. The backlash against the Johns committee was swift, with Dade County officials threatening legal action and the Florida Attorney General demanding that distribution of the Purple Pamphlet cease immediately.
Fighting for rights
Despite the persecution, Miami’s LGBT community remained tenacious in their fight for equal rights. Activism prevailed, and things began looking up in the 1970s. According to The Encyclopedia of Lesbian and Gay Histories and Cultures, “The first organized gay pride week was celebrated in Miami Beach in early 1972 with a march on Lincoln Road protesting a city law banning cross-dressing. Two weeks later, the law was struck down by a federal court. In August of that year, hundreds of gays and lesbians joined thousands of protestors at the 1972 Republican National Convention in Miami Beach.”
Establishments where queers could congregate reached an all-time high, becoming even more prevalent than they are today. Most were located in Miami, but there were plenty of Miami Beach spots such as Club Benni on Alton Road and Club Echo and Circus Bar on Ocean Drive, as well as the Mayflower Lounge and Basin Street.
In January 1977, an ordinance passed banning discrimination against gays and lesbians. However, Anita Bryant led a campaign against the pioneering antidiscrimination law, and it was repealed in June of that year.
But that didn’t slow down the LGBT community. By the 1980s, Miami Beach was becoming known as a bohemian mecca for queers around the country, a place where everyone could live freely and openly. This further boosted the economic development and the rise of Miami Beach throughout the 1980s and 1990s, with the latter best referred to as the Versace Era, known its extravagant parties, glamour, and celebrities.
South Beach fabulous
The LGBT community proved absolutely instrumental in transforming Miami Beach from a town known for criminals and retirees to the glittering gem of all things fabulous it would become. This was further propelled by the famous relocation of Gianni Versace to Casa Casuarina in 1992, and then the premiere of The Real World: Miami in 1996. Two years earlier in 1994, the cast of The Real World: San Francisco included Pedro Zamora, a Miami gay man fighting AIDS.
People flocked in masses. “Everything was pastel and glitter,” Shelley Novak, one of the grandmothers of Miami Beach drag, told World Red Eye. “You were tripping over gays. There was a smaller group of lesbians, too.”
Most popular during this decade were Warsaw, located in the former Jerry’s Famous Deli spot, and Paragon on Washington Avenue, along with Salvation, a warehouse space on West Avenue. Dozens of stores, restaurants, and gyms catered specifically to the LGBT community.
However, it wasn’t only about the party. Leonard Horowitz, the openly gay cofounder of the Miami Design Preservation League, was propelled into the public spotlight in the 1980s for his dedicated efforts to promote and preserve Miami’s Art Deco architecture, alongside cofounder Barbara Capitman. We have him to thank for South Beach’s iconic visual look, recognized the world over.
The 1990s also saw great strides in the government and civic activism. Save Dade, which continues to promote equality for LGBT members of the community, was founded in 1993, and in 1998, equal rights for gays and lesbians became county law.
At the same time, Miami has always had a gritty side, and in the gay community it involved bathhouses and anonymous sex in Flamingo Park, at the same time as the AIDS epidemic swept through the country. AIDS in particular is a problem we’re still struggling with, and Miami remains the No. 1 city for HIV transmission in the U.S.
Then, in 1997, Andrew Cunanan shot Gianni Versace in front of his mansion. While police never provided any connection between his death and his sexual orientation, locals got nervous and things became tense.
There was a new wave hitting the Beach, one that included more commercialism and homogeny. The economy was good, in part due to the queer community, but the rent spikes eventually priced many out. The days of Robyn and dance music were replaced by hip-hop. This began a pilgrimage to Broward, especially to Fort Lauderdale and its neighbor Wilton Manors, which has become a gay mecca in its own right, ranked as the city with the second highest percentage of LGBT residents in the country as of the 2010 census, making up 14 percent of its population of just over 11,000.
To this day, Miami Beach and Wilton Manors continue to flourish, with both offering very different experiences. Miami Beach may be glitz and glamour, but Wilton Manors is a family town, and the two are close enough that there’s plenty of overlap between the two famous gayborhoods.
One thing they both have in common is a thriving drag community. The concept of drag is not a new one by any means. It’s been alive since before the days of Shakespeare, and its traditional etymology notes that the word was originally theater slang. The word morphed throughout the centuries, and the way we use it today originated in the 1950s.
Drag queen performers can be men or transgender women, queer or straight, and Miami Beach is historically famous for its local talent, including Elaine Lancaster, Noel Leon, TP Lords, Latrice Royale, Tiffany Taylor Fantasia, Kitty Meow, Chyna Girl, and Daisy Deadpetals. The drag queen phenomenon in Miami Beach became especially prevalent during the Versace Era, bringing even more fame to Ocean Drive with its inclusion of The Carlyle in The Birdcage.
The Palace, located on 12th and Ocean, is exceptionally famous for its drag performances, with their famous tagline is “Every Queen Needs A Palace.” However, it wasn’t always a drag queen haven. Opened in 1988, it was originally a fruit bar called The Fruit Palace. According to the prevailing story, the original owners put the word fruit in the name in an effort to not offend anyone, since the beach right across the street was known as a popular gay haunt. It instantly became popular with the gay community, and the shop began adding liquor to its juices, eventually offering drag shows. Over the years, it has changed owners, incorporated a full-service food menu, and become world famous for its extravagant drag performances.
As rents priced out other gay businesses, the Palace persevered, and it’s now the only gay bar on Ocean Drive. They offer drag shows every night, but the main event occurs on Sundays, which is the drag brunch that started it all.
In 2014, the Human Rights Campaign ranked Miami Beach No. 1 in its Municipal Equality Index, which measures the inclusivity of LGBT people in city laws, policies, and services. The city has been a pioneer for cities all over the country, with openly gay elected officials and services for LGBT youth, seniors, and the homeless. Miami Beach officials actually spoke out in court against Florida’s same-sex marriage ban. Miami-Dade County, too, has been ahead of its peers, passing an ordinance in December to protect transgender people from discrimination based on gender identity.
Political battles aren’t over for Miami’s LGBT community, though. Florida Representative Frank Artiles, R-Miami, launched a bill this year that would have banned transgender people from using bathrooms that reflect their gender identity. That bill would have overridden Miami-Dade’s ordinance, but it died in Tallahassee amid staunch opposition from human rights advocates, LGBT activist groups, and civil liberties organizations.
From Twist, Score, and the bevy of themed queer nights at local bars, to Hotel Gaythering, Miami Beach’s only gay hotel, opportunities to celebrate LGBT culture abound. Annual events like White Party, Miami Beach Gay Pride, the Miami Gay and Lesbian Film Festival, and Aqua Girl welcome thousands of LGBT tourists and locals alike. Publications like Palette Magazine, South Florida Gay News and Wire Magazine keep the community informed. We’ve even got bowling leagues, softball teams, and, really, all types of groups for everybody of any age, from The Alliance for GLBTQ youth to Safe Schools South Florida. The LGBT community has become an inextricable and vital part of daily life in Miami, and we wouldn’t have it any other way.
MHP STUDENT RESEARCH, PROJECTS & WORK
Professional internships are strongly encouraged for students in the MHP program. Dozens of opportunities are available through the United States and abroad. Internships may be eligible for credit hours, and often include a stipend or other form of compensation. Read below for a sample of how our students have gained valuable experience interning with preservation organizations.
Anders Yount, left, and Mills Dorn, right, in the field for Find!It
(Photo Credit: UGAToday)
Mills Dorn ('19), Carter Finch ('19), Savannah Young ('19), and Anders Yount ('18) worked with the FindIt! Program to complete cultural resource surveys in Dooly County. This included conducting field surveys to identify and document historic properties, as well as entering this data into Georgia’s Natural, Archaeological, and Historic Resources GIS. FindIt! is housed in the Center for Community Design and Preservation at the College of Environment and Design here at the University of Georgia. Read UGAToday's feature on the program and learn more at http://findit.uga.edu/ .
Five historic boathouses dubbed the "Painted Sisters" at Thousand Island Park.
Thousand Island Park
For the past two years, Caitlin Plesher ('19) has spent her summers interning with the Thousand Island Park Landmark Society and Thousand Island Park Corporation in beautiful upstate New York. The park was a Methodist campground established in 1875 that still continues to attract visitors from throughout the United States. As part of her internship, Caitlin put together exhibits on TIP’s history, surveyed historic cottages and boat houses, and compiled archival research and maps that will assist in the addition of the boathouses to TIP’s National Register listing. She said, “The Thousand Islands area is absolutely gorgeous with a rich history that has been beautifully preserved. I can’t wait to go back soon!”
Sherrie Raleigh (left) with members of the Hartwell citizen committee
The Archway Partnership is a UGA program that pairs students with communities to address their needs. As part of second-year student Sherrie Raleigh's ('19) assistantship with Archway, she is collaborating with citizens of Hartwell, Georgia to consolidate historic walking tours and research downtown buildings. Other projects MHP students have completed for Archway in the past include making recommendations for adaptive reuse, writing National Register nominations, and developing interpretative markers.
Lauren Patterson at the Portland Head Light, Maine's oldest lighthouse
Greater Portland Landmarks
Lauren Patterson ('19) joined Greater Portland Landmarks in Maine to perform architectural surveys of neighborhoods vulnerable to development. With a team of three other graduate students from around the country, she surveyed six neighborhoods, researched their historic contexts, and helped develop the case for how the areas tell the story of Portland and deserve diligence to ensure their character is retained. Check out the Landmarks' blog for more on her adventures in New England.
Maxwell Nosbisch in front of Sagamore's main lodge
Great Camp Sagamore
For the past two years, Maxwell Nosbisch ('20) has spent his summers and falls interning with Great Camp Sagamore National Historic Landmark in Raquette Lake, New York- an Adirondack Great Camp.The site was the summer home of the Vanderbilt family and is the progenitor of "Rustic" architecture in the United States. The internships focused on interpretation and the preservation of the original structures. Maxwell took part in a rehabilitation of the original servants' quarters which now serves as the site's gift shop, intern lodging, and lounge. Maxwell also created a new tour of the site that focused on the female history including Margaret Vanderbilt. Maxwell said, "Great Camp Sagamore is always looking for interns that are ready to get their hands-dirty and learn hands-on preservation techniques. Anybody interested in the MHP at UGA will find Great Camp Sagamore a beneficial internship to their possible career goals."
The Governor's Mansion was built in 1839, when Milledgeville was the capital of Georgia.
(Photo Credit: Visit Milledgeville)
The Governor's Mansion
Darcie Scales ('20) has always loved history. That’s why she jumped at the opportunity to take an internship with the Old Governor’s Mansion in Milledgeville, Georgia. She quickly found herself doing such things as transcribing the private journals of people like former Governor Joseph E. Brown and his wife. The chance to work with original documents thrilled Darcie as she is interested in a career in archival research. Her time at the Old Governor’s Mansion taught her what it takes to read and interpret historical manuscripts, which in turn helped the site further the interpretation it gives to the public.
Elyse Hoganson dove into her hometown's history by interning with the local historical society.
Etowah Valley Historical Society
Being from Cartersville, Georgia, Elyse Hoganson ('20) has always felt a connection to the history of her hometown. That is why she decided to spend the summer interning with the Etowah Valley Historical Society. Hoganson wrote articles for the Society's website regarding her research on historic schools in Bartow County, Georgia. The research was intensive, involving a variety of materials such as historic newspapers, microfilm, interviews, and site visits. Through her work, Hoganson identified three different types of historic schools in Bartow County. The depth of research surprised Hoganson, who feels the lessons learned helped her become a more professional preservationist.
As a Knoxville, Tennesee native, Rose Mayo ('20) has seen the impact of a growing effort toward historic preservation throughout her hometown. When the opportunity arose to intern with Knox Heritage, she was eager to contribute her efforts to the fantastic work the organization does in the community. Rose assisted on a number of projects under the direction of the Director of Education and Technical Services, most notably researching and writing portions of a National Register nomination for the first multi-level parking garage in the downtown area. This internship provided Rose invaluable insight into the work of preservation professionals and helped her ultimately decided to pursue an MHP at UGA.
Other organizations with which MHP students have recently interned include: Athens-Clarke County Planning Department (Athens, GA) Great Camp Santanoni (Adirondacks, NY) Historic Savannah Foundation (Savannah, GA) Historic Rural Churches of Georgia the Northeast Georgia Regional Planning Commission (Athens, GA) the Cannonball House (Macon, GA) WLA Studio (Athens, GA) and Historic Macon Foundation (Macon, GA), among others.
Master of Historic Preservation students represent a variety of academic and cultural backgrounds and interests. This is reflected in the breadth of projects taken on as independent thesis research. The below list includes completed topics through the Spring 2018 semester.
While travel is not required, many MHP students choose to do their thesis research on locations with which they have a strong connection. This has taken them to places such as duck camps in Louisiana (left) Nassau, Bahamas (middle) and Minneapolis, Minnesota (right).
- Beck, Jackson. What Gives You The Right? Procedural Due Process And Historic Preservation Ordinance Administration
- Demarais, Lisa. The Reuse of Urban Ruins in Industrial Heritage Tourism: A Case Study of Mill City Museum
- Dorn, James Mills. Cleared to Land. Preserving Georgia's WWII Army Airfields
- Finch, Carter. Heritage in the Fast Lane: Preservation Potential for NASCAR Racetracks in North Carolina
- Jackson, Maura.Traditions and Preservation of Iconic Statues on University Campuses: A Comparison of Alma Mater and John Harvard
- Latz, Sophia. (Not So) Gone with the Wind: The Architecture of John Wind
- Locke, James. Textile Mill Boom to the Baby Boom Preserving North Carolina's Historic Textile Mill Landscapes By Adaptive Reuse as Continuing Care Retirement Communities
- Patterson, Lauren.The Modern Classic City: Analyzing Commercial Development in Athens, Georgia from 1930 to 1981
- Rainey, Caroline. Carrot Or Stick? Protecting Historic Interiors Through Ordinances Or Easements
- Raleigh, Sherrie'. Post World War II Food Manufacturing Facilities of Macon, Georgia and Ideas for Potential Adaptive Reuse
- Young, Savannah. Assessing Integrity at Florida's Mid-Century Spring-Based Roadside Attractions.
- Burns, Julius Carter. Gilded Over: The Forgotten Architectural Career of Sidney Stratton
- Dobbs, David. Georgia State Parks: A Technological Approach to Documentation and Cultural Resources
- Helfgot, Rebekah. The Wren’s Nest: An Atlanta Landmark Reclaimed
- Hungate, Caity. Jaunts and Haunts: Examining the Effect of the Dark Tourism Industry on Savannah’s Traditional Branded Image
- Jackson, Christopher.Preservation and the Future of the Bahamian Past: A Case Study of San Salvador Island’s Historic Resources
- Klugh, Chase. From Black Powder to the Ivory Tower: Patterns of Adaptive Reuse and Preservation of Confederate Armories and Arsenals on Three Georgia University Campuses
- Rachal, Maria. Preserving Sportsman’s Paradise: Preservation Takes Flight at South Louisiana’s Duck Hunting Camps
- Ritter, Paige. Upturning Roots: An Analysis of the Continental Alpine Origins of American Architecture
- Thomas, Audrey. Recreation Without Humiliation: The Preservation of Travel Guide Resources in Portsmouth, Virginia
- Ellis, Kimberly. Here Briefly Rests a Restless Tribe: Preserving Frank Redford’s Wigwam Villages
- English, Mary C. Scales. Private management of cultural landscapes: challenges at Lake Winfield Scott Recreation Area
- Head, Olivia. Camp Merrie-Woode: The Interaction of Gender Attitudes and Historic Preservation at an All-Girls’ Summer Camp
- Waldroop, Lauren. Analyzing Georgia’s Historic Resource Survey Program: A Look at Data Quality and Data Management
- Winterhalter, Shannon. Building a New Nation: The Modern Architecture of Ghana
- Yates, Hollis. “Everyone had a Place at Her Tables”: Women Restaurant Owners of “Meat and Threes” in Georgia, 1940-1960
- Bridgforth, James. The Farish District, Its Architecture and Cultural Heritage
- Comer, Catherine. Preserving Early Southern Architecture: The Antebellum Houses of Hancock County
- Ford, Melanie Jattuso. Higher Education for Elementary Aged Children: How to Teach and Why
- Green, Alexandra. Collaborationand Compromise: The Effect of Film-Induced Tourism on the Integrity of Historic Places
- McManus, Rebecca. The Sincerest Form of Flattery: An Analysis of Full-Scale, Ex Situ Replicas of World Heritage Sites
- Morgan, Kristin. The Preservation of Historic Schools & Community Identity in Suburban Texas
- Parish, Mary Fenwick. Transformation of Industrial Areas to Arts Districts: Case Studies of Riverside Industrial District, South Main Street Historic District, and Castleberry Hill Landmark District
- West, Matt. Academic Bondage: A Look at the History of Slavery on University Campuses in America and How These Schools are Addressing Their Past
- Candler, Katherine Rose. Life Tenancy and the National Park Service—A Tool for Cultural Resource Management
- Chen, Fanglan. Thrive or Survive: Preservation of Chinatowns in the United States
- Date, Vineet. Recognizing and Preserving the Historic Identity of Dadar, West: Recommendations for Development Control Regulations
- Holbrook, Jarrad. From Ghost Lights to Curtain Calls: Reading the History of American Theatre In the Historic Playhouses of Georgia
- Leonard, Victoria. Preserving America’s Late Twentieth Century Domestic Architecture: A Study of Three Neighborhoods in Alleghany County, Virginia
- Perry, Lloyd Milton. Resurrection Through Interpretation
- Stern, Andrew. Cream City: The Brick That Made Milwaukee Famous
- Aldridge, Jason. Congaree National Park: An Evolving Approach to Managing Nature and History in the National Park Service
- Cassiday, Johnathan Michael, History and Preservation of Depression Era Structural Glass Facades
- Dickerson, Leeann Katherine. The Small Shops of Charleston, South Carolina: Vernacular Commercialism and the Rise of the Small Business
- Donnell, Renee. Interpreting the African American Experience on Charleston County Plantations
- Duvekot, Laura Catherine. The Road To Recognition: Preserving Florida’s Historic Brick Pavements
- Fulwood, Kasey Jaren. The National Register of Historic Places and Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Heritage
- Lawrence, Parker. Home Sweet Mobile Park: Developing a Historic Context for a Modern Resource
- Martin, Adam. Heirloom Bulbs: Horticultural Rarities, ‘Passalong’ Plants, & Biotic Cultural Resources
- Rushing, Catherine Ann, Balancing Roles: The Interpretation of the Taylor-Grady House
- Saul, Alana. The Impact of Privatization on Historic U.S. Army Family Housing
- Weldon, Daniel Taylor. The Vernacular Landscape: Interpretation of the Tobacco Culture at Stratford Hall
- Bailey, Jennifer Kay. Preserving World’s Fair Parks: The Case of Knoxville, Tennessee’s 1982 Energy Exposition
- Bradley, Cynthia.Rolling the Dice in Colorado: the Impact of Gambling on Historic Resources in Central City and Black Hawk
- Dunlap, Sean. The World in a Tomato Seed: Historic Agricultural Sites and Place-Based Environmental Ethics
- Garner, Julia Catherine. Biking Through History
- Jones, Thomas Cooper. The Eagle has Landed: A Preservation Ethic for Off-Planet Cultural Resources
- Kahler, Danielle Marie. Preservation Begins at Home
- Miller, Lillian. Preserving Calistoga: A Management Framework for a Living Landscape in the Napa Valley
- Patrick, Nicholas Michael. Preserving Construction: Design-Build Versus Design-Bid-Build
- Schuetz, Laura Elizabeth. The Franklinton Center at Bricks: Cultural Landscape Conservation Guiding Future Development
- Campbell, Kyle Bradley. More than the sum of its parts: expanding the Board of Regents Campus Historic Preservation Planning Guidelines through a preservation plan for the University of Georgia
- Cothren, Claire Profilet. Rolling on the River: Preserving America’s Steamboats.
- Mooney, Mark. Holding Back Time: How are Georgia’s Historic Dams Unique Resources?
- Norton, Dustin B. Greener Pastures for Preservation: Proposing a Stronger Marriage between the Worlds of Preservation and Sustainability
- Smith, Stella. Revitalizing New Urbanism: Expanding its Scope through Small Town Rehabilitation
- Wilson, Anne. Boom and Bust: Preserving Colorado’s Ski Towns
- Wood, Inger. History That Will Not Vanish: Preserving the Legacy of the Soil Conservation Service Branch of the Civilian Conservation Corps in Georgia
- Baker, Ashley. Interpretation of Mission 66
- Blanchard, Guy. National Historic Preservation Act
- Butler, William. Mixed Use in Historic Structures
- Cissel, Ashley Claire. Preservation and Natural Disasters
- Cody, Ellen Dickson. Sustainable Aspects of the Historic Bungalow
- Cothran, Noah Andrew. Through Shared Heritage: How Communities Can Adaptively Use Historic Buildings As Museums for Education and Community Growth
- Davis, Taylor P. Tabby: The Enduring Building Material of Coastal Georgia
- Farr, Sara. Preservation and the Postindustrial City: Preservation As an Economic Revitalization and Policy Tool in Pittsburgh and Detroit
- Gogo, Melissa. Digital Documentation for Historic Resources
- Goodrich, Stephanie. Spatially Targeting Historic Neighborhoods for Community Revitalization
- Hannon, Jena Gayle. Preservation through Partnership: Strengthening the Collaboration between Historic Preservation and Interior Design in High Education
- Jones, Gwen. Demolition of Historic Buildings on the Mississippi Gulf Coast in the Wake of Hurricane Katrina
- Kviklys, Laura. The Identification and Preservation of 1950s Ranch House Interiors
- McAlpin, Katherine. Going to the Mountain is Going Home: Interpretation of John Muir Through Cultural Landscapes at Yosemite National Park and John Muir National Historic Site
- Oshida, Caitlin M. The Effect of Herbicide on Stone and Masonry Material
- Sniff, Daniel E. The Space Between: A Developmental History of Open Space, Lawns, and Gardens of the American Campus and a History of Herty Field
- Spicer, Ivy. Sweet Potato Curing Barns: An Agricultural Landmark
- Clementino, Lauren. Deferred Maintenance in the National Park Service and Preservation Goals for the 2016 Centennial and Beyond
- Courson, Justin Eric. Preservation Planning for Philomath, Georgia
- McShea, Kaitlin Brooke. Critical Success Factors for Cultural Heritage Tourism Operations
- Mullins, Ashton Elise. Form-Based Codes and Historic Preservation: Recommendations for Communities Considering the Adoption of Form-Based Codes
- Person, Helen Arnold. The Main Street Design: Power, Politics, and Priorities
- Reisman, Eric. The Use of Conservation Easements to Protect Gardens of Cultural and Historic Significance
- Robert, Benjamin Anthony. Georgia’s Historic County Courthouses: Anchors in a Sea of Change
- Wood, Victoria Prevatt. Historic Preservation and Philanthropy: Partners through Nonprofit Organizations
- Ziegler, Sean Michael. Form, Function, and Preservation: The Evolution of the Denominational College Campus in Georgia
- Berry, Ashley M. Machines for Eating: The American Diner
- Bevil, Nathan Andrew. Preserving Single-Room Occupancy Hotels
- Daniel, Christopher Alan. Web 2.0: Historic Preservation in the Digital Age
- DeJarnette, Mark L. Successful Place Making in a Post-Katrina Environment: a Redevelopment Strategy to Reclaim Social Equity and Authentic Character for a Small Town Center
- Hager, Rebecca Ruth. The Secretary of State’s Register of Culturally Significant Property as a Tool for Preservation and Diplomacy
- Johnson, Lindsay G. From “Out of Service” to Public Purpose: Using International Heritage Documents to Support a Link Between Historic Preservation and Brownfield Redevelopment
- Kerr, Lindsey K. Tree Preservation Ordinances: Smart Protections for our Communities’ Heritage Trees
- Kooles, Kimberly L. Integration of Historic Preservation and Sustainability Principles for Local Historic Preservation Commissions
- Krintz, Jennifer Lynn. Pleasure Piers and Promenades: The Architecture of Southern California’s Early Twentieth Century Beach Resorts
- Lockerman, Kristin L. Clarence N. Crocker and Georgia’s Twentieth Century Historic Bridges
- Manning, Matthew J. Death and Life of Great American Strip Malls: Evaluating and Preserving a Unique Cultural Resource
- Marburger, Julie. An Analysis of Federal Rehabilitation Tax Credits
- McDonald, Caroline C. Designing a Sense of Place: The Evolution of Participatory Commemorative Art in the Twentieth Century American Landscape
- McDonald, Heather Lynn. National Register of Historic Places and African-American Heritage
- Myers, Samuel Trenholm. Interlocal Agreements for Historic Preservation in Georgia
- Owens, Sheldon Ben. The Dogtrot House Type in Georgia: A History and Evolution
- Peacock, Malachi Reid. Neighborhood Conservation Districts and Their Relevance to Historic Preservation in the 21 st Century
- Revis, Timothy Ellis. Historic Preservation and the Twentieth Century Kitchen: A Case for Values Centered Preservation
- Stucker, Sean C. Sustaining Watersheds through Preservation Practice: An Analysis of the Role Historic Preservation in Sustainable Watershed Management
- Bracewell, Amy Brooke. Telling Their Own Story: The Presentation of American Indian History Reconsidered
- Britton, Frances Lauren. The Source of Sustainability: Inherent Energy Saving Features of Historic Buildings
- Crotty, Anne Rachel. Age Limits: Re-evaluating the Fifty-year Rule
- Estabrook, Desiree Lynn. Three Cultures in One City: A Study of Three Mutual-Aid Society Cemeteries in Ybor City as Traditional Cultural Properties
- Kampinen, Andrea Rose. The Sod Houses of Custer County, Nebraska
- Smith, Laura M. A Public House: an Analysis of the Kennedy White House Restoration
- Van Vleet, Miranda Lee. The American State Fair: Architecture and Preservation
- Chapman, Michael Kevin. The Ranch-Type House: Evolution, Evaluation, and Preservation
- Ciomek, Summer Anne. The History, Architecture, and Preservation of Rosenwald Schools in Georgia
- Downs, Sharon Rae. Transfer of Development Rights: A Viable Rural Preservation Tool
- Duncan, Janine Louise. Revisiting the Historic Preservation Ordinance: What Works, What Doesn’t and Is There an Optimal Solution?
- Lumang, Marielle S. There’s Gold In Them Thar’ Hills
- Regan, Ashley Lauren. Historic Resources and Disaster Planning: Strategies for Mitigation and Recovery
- Wilson, Bejie DeAnn. The Evolution of Compatibility
- Wilson, Lisa Lukk. An Analysis of Georgia’s Historic Preservation Commission Training Program
- Adair, David James. An Inventory of Extant County Training School Buildings in Georgia Originally Established with Philanthropic Funds Devoted to African American Education (1911-1937)
- Anderson, Katherine Anne. Graves Matter: Urban Graveyard Preservation in Savannah, Georgia and Charleston, South Carolina
- Brockenbrough, Mignon Lawton. Integrating Historic Preservation Into the Public Primary and Secondary School Curriculum
- Bruechert, Daniel Carson. Frank Lloyd Wright and the Automobile: Designs for Automobility
- Clark, Kinney E. Cultural Resources in GIS: the Case for Spatial Data Content Standards
- Clark, Traci. Falling to Pieces: The Preservation of Ruins in Coastal Georgia
- Cooner, Tara L. Popular Media as a Tool for Preservation Education
- Harrmann, André. Architectural Reconstructions: The Current Developments in Germany
- Logan, Carrie. The Role of the UNESCO Preliminary Draft Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage in Protecting Native Languages in the United States
- McCauley, Christine. The Impact of Wilderness on Cumberland Island, Georgia
- Schueneman, Dawn Johnson. The Availability of Reproduction Wallpapers from 1700 to 1950 in America
- Williams, Erin Rachelle. The Flowering of Quilts: Garden Patterns and Floral Motifs in Nineteenth Century Southern Quilts
- Wright, Alvin Owen (Chip). Trouble on the Horizon: Preserving Strategy vs. Over Development in Rural Wiregrass Georgia
- Zurn, Robert Lawton. A Blessing or a Curse? The Potential Impact of Post-Kelo Legislation on Historic Preservation
- Blackwell, William Chad. Silver Slopes: Preserving North America’s Ski Lodges
- Brockenbrough, William. Contemporary Design in Historic Districts: A Case Study of Two Museums
- Cramer, Evan Christopher. Fill ‘Er Up: The Rehabilitation of Early Twentieth Century Gas Stations
- Crawford, John Robert. Piedmont and Northern Railway Stations
- Dockery, Jessica Ann Parker. Pre-1850 Paint in Historic Properties: Treatment Options and Processes
- Dowdy, Sue-Anna Eliza. The Arts of Early Twentieth Century Dining Rooms: Arts and Crafts, Art Nouveau, and Art Deco
- Gardner, Bennet Rowan. The National Park Service and the Use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for Cultural Resource Management
- Hutchings, Joan Eileen. Segregated Sabbaths: The Architectural Differences Between White and Black Churches in Georgia Between 1850-1950
- Kelly, Nancy Elizabeth. The Northeast Georgia Hydroelectric Plants
- Koepnick, Brian Douglas. Tampa’s Historic Cigar Factories: Making a Case for Preservation
- Mark, Jeanne-Marie. Holding Up Walls of Faith: Preservation Perspectives Within Historic Church Congregations
- Olson, Christina. Burning the Landscape: Fire as a Cultural Resource Management Tool
- Ray, David Winter. A History of Streetcar Service in Athens, Georgia, and Some Possibilities for Its Reintroduction
- Runyon, Charles Brent. Design-Based Regulations for Manufactured Urban Infill Housing
- Spence, Taryn Noell. The Contemporary American Interior of 1945-1955 as Seen in Architectural Record and House and Garden
- Therrien, Michelle Marie. Albert D. Sams and the Church-Waddel-Brumby House: Reconciling This Generous Benefactor’s Intent with Emerging Reinterpretation Philosophies
- Trudeau, Paul Joseph. Friend or Foe: The Viability of Local Designation in the Peoplestown Neighborhood, Atlanta, Georgia
- Wheeler, Beth Jeanne. History and Heritage in Preservation
- Wojcik, Paige Michelle. An Analysis of Wood Window Restoration at the President Lincoln and Soldier’s Home National Monument, Washington D.C.
- Arning, David R. Preserving a Room at America’s Grand Hotels: A Developmental History and Preservation Resource for Historic Hotels
- Christoph, Erica Lynn. Preservation and the Projects: An Analysis of the Revitalization of Public Housing in Milwaukee, Wisconsin
- Ellerbee, Jason L. African American Theaters in Georgia: Preserving an Entertainment Legacy
- Fullerton, Christopher. The Use of Cultural Easements for the Protection of Resources in Georgia
- Garlington, Ethiel. Elkmont: A National Park Community in Limbo
- Ghosh, Deepannita. Illuminating the Past: Artificial Lighting in America (1610-1930) and a Guide to Lighting Historic House Museums
- Hardman, Bryan. A Piece of Mind: The Fate of the State-Funded Asylum of the Nineteenth Century
- Hayden, Monica D. A Proposal for the Establishment of a Master’s of Historic Preservation Program in Chile
- James, Elizabeth. Main Street and the Aluminum Façade
- McStotts, Jennifer Cohoon. The ABC’s of Alternative Building Codes for the Rehabilitation of Historic Structures
- Moon, Allison. Assessing the Feasibility of Using Arnocroft as an Historic House Museum
- Peek, Gina Gould. The Creation of a Meaningful Rural Preservation Agenda in Georgia
- Ross, Aimee Danielle. Shutter to Think: Issues in the Treatment of Historic Window Shutters
- Benham, Heather. An Examination of the History of Affordable Housing With an Emphasis on Preservation Through the Community Land Trust
- Bennett, Glen H. The Student Ghetto: Preservation-Based Neighborhood Revitalization in College Communities
- Brazil, Brandon Glenn. Non-Traditional Remedies to Demolition-by-Neglect: Private Sector Incentives, Public Sector Municipal Abatement, and Other Approaches
- De La Torre, Aileen. An Analysis of African American Participation in Historic Preservation
- Feild, Lori A. A Study of the Application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) as an Advocacy and Planning Tool for Local Historic Preservation Organizations and Preservation Planning Departments
- Herrington, Philip Mills. Forgotten Plantation Architecture of Burke County, Georgia
- Ivey, Melissa Leigh. Preserving Ether: The Birthplace of the Internet and the Interpretation of Information Age Technology
- Kerr, T. Lloyd. Influences on the Early Post-War House
- McCullough, Sarah Hudson. Conflict and Culture: The Development of International Preservation Advocacy in the Twentieth Century and its Effectiveness in Armed Conflict
- Simmons, Erin Aubrey. Campus Expansion Through Historic Preservation and Adaptive Reuse
- Stanton, Kay Suzanne. The Recent Past: How Can I Miss You If You Won’t Go Away?
- Straehla, Laura Blake. National Heritage Areas in the United States: Partnerships, Preservation, Conservation, and Economic Development
- Temples, Meredith Leigh. Rehabilitation: A Tool in Habitat for Humanity’s Workbelt
- Ziehl, Nell M. H. Representing Slavery at Oakland Plantation, A National Park Service Historic Site in Cane River Creole National Historical Park, Louisiana
- Bartos, Ramona. Libuše’s Dream: Historic Preservation in Prague, The Czech Republic
- Bivins, Daniel. Transportation Enhancements: TEA-21 and the Rails-To-Trails Program
- Chastine, Robert Kevin. Dime Store Deco: The Architecture and Adaptive Reuse of Depression Era S.H. Kress 5 & 10 Cent Stores
- Hildebrandt, Rachel. The Impact of Governmental Policies on the Preservation of Sorbian Communities in German (1945-2001)
- Holder, Paula Jean. Rehabilitation of Historic Student Housing: A Case Study
- Ladenheim, Jennifer Lynn. The Impact of the Americans with Disabilities Act on Historic Buildings
- Lewis, Jennifer Martin. We Become Like That Which We Constantly Admire: Justifying the Use of Historic School Buildings as Schools
- McDaniel, Matthew. Georgia’s Forgotten Battlefields: A Survey of and Recommendations for Selected Revolutionary War Battlefields and Sites in the State
- Rice, Rebecca Wyanne. Georgia’s Historic Gardens: A Proposal to Develop a Statewide Tour to Fund Garden Restoration and Preservation Politics
- Sager, Jonathan. The Garage: Its History and Preservation
- Gales, Elizabeth Anne. An Alternative to the Scenic Byways Program
- Grier, Casey Christine. This Land is My Land: An Analysis of the Historic Preservation and Land Use Regulation in Light of Anticipated Bush Administration Policy and the Rehnquist Court’s Taking Law
- Kelly, David Patrick. Outsider Architecture and Historic Preservation
- Laughlin, Christine Theresa. Historic Preservation as a Sustainable Growth Planning Tool
- Maciej, Ryan. Historic Environments, Heritage Education, and Subject Interests and Abilities as Factors in Historic Preservation Career Development
- Maggioni, Joseph Paul. Tall Ships In Port: A Study of Maritime Museums
- Roberts, Melissa Augusta. The American Cemetery: Future Design and Cemetery Interpretation
- Sirotkin, Marc Eric. The Acquisition of Civil War Battlefield Land by the National Park Service
- Smith, Jason Oliver. Using Land Trusts to Preserve Abandoned Graveyards in the American Southeast
- Beaty, John M. Secondary Fermentation: The Adaptive Use of American Breweries Built Between 1865 and 1919
- Bredenko, Barbara. Adhering to the Secretary of Interior’s Standards: Three Antique Wood Carousel Restoration and Their Very Different, and Similar, Results
- Burdette, Frank. Humidity Control in Buildings
- Cochran, Christopher. As Giants Sleep: An Assessment of United States Local Historic Preservation Commissions
- DeViney, Claudia. From Spirit to Structure: State of Georgia Historical Camp Meeting Grounds
- Franklin, Patrick. Daniel Pratt: The Milledgeville Houses
- Hudson, Helen Anne. Streamline Modern Greyhound Bus Terminals: A Dying Breed
- Kersel, Morag. We Sell History: Issues in the Illicit Trade of Antiquities and Cultural Repatriation
- Lawrence, Sandra. Interpretation of the National Park Service
- Marshall, Susan Hamilton. The Role of American Women in Historic Preservation and Their Influence on the Profession: A Georgia Perspective
- Pfister, Thomas Paul. Preservation Revolving Funds: The Cases of Historic Landmarks Foundations of Indiana and Preservation North Carolina
- Renell, Jacqueline. Store-wide Sale: The Adaptive Use of Downtown Department Stores
- Walsh, Timothy Ryan. Elements of Style: A Survey and Analysis of Historic Fence Design
- Webb, Lee Alexander. The Evolution of Atlanta’s Historic In-town Residential Neighborhoods Including Morning Side, Virginia Highland, and the Auburn District
- Blizzard, Dana Cherie. “There are Little Silent Places Where…the Stories of Ages Find Voice”: Interpreting the Homes of Southern Writers
- Harris, Frances Katherine Parr. West Virginia Homeplaces: A Study of Architectural Resources in the Appalachian Corridor H Project Area
- Hastie, Winslow Warren. Conservation in the Ashley River Historic District
- Hinder, Kimberly Dee. The Preservation of Large Estates in Florida with an Adaptive Reuse Proposal for the Preservation of Pearce-Lockett Estate
- Leynes, Jennifer Brown. Paternalism, Progressivism, and the Built Environment: The West Point Manufacturing Company Towns of Langdale and Shawmut, Alabama
- Lonnee, William Robert Bruce. Preserving the American Drive-In Theater
- Mason, Amber Rebecca. The Effects of Historic District Regulation in Three Historic Districts: Macon, Georgia’s In-town District, New Orleans, Louisiana’s Vieux Carre District, Greenville, South Carolina’s Hampton-Pinckney District
- Morgan, Julie Camille. An Analysis of the Use of Preservation Easements for Historic Interiors
- Picaro, Alicia Victoria. The American Motor Court: Its Past, Present, and Future
- Rierson, Autumn Leigh. Where East Meets West: Cultural Property Laws in China and the United States
- Rodrigue, Dorothy Merritt. This Old Courthouse: Georgia Historic Courthouse Preservation at the End of the 20 th Century
- Sawyer, Kimberly Dawn Cruce. The Preservation of Cold War Resources Through the Legacy of Resource Management Program
- Veregin, Margaret Ann Callister. Section 106 & Highway Development
- Weiss, Paige Lindgren. Commemoration of Civil Rights Sites of the Mid-Twentieth Century: Case Studies of the Selma Voter Registration Drive and the Selma to Montgomery March Sites
- Woodard, Sarah Amanda. Connection Between Fewer Wrecking Balls and Smiling Faces: Historic Preservation and Quality of Life
- Braddock, Virginia Lynne. Indicators of Success in Nonprofit Statewide Historic Preservation Organizations
- Bryant, Stella Gray. Organizational Effectiveness for Historic Preservation Non-Profits
- Ciucevich, Robert Anthony. Providing a Future for Historic Streetcar Lines
- Durham, Alan Ryan. Georgia Scenic Byways: A Tool for Historic Preservation Planning
- Gaylen, Susan Cheryl. Heritage Tourism in Appalachia: A Case Study in Grayson County, Virginia
- Goldstein, B. Colleen. The Evolution and Significance of the Front Porch in American Culture
- Groover, Amy Melissa. John Volk, Architect: A Study of His Work in the Palm Beaches
- Joines, Sherry Jane. Up Before Dawn: A Profile of Farms and Farm Ways in Alleghany County, North Carolina
- Martinson, Lauren Burlison. Revitalization and Preservation in Alabama’s Textile Mill Villages
- Mishra, Ashish. Sustainable Design and Energy Conservation in Historic Preservation
- Mullen, Amanda Kirsten. Evaluating Success of Main Street Programs in Georgia
- Porter, Gary Lynn. Preservation Technology Programming Recommendations for Preservation Trades Education
- Robinson, Brian Scott. Historically Significant Signage: Challenges in the Streetscape
- Slocum, Allison Bethea. State Archival Photographic Collections and Their Potential for Preservation Applications
- Squier, Jeffery T. Learning About Our Past For a Purpose: Heritage Education, Education Standards, and Critical Thinking
- Torbett, Shannon Reynolds. An Analysis of Affordable Housing Strategies for Urban Residential Historic Districts
- Van Voorhies, Christine U. Georgia’s Archeological Resources: Their Consideration on the Local Government Level
- Woodhull, Cheri Michele. Jekyll Island’s Hollybourne: A Turn of the Century Architectural Museum
- Young, Kelly. Relocated Structures in Recreated History Villages
- Anderson, Alicia Kay. Shrines to Sport: American Ballparks
- Bedingfield, Amanda. The Thames River at Oxford: A Character Appraisal
- Carter, Joanna Ruth. The Section 106 and 4(f) Processes: An Evaluation of Effectiveness and the Preservation Consultant’s Role
- Cassady, Jane Tyson. Preserving Cultural and Historic Landscapes: A Study of Preservation Policies and Techniques
- Chancellor, Mark Douglas. A Preservation Study of Northwest Florida
- Cliett, Melissa Marie. The Regulation of Religious Properties Against First Amendment Challenges Under Federal Law
- Heeb, Mark William. Sapelo Island, Georgia: Analysis of a Multiple Period Landscape Using National Park Service Landscape Preservation Methodology
- Hitchcock, Susan Lee. The Colonial Revival Gardens of Hubert Bond Owens
- Kierman, Elaine Kathleen. “I Would Have A Howse Stronge In Timber”: The Eighteenth Century Connecticut Heavy-Timbered House, A Historic House Form with Modern Structural Problems
- Koehler, Sheila Kathryn. Interpretation of Historic Houses: The Incorporation of Architectural Significance in Interpretation
- Maul, Jennifer L. Preservation Issues and Historic Public Housing
- Miller, Gail Frances. The Preservation of Country Place Era Properties in Coastal Georgia
- Robertson, Chase Lovewell. The Impact of Bed and Breakfasts on Historic Preservation: In Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana
- Watson, Marcus Warren. The Effective Marketing of Historic Properties Through the Education of Real Estate Professionals
- Baldwin, Gail Marlene Taylor. Apalachee, Georgia: Preservation of Historic Resource in the Unincorporated Rural Community
- Barker, Elizabeth Kelley. American Empire Furniture: Its Impact on the State of Georgia
- Blencoe, Corrine Victoria. Preservation Strategies for Three Lakeside Communities in Georgia: Lake Rabun, Mountain Park, and Bishop Lake
- Diehlmann, Nicole Alexis. Learning from Controversy: The Maryland Experience: Nimbys, Local Historic Districts, and Citizen Participation
- Foell, Stephanie Sue. Agricultural Museums: Interpretation and Authenticity
- Goetcheus, Cari Lyn. Visual Concerns for Historic Sites: A Survey Review of Visual Assessment Methodologies and Proposal for Historic Sites
- Green, Evelyn L. The Impact of Film Industry Activity on Historic Communities in Georgia: Creating the Incentive to Preserve
- Malone, Katherine Eugenia. Heritage Education at the Community Level
- McAuliff, Kevin Patrick. Accommodating New Eucharistic Liturgies in Traditional Churches: The Intersection of Theology and Architecture in the Roman Catholic and Anglican Communions
- McClure, Jill Cathleen. The Interior Scenery and Decoration of William Jay: A Study of His Architecture in Savannah and Charleston
- Mercer, Chloe Shana. Preservation Building Crafts Enlighten Disadvantaged Youth and Strengthen Quality of Life
- Messer, Scott Eric. A Profile of “Rural Historic Districts” on the National Register of Historic Places
- Miles, Diana Greer. Revitalization and Preservation in Two Textile Mill Villages in South Carolina
- Tarlov, Jane Alison. Education and Employer Expectations for Preservation Professionals in the Nineties
- Worgan, Glenn Simpson. Federal Period Paint Colors Used on Exterior Shutters and Window Trim in Coastal Cities and Towns
- Anderson, Sherry Jean. Pre-1955 Tourist Attraction in Florida: A Developmental History and Analysis of Significance
- Cullison, David Charles. J.W. Barnett: The Influence of the Architect and City Engineer on the Physical Development of Athens, Georgia 1889-1930
- Davis, Laurel Denise. Effective Fundraising for Small House Museums
- Evans, Martha Lillian. The Interpretation of Abandoned Rural Communities and the National Park Service
- Franks, Kathryn Anne. Enka, North Carolina: New Planning in an Early Twentieth Century Mill Town
- Horton, James Alexander. The Fast-Food Restaurant and the Historic District: Respecting Community Identity
- Martin, Jorene Theresa. Successful Self-Guided Resource Materials in Heritage Education Programs
- Masterman, Amy Reynolds. On-Location in North Carolina: The Use of Cultural Resources in Filmmaking
- Price, Wendy Lyn. Protecting the Rural Landscape: A Compilation of State Enabling Legislation for Rural Preservation and Open Space Conservation
- Tarpley, Michelle Leigh. Preserving Historic Downtown Commercial Building Through Residential Use in Small Town Georgia
- Glover, Guerry. Lead Based Paint: The Increasing Awareness of Its Dangers and the Role of Preservationists in Developing a Solution to Its Problems
- Goodman, Hugh David. The Role of the Builder-Architect in the Domestic Architecture of John McComb, Jr.
- Griffin, Kelly Glasgow. A Study of the Development and Regional Influences of the Greek Revival Period of Architecture in Mississippi with Interpretive Planning Guidelines for Its Interiors
- Hardison, Lillian Hooper. Coca-Cola Bottling Plants in Georgia: The Preservation of Standardized Early 20 th Century Commercial Buildings
- Janicki, Joan Carole. Preserving Historic Resources in New Subdivision Development: Promising Developments in the Maryland Suburbs
- Larimore, Denise Rachael. Let the Stones Speak: Interpreting Civil War Monuments at Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park
- Malone, Constance Marie. The Adaptive Use of Abandoned Railroad Depots in Northeast Georgia’s Small Towns
- Michael, Michelle Ann. The Rise of the Regional Architect in North Carolina as Seen Through the Manufacturer’s Record
- Townes, Bryan Landon. The Adaptive Use of Abandned Turn-of-the-Century Schools in Small Georgia Communities
- Ungaro, Maurice A. Rehabilitating Historic Hotels
- Walker, Robert Burke. Georgia’s Carnegie Libraries: A Study of Their History, Their Existing Conditions, and Conservation
- Christian, Anne Catherine. Using a Revolving Loan to Acquire, Rehabilitate, and Re-sell Historic Homes for Affordable Housing
- Kelly, William Bryan. Preserving Historic Downtowns of University Cities Through Traditional Use as Location for Retail Businesses
- McDowell, Ellen Burton. Documenting Antebellum Interiors in the Lower Mississippi River Valley: A Guide to Historic Research for House Museums
- Strickland, Tiffany Tuley. House Museum Education Programs: Reinforcing School Subjects Through a Visual Experience
- Turner, Cathleen D. The Wright Brother’s Memorial: A Study in the Application of the Context-Based Approach to Evaluating Significance
- Vogel, Lisa Diane. Southern Textile Mills and the National Register of Historic Places: A Framework for Evaluation
- Wyatt, Eric Michael. Historic Structures of Rural Dallas County, Alabama: An Overview of Resources and Alternatives for the Conservation of the County’s Built Environment
- Hudson, Charlton. Historic Preservation and Affordable Housing
- Maddox, Janice Wilma. The Derivation of the Urn Motif: A First Study of the Decorative Use of Urns in European and American Architecture
- Rine, Ruth Kristin. Agricultural Resource Protection Programs in Pennsylvania: An Analysis and Application
- Butler, C. Scott. Windows in Georgia: Technological and Stylistic Changes as an Aid in Dating Historic Buildings, 1733-1945
- Hirschy, Susan Alden. Historic Property Appraisals: Residential Real Estate Valuation
- Houston, Katherine Lewis. Evaluating Residential Rehabilitation and Resale Business Potentials
- Sebree, Michelle. The Development and Preservation of Coral Gables, Florida: An Early Twentieth Century Thematic Suburb
- Terrell, Elinor Greta. The House Museum: A Tool for Teaching History
- Wright, Elliott Kipling. Historic Preservation Polls: Purpose, Method, and Application
- Jones, Lynn M. The Design of National Park Visitors Centers: The Relationship Between Buildings and Their Sites
- Latham, Dan Hill. Georgia Marble: A Study of Its Production and Architectural Use Before World War II
- Turner, Mary Julia. Surveying Industrial Era Vernacular Architecture
- Casey, Susan Elizabeth. Historic Preservation and the Festival Marketplace: Utilizing Historic Structures in Small Cities
- Cleveland, Martin Todd. The Economic Impact of Historic Preservation on Local Economies
- Clower, Jennifer M. The University of Virginia’s Historic Renovation Corporation: A Model for Providing Improved Historic Housing for Students
- Dixon, Lori Ann. The Hotel Oakwood: A Case Study in Adaptive Use Planning
- Gromlich, Bonnie Flanagan. Design Guidelines for Historic Districts
- Harris, Virginia Jan. The Absence of Self-Awareness of Potential Local Historic Preservation Organizations
- Strong, Jeanne Mansell. Historic Preservation Commission and Computer Technology: Potentials for Immediate Application
- Vinson, John Chalmers. The Development of Historic Preservation as a Profession in the United States and the State of Georgia: A Study of the History, Present Status, and Future Prospects of Historic Preservation as a Professional Endeavor
- Wilson-Martin, Catherine Louise. UNESCO World Heritage List: An Assessment of the City of Savannah
- Edge, Carolyn Paris. The Career of C. Wilmer Heery of Athens, Georgia, Architect
- Hubbell, Robin. Historic Georgia Lighthouses: A Study of Their History and an Examination of Their Present Physical State for Historic Preservation Purposes
- Hudson, Karen Elaine. The Historic Farmstead Agriculture of Oglethorpe County: A Preliminary Step Toward the Development of a Standard Typology and Nomenclature for Piedmont Georgia
- Mason, Vickie Elaine. Vernacular Buildings in the Northwestern Piedmont of North Carolina: A Study of Rural Dwellings in Alexander and Caldwell Counties
- Adams, Julian Wade. G. Lloyd Preacher, Southern Architect: A Study of His Career
- Bowers, Sybil Argintar. Creative Financing for Downtown Revitalization
- Glickman, Sara Orton. Historic Resources in African-American Neighborhoods of Piedmont Georgia
- Prevette, Olive Bumgarner. The Cottage Gardens of Georgia and the Carolinas, 1850-1900: A Guide for Contemporary Homeowners
- Butler, Donna Leigh Ratchford. The Use of Easements on Historic Structures: A Survey and Analysis of Easement Holding Organizations in Georgia, Louisiana, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia
Historic Structures Reports
According to the National Parks Service, “a historic structure report provides documentary, graphic, and physical information about a property’s history and existing condition.” By partnering with local historic sites, students in the MHP program get hands-on experience completing HSRs and learning how this vital resource plays into preservation planning. Below are examples of HSRs that students have completed on a variety of different building types for the Building Materials Conservation class.
10. One Archives Gallery & Museum
ONE magazine was the first wide-distribution magazine for gay people. Its founder Jim Kepner went on to amass what became the ONE National Gay & Lesbian Archives, now housed permanently in West Adams, courtesy of USC.
This WeHo arm of the One Archives is usually open to the public and hosts rotating art exhibits, but is currently under renovation and is closed until spring 2017. During the closure, there's expected to be off-site exhibits at Plummer Park.
The Battle of Chelsea Creek
- Our header image this week is one in a series of panoramic views from the top of Beacon Hill that were painted by a British officer during the siege of Boston. Noddle Island is at 4, Hog Island is at 5, and the Winnisimmet ferry is at 3.
- This Documentary History of Chelsea includes excerpts from Amos Farnsworth’s diary.
- The Naval Documents of the American Revolution (vol 1) is an incredibly exhaustive collection of primary sources. on the “battle” of Grape Island.
- Lt John Barker of the King’s own regiment kept a diary that covers both Grape Island and Chelsea Creek.
- The Committee of Safety orders all livestock off of Hog and Noddle Islands.
- A georeferenced 1776 map of Boston Harbor showing how the islands and Chelsea all fit together. Zoom in and out, then use the slider to adjust the opacity of the historic map to see the modern map below.
- We relied heavily on the account of the battle compiled in this 2011 report and a related 2009 article. A series of maps can help you understand how the battle unfolded.
- HMS Diana grounded on the ferry way at Winnisimmet. What is a ferry way?
- Why do we keep calling it “the engagement that’s now remembered as the Battle of Chelsea Creek”? Because Chelsea Creek didn’t really exist at the time, as JL Bell tells us.
The LGBT movement’s destructive history and legacyHomosexual pride flag Shutterstock
May 13, 2021 (LifeSiteNews) &mdash As the new Democrat-controlled Congress prepares to advance its LGBT agenda with the Equality Act, the possibility of the federal government mandating that biological boys share girls&rsquo dressing rooms and compete in girls&rsquo sports is very real. That possibility is just the latest consequence of a political movement that can be accurately described as one of the most destructive in American history. To understand what is happening now, it is helpful to understand how the LGBT movement got so powerful.
Here is a brief history of the LGBT movement in America:
The birth of LGBT power of intimidation came in the early 1970s when gay activists harassed psychiatrists and protested the American Psychiatric Association&rsquos classification of homosexuality as a disorder. Gay activists soon partnered with liberal psychiatrists to take over the leadership of the American Psychiatric Association, and in 1973 homosexuality was removed from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). The removal of homosexuality from the DSM was not based on clinical science, but rather on political pressure from gay activists. The vast majority of psychiatrists still saw homosexuality as a disorder or a symptom of a disorder, but only a few were willing to go toe to toe with the gay activists. As a result, the LGBT bully was born and impowered.
Liberal leaders of the American Psychiatric Association and the American Psychological Association gradually allowed their homosexual members to control the dialogue on homosexuality. LGB (no T yet) divisions and sub-associations were created within these two APAs, and the APAs became extensions of the LGB movement. As a result, fifty years of clinical science on the causation and treatment of homosexuality were systematically removed from treatment manuals and textbooks. Gay activists and their allies continued their attacks on psychiatrists and psychologists who publicly disagreed with the non-disorder classification. Within a short span of years, the APAs&rsquo support for objective clinical science on homosexuality became a thing of the past.
At the same time, in the early 1970s, gay rights activists in the universities were pressuring administrators to acknowledge them through gay student organizations. These student organizations eventually led to gay and lesbian student centers and LGB administrative divisions which dictated university policies on anything LGB. The influence of LGB centers of power in the universities led to the loss of objectivity regarding the clinical science on homosexuality, and intolerance for any view which did not hold homosexuality on an equal status with heterosexuality. In recent history the loss of objectivity was extended to transgender clinical science when LGB became LGBT.
Once LGBT activists were controlling the dialogue on homosexuality in the APAs, they moved to expand their influence over therapists&rsquo and counselors&rsquo treatment strategies for clients with unwanted same-sex attraction, and children showing signs of gender confusion. It took years of continued effort, but in 2009 LGBT mental health professionals succeeded in using the American Psychological Association to condemn the practice of helping those with unwanted homosexuality try to move toward heterosexuality. The client&rsquos self-determination no longer mattered if he/she sought to overcome homosexuality. Using the APA Task Force Report, LGBT activists extended their influence to legislative law, making it illegal in many states for a therapist to help a person who wishes to change their homosexual orientation. These same activists have sought &mdash and succeeded in part &mdash to make it impossible for parents to get professional help for a child struggling with their sexual or gender identity, if the desire of the parent is to move the child toward a heterosexual identity or toward acceptance of their biological gender.
Local governments and corporate America have also succumbed to the LGBT bully. LGBT activists have pushed the inclusion of &ldquosexual orientation&rdquo into corporate anti-discrimination policies. Once &ldquosexual orientation&rdquo has become part of the policy, LGBT activists have been able to punish workers who do not view homosexuality as moral or equal to heterosexuality. This is similar to how LGBT activists have been able to punish opponents in the university setting and in the public-school systems.
The most widespread intimidation tactic of the LGBT movement has been the creation of the word&rsquos &ldquohomophobia,&rdquo &ldquohomophobic,&rdquo &ldquohomophobe,&rdquo and recently &ldquotransphobia.&rdquo These terms do not mean fear of homosexuals or transgenders. Rather, they mean being opposed to LGBT social objectives. LGBT activists have projected that being homophobic is akin to being a racist or a bigot. The terms are meant to slander, shame, and intimidate, in the same manner a racist or bigot uses slanderous words to demean people they don&rsquot like.
To indoctrinate the younger generations, LGBT activists and their allies have used teachers&rsquo unions, library organizations, publishers, and professional organizations  to advance their LGBT social objectives. What students are told about homosexuality and transgender identities often comes from LGBT activists and their allies. Students are not taught the science on the causes and changeability of homosexuality or transgenderism. In addition, if the health risks of male homosexual activity are not taught, the school system will endanger vulnerable students. Schools that follow LGBT guidelines will not help students identify with their biological sex. Thus, more and more students will suffer from sexual identity issues and identify as homosexual and transgender.
Any LGBT doctrinal teaching in the school system that professes that homosexuality and gay marriage are equivalent to heterosexuality and heterosexual marriage is a moral viewpoint. It is an anti-God moral viewpoint. Part of the LGBT political agenda is to force their morality on America. The authority to define the morality of American culture is supposed to come from the people. Unfortunately, too many citizens in America have been unwilling to fight against the LGBT activists for the moral high ground on sexuality.