History Podcasts

History of Columbus, Ohio

History of Columbus, Ohio

Columbus is the capital of Ohio and the state's largest individual city. The Columbus Metropolitan Area ranks third, behind Cleveland and Cincinnati. Columbus lies on the Scioto River, where it is joined by the Olentangy.The first settlement was erected in 1797, on the west side of the Scioto, by Lucas Sullivant and others who named their community Franklinton. Until 1816, the state capital was at Chillicothe in the state's southern part, but it was believed that a more central location was needed for the capital. In 1834, Columbus received a city charter and in 1871, it annexed Franklinton.During the Civil War, Columbus was the site of Fort Chase, a prison for Confederate soldiers. More than 2,000 died while there.In 1913, the Scioto River flooded the valley, killed more than 100 people, and caused an estimated $9 million in property damage. The citizens responded by instituting a program of flood control.Founded in 1871 on the northern outskirts of Columbus, the Ohio Agricultural and Mechanical College was Ohio's land-grant college, and thus received the benefits of the Morrill Acts of 1862 and 1890. In 1878, the college expanded its offerings and changed its name to Ohio State University. Its campus is now located within the city limits of Columbus and is currently the largest public university in the United States.

A brief history of Columbus' shopping centers

1909: Simon Lazarus moves his department store, founded in 1851 as a men's tailor shop, to a new six-story building at Town and High Streets in downtown Columbus.

1928: Don Casto, Sr. develops the Grandview Bank Block into a shopping strip dominated by grocery retailers this early prototype of the strip mall was built to accommodate Casto's new housing in Arlington, which at the time was considered too far from Downtown for convenient shopping.

1949: Don Casto, Sr. opens Town and Country on the city's Far East Side in 1999, Casto invested $3.5 million in upgrades to the center.

1957: Great Southern Shoppers City opens on Columbus' South Side, part of Casto's mission to open shopping plazas across Columbus.

1964: Developer Richard Jacobs opens Northland Mall 50,000 shoppers attend opening day. Cigna Investments takes over ownership after Jacobs defaults in 2001.

1968: Developer Richard Jacobs opens the 940,000-square-foot Eastland Mall Cigna Investments takes over ownership after Jacobs defaults in 2001. Glimcher Realty Trust acquires the mall for $29.7 million in 2003.

1969: Developer Richard Jacobs opens Westland Mall Cigna Investments takes over ownership after Jacobs defaults in 2001. The mall parcels, currently owned by Weston Town Centre/Plaza Properties and Sears Roebuck, sit vacant current proposals call for redevelopment into an open-air shopping center.

1972: The Continent, Columbus' original lifestyle center, opens in north Columbus. The Continent featured 29 buildings with outdoor shopping in the European-inspired French Market, apartments and entertainment venues. The center began declining in the 1990s. Currently owned by Los Angeles-based Axs Opportunity Fund, the site features a small mix of clubs, office space and residential tenants.

1989: City Center Mall opens Downtown across from Lazarus' flagship store, drawing over 100,000 shoppers on opening day.

1992: Worthington Square Mall, built in the 1970s, is enclosed. In 2010, a Worthington resident and Texas-based Morris Capital Partners purchase the 168,000-square-foot property for $6.5 million.

1996: Columbus City Council unanimously approves creating a tax-increment financing district for 1,125 acres in the Polaris area, over the objections of Northland Mall owner Richard Jacobs and Northland-area community groups.

1997: The Mall at Tuttle Crossing opens. The mall is currently owned by Indianapolis-based developer Simon Property Group.

1999: Limited Brands, the Georgetown Co. and Steiner & Associates open the first phase of Easton Town Center Easton's second phase, including anchor department stores Macy's and Nordstrom, opens in 2001.

2001: Glimcher opens the 1.4-million-square-foot, $45-million, enclosed Polaris Fashion Place.

2002: Northland Mall closes for $9.5 million, the city of Columbus buys the 84-acre site and razes most of the buildings. The expanded redevelopment site is now home to the Franklin County Dog Shelter, Ohio Department of Taxation offices and a Menards store.

2008: Glimcher builds a 155,000-square-foot, open-air addition to Polaris Fashion Place.

2008: Mayor Michael Coleman launches the Mile on High initiative designed to bring retailers back to Downtown Columbus.

2009: The remaining eight tenants of City Center Mall are given notice to vacate and the 1.3-million-square-foot mall is demolished.

2010: Capital Crossroads and the city's Office of Economic Development launch the Retail Recruitment program to build relationships with potential Downtown retail tenants.

2011: Columbus Downtown Development Corp. & Capital South open Columbus Commons on the nine-acre City Center site a third of the land is reserved for commercial and residential development. The Highpoint on Columbus Commons by Atlanta-based Carter will include 23,000 square feet of retail space.

2012: Simon Property Group announce plans to build a 400,000-square-foot Tanger Outlet mall in Delaware County, which is scheduled to break ground in summer 2014.

2014: Glimcher announces it will auction over-leveraged Eastland Mall in June with a bid minimum of $9 million. If the mall doesn't sell, trustee U.S. Bank National Association will acquire the deed in lieu of foreclosure.

(Sources: Capital Crossroads Special Improvement District, Carter, Casto, Columbus Citizen-Journal, Dispatch Research, Franklin County Auditor, Glimcher Realty Trust, Ohio Secretary of State)

History Lesson: Irish in Columbus

March 17, 2012 12:50 pm Doug Motz

P. A. Egan's Undertaking, today known as Egan-Ryan Funeral Service.

Happy St Patrick’s Day! This is the day when everyone is Irish or at least claims to be. There are some deep Irish roots in Columbus and Central Ohio and like our city’s origins, they begin with Lucas Sullivant.

Lucas’ Grandfather was Daniel Sullivan – without a “T” – who emigrated from County Cork in Ireland to Virginia and added the “T” when he arrived here in the early 1700s.

Likewise, of the four founders of Columbus, John Kerr hailed from County Tyrone in 1778 according to Ben Hayes of the late-great Citizen Journal. He has the distinction of being our second mayor as well from 1818 – 1819. Educated at Trinity College in Dublin, Mr. Kerr was also the first secretary of the Columbus Literary Society.

This ground has also been covered, but up the Scioto was the settlement that the Ohio Legislature originally chose for the capital. This was the acreage that became Dublin. It was owned by John Sells and named by early settler John Shields who said to Mr. Sells in 1810:

“If I have the honor conferred on me to name your village with the brightness of the moon and the beaming of the sun on the hills and dales surrounding the beautiful valley, it would give me great pleasure to name your new town after my birthplace, Dublin Ireland.”

These early settlers in Columbus and Central Ohio were followed by what Columbus-Irish historian Julie McGhee likes to call the “Green Wave” which lasted from about 1835 – 1870.

Nearly all the Irish immigrants in this wave were Catholic and until 1850, all Catholics in Columbus attended Holy Cross Church near German Village. By 1850, the rapidly increasing German and English speaking populations realized the need for a new parish. Therefore, the members of Holy Cross voted to remove the English speaking Catholics to a new parish, to be known as St. Patrick’s.

The cornerstone of the new church in the North end of the city along a mud road that was sometimes referred to as “Irish Broadway” was laid on September 5 1852 and the church formally opened with a celebration of mass on September 23, 1853.

In 1849, Billy Naghten came to Columbus from the Emerald Isle’s County Westmeath and like many of that period settled in the north end of the city. Billy became involved in local politics and soon became President of City Council after voting for himself in a tie-breaker! North Public Lane was re-named for him as “Naghten “ street and parts of it today are better known as Nationwide Boulevard.

Patrick Egan is another Irish import from the green wave who came to Columbus but didn’t stay long and set out for the wild west. When he didn’t find fame and fortune during the gold rush, he came back to town and became the city coroner and established the Livery and Undertaking business that today is known as Egan-Ryan Funeral Service.

Julie also told me that Alfred Kelley – the man whose home saved Ohio during the Civil War – was also Irish but he didn’t like to admit to it. His beautiful, Greek revival mansion that once stood at 300 East Broad Street (which is sitting in pieces near Cleveland after being deconstructed in 1961) was equally well known as “The House That Saved Ohio,” when Kelley staked its value and his personal wealth as collateral for bonds purchased to complete the building of Ohio’s canal system.

One of the best known Irish families still in town today are the O’Shaughnessy clan. Jeremiah Patrick O’Shaughnessy worked on the Erie Canal and in 1870 began working for the city of Columbus as a ditch-digger, digging the foundation for what was to be the new Columbus Waterworks. He worked his way up to become Superintendent of Waterworks for the City in 1896. In all, he served Columbus through work on its water system for more than 50 years until he died in 1921.

Billy Ireland was a good friend and consistently referred to Jerry in his “Passing Show” strip as Jerry H 2 “O” Shaughnessy.

The clan is still represented in political circles today as Maryellen O’Shaughnessy is our Franklin County Clerk of Courts and a long-time Columbus City Council woman.

The accomplishments and accolades we lay on our Irish are many and this early “green Wave” summary just scratches the surface. So as we celebrate today with parades, corned beef and cabbage, and the requisite green beer, let’s lift a toast to our Irish fore-bears and say:

History of Columbus, Ohio - History

Diamond Hill Investments Charitable Foundation Fund

Essex Family Advised Fund of The Columbus Foundation

The Thomas C. and Mary Ann Hays Family Charitable Trust

Lloyd D. Hunter Memorial Fund of Community Foundations, Inc.

Susan Scherer Charitable Foundation

Sponsors on banner include: GBQ, Huntington Bank, Kroger Community Rewards, Mount Carmel, AmazonSmile, Mainline Information Systems, Community Shares of Mid Ohio, and Ohio Humanities.

Diamond Hill Investments Charitable Foundation Fund

Essex Family Advised Fund of The Columbus Foundation

The Thomas C. and Mary Ann Hays Family Charitable Trust

Lloyd D. Hunter Memorial Fund of Community Foundations, Inc.

Susan Scherer Charitable Foundation

Sponsors on banner include: GBQ, Huntington Bank, Kroger Community Rewards, Mount Carmel, AmazonSmile, Mainline Information Systems, Community Shares of Mid Ohio, and Ohio Humanities.

Downtown Columbus

"Lazarus Corner, South High Street"

"A feature of Columbus' principal thoroughfare, High street, which excites admiration of all strangers is the fine electric display at night. In addition to the illumination effects of business houses, the street for over half a mile is spanned by arches of incandescent lights, the whole producing a beautiful and fete-like appearance. This novel idea is original with Columbus, having been in use here for several years, but is now being adopted by other cities. The expense of maintaining the arches is met by private subscriptions from merchants. The same plan of illumination is being extended to other streets, and Columbus will maintain her reputation of being the most brilliantly illuminated city in the country." This is a scene of the Lazarus Department Store at night. " This fine structure, located at the corner of High and Main streets, was erected by the enterprising business men of the South side, The hotel contains 250 guest rooms and assembly hall seating 1,000 persons, The building is fireproof throughout. In the summer season the Great Southern Roof Garden, with its music and cooling breezes, is a delightful resort, which is frequented by the best people of the city. "One of the handsomest buildings in Columbus is the new Franklin County Court House , erected some ten years ago at a cost of about a half-million dollars. The exterior is of gray sandstone, handsomely ornamented, with polished granite Columbus at entrances, and is surmounted by a clock tower. The interior finish and furnishings are beautiful and costly. The building fronts on High and Mound streets. In the rear of the Court House and facing on Fulton street, is a modern stone FIRE-PROOF Jail. In arrangement, sanitation and safetyness this is regarded as a modern building, and its plans have been extensively copied." (page 74)

"One of the best-known institutions of Columbus is the Central Market House, located on Forth street and running from Town to Rich Streets. During three mornings of the week and on Saturday night it presents a very busy scene. Despite much talked of enlargement and improvement and the urgent need for the same, the market space remains much like it appears in the picture, which is by no means a late one .The view is from the corner of Rich and Fourth streets looking north . It gives only a small section of the great market center. A number of blocks lined with stands do not come within the scope of the camera. The market house was erected about 1850." (page 56).

Cover: The roots of Columbus' ongoing color divide

For decades African-Americans in Columbus were denied the same housing opportunities offered to whites. The ripple effect continues today.

For his 1913 book, The Color Line in Ohio: A History of Race Prejudice in a Typical Northern State, Knox College professor Frank U. Quillin investigated race relations in six Ohio cities. Columbus did not fare well.

&ldquoColumbus, the capital of Ohio, has a feeling toward the negroes all its own. In all my travels in the state, I found nothing just like it,&rdquo Quillin wrote. &ldquoIt is not so much a rabid feeling of prejudice against the negroes simply because their skin is black as it is a bitter hatred for them.&rdquo

Quillin goes on to quote Ohio's assistant adjutant general: &ldquoThe anti-negro feeling here in Columbus is at white heat. We are expecting an outbreak any day and are getting everything in readiness for it, so far as the military is concerned.&rdquo

After the Civil War, more and more Southern blacks began moving to Columbus, initially living in close proximity to whites. But the racial makeup of Columbus began to change most dramatically around the time of World War I, coinciding with the Great Migration, and the attitudes of whites changed along with it.

By 1930, according to census data, African-Americans made up about 10 percent of Franklin County. They lived in seven identifiable communities, but most settled on the East Side of Columbus in what is now known as the King-Lincoln District. Bronzeville, in particular, became a vibrant black community on the Near East Side. The neighborhood boasted black-owned businesses &mdash retail shops, theaters, restaurants, nightclubs, medical offices, banks &mdash and even its own unofficial mayor.

&ldquoIt was an all-class community, and it was conceptualized, designed and built by the community,&rdquo said Julialynne Walker, an East Side native who co-authored a 2014 report on African-American settlements for the Columbus Landmarks Foundation. &ldquoThere were nightclubs, lots of music. People would come to town and play Downtown in the '30s and '40s, but they couldn't stay Downtown, so they came out here. There were certain streets with rooming houses for musicians. You knew to be quiet on those streets because they'd just gone to bed at 6 a.m.&rdquo

Close to Bronzeville on the Near East Side was the Blackberry Patch neighborhood, which was bulldozed to make way for Poindexter Village, the 1940 public housing complex that was razed in 2013 (save for two buildings) and is now home to the Legacy Pointe at Poindexter development. Though similarly rich with culture, the Blackberry Patch was a far poorer area than Bronzeville. Many of the dwellings were built from scrap pieces of wood and lacked electricity and indoor plumbing.

In his 2016 dissertation for Ohio State University's graduate program in history, Patrick Potyondy researched the history of Poindexter and the Near East Side. &ldquoThe housing that African-Americans could access was indeed substandard in both quantity and condition,&rdquo Potyondy wrote, &ldquoand the city came to associate its black citizens with that squalor and overcrowding.&rdquo

Those associations, along with other well-documented stereotypes of the era, would have been plenty harmful had they remained mere attitudes. But attitudes and feelings have a way of shoehorning their way into policies, especially when it comes to housing.

&ldquoThere appears to be something very off-limits about one's home,&rdquo said Jillian Olinger at Ohio State's Kirwan Institute for the Study of Race and Ethnicity. &ldquoIt's our private castle. We work hard to gain homeownership. It becomes one of our main assets. It's an opportunity to provide for our children. It's so fundamental, the promise of home. And we have this idea of what a good neighborhood is: good schools, safe parks and, of course, good neighborhoods are white and black neighborhoods are bad.&rdquo

In The Color Line in Ohio, Quillin argues that African-Americans in the North were actually worse off than Southern blacks in the early 20th century. It's a sentiment that lines up with advice absorbed by Buzz Thomas, a 70-year-old Columbus realtor and South Side resident who grew up on the East Side.

&ldquoMy grandfather used to say, &lsquoSon, you know the difference between the North and South, don't you? In the South, white folks don't care how close you get as long as you don't get too big. In the North, they don't care how big you get as long as you don't get too close,'&rdquo Thomas said. &ldquoI'm 10 years old thinking, &lsquoThis man is crazy.' But that old man had it down.&rdquo

By 1936, the Home Owners' Loan Corporation (HOLC), a federal agency, created &ldquoResidential Security&rdquo maps of major American cities, including Columbus. The maps shaded neighborhoods in one of four colors to indicate their grade green was &ldquobest,&rdquo blue was &ldquostill desirable,&rdquo yellow was &ldquodefinitely declining&rdquo and red was &ldquohazardous.&rdquo Citizens living in red areas, which were almost always populated by African-Americans and immigrant communities, found themselves &ldquoredlined&rdquo by banks and other lending institutions. Even though Bronzeville was a wealthier area than the Blackberry Patch and Flytown (located just south of Goodale Park), the HOLC redlined all three areas.

In March, the National Community Reinvestment Coalition (NCRC) released a study that compared the HOLC's redlined neighborhoods with their current economic and social conditions and found that, despite some heavily gentrified areas, the segregation and economic inequality in those areas persist today. According to the NCRC, 82 percent of Columbus' &ldquohazardous&rdquo neighborhoods are low-to-moderate income today &mdash higher than the national average of 74 percent. And 89 percent of Columbus' &ldquobest&rdquo neighborhoods are middle-to-upper income they're also 91 percent white.

While the South showed the least change in redlined areas between 1936 and today, the NCRC reported that &ldquothe Midwest closely followed the South.&rdquo

&ldquoIt's the hidden part of our history up here,&rdquo said Jason Reece, a professor of city and regional planning at Ohio State. &ldquoEveryone thinks of segregation and they think of the Jim Crow South, but you look at places like Detroit, Cleveland and Columbus &mdash all these cities in many ways were just as segregated as Southern cities were. &hellip There were a lot of reprehensible things going on in the Midwest in terms of supporting segregation. We've done a good job of scrubbing a lot of that history.&rdquo

Before redlining, lenders and homeowners used restrictive covenants to create and maintain majority-white neighborhoods. In Ohio, the use of racially restrictive language in home deeds took off during the Great Migration and continued for decades. From about 1920 to just before World War II, Reece said that two-thirds of all the subdivisions platted in Central Ohio had restrictive covenants placed on them.

In the 1923 deed of one Clintonville home, among language that forbids the operation of a slaughterhouse and the sale of &ldquointoxicating liquors,&rdquo the owner is also forbidden to &ldquosell or lease said premises to a person of African descent.&rdquo Nearly 30 years later, a 1950 Upper Arlington deed is even more restrictive, forbidding the owner to sell, lease or rent &ldquoto a person or persons of any race other than Caucasian.&rdquo

&ldquoWhat a lot of this is about is the anxiety and angst over changing demographics. It's not surprising that we see covenants take off here when the Great Migration takes off,&rdquo Reece said. &ldquoIt's this notion that somehow by mixing with each other we were ruining neighborhoods. This was a dogma that the entire real estate system bought into.&rdquo

What gave the dogma staying power is that it became policy. In the Federal Housing Administration's 1936 underwriting manual, the government provided advice to assessors. &ldquoThe Valuator should investigate areas surrounding the location to determine whether or not incompatible racial and social groups are present, to the end that an intelligent prediction may be made regarding the possibility or probability of the location being invaded by such groups. If a neighborhood is to retain stability it is necessary that properties shall continue to be occupied by the same social and racial classes,&rdquo one section stated (emphasis added).

Redlining, then, reflected and exacerbated an already-existing reality. &ldquoI think there's a misconception in the general public. The redlining maps didn't create this system,&rdquo Kirwan's Olinger said. &ldquoThey nationalized it and codified it.&rdquo

This nationalized bias began to play out in America's burgeoning highway system. Redlined neighborhoods, not coincidentally, were often targeted for highway projects.

When Julialynne Walker was born in 1950, she lived on Jefferson Avenue, which then would have been part of the Near East Side. &ldquoOne of the rites of passage when we were growing up was to be old enough to walk from Long Street and Mount Vernon to Lazarus [Downtown],&rdquo she said. &ldquoBut that was snatched away from us, because you couldn't walk Downtown anymore.&rdquo

In the 1960s, the construction of I-71, I-70 and, later, I-670, gutted the Near East Side, demolishing homes and forcing residents to relocate. &ldquoNot only did you put a freeway through minority areas, but then you walled it off and made one way in and one way out,&rdquo Buzz Thomas said. &ldquoOnce you did that, you cut the economic carotid artery of that neighborhood, and it began to die.&rdquo

The Civil Rights Movement also began to offer more opportunities in other neighborhoods, and African-Americans who had the means began moving elsewhere. But white flight persisted, often as a reaction to busing for school integration and the real-estate practice of blockbusting, in which realtors scared white residents into selling their homes when black homeowners moved into the neighborhood.

As a boy, Thomas and his family moved north from East Side apartments on Clifton Avenue to a duplex in the Shepard Addition in 1958. They were one of the first black families to live in the neighborhood. Soon enough, white residents took off. Thomas' family moved again, buying a home on Nelson Road. &ldquoRealtors were going door to door saying, &lsquoHey, a colored family just bought down here. You wanna sell?'&rdquo he said. &ldquoThat's how we bought our first house, because people were dumping properties.&rdquo

In 1963, Thomas attended Eastmoor High School on Weyant Avenue, and since his family only had one car, they wanted to buy a house that would allow Thomas to walk to school. &ldquoSo we get in the car &mdash my mother, my stepfather, my sister and me. All I remember about this realtor was he was a white guy and really tall,&rdquo Thomas said. &ldquoHe takes us out to Weyant Avenue. We get out of the car, we're walking up the front steps to the house, and the guy opens the door and goes, &lsquoOh, no no no! I'm not selling to coloreds!' Boom, slams the door.

&ldquoWhat I remember most was no one said a word. We just all got back in the car and drove back to Nelson Road. My stepfather told the rest of us to go in the house. He talked to the realtor, and we never went out to look at a house again.&rdquo

In 1948, the Supreme Court ruled in Shelley v. Kraemer that the use of racially restrictive housing covenants is not enforceable in court. But the aforementioned 1950 Upper Arlington deed restricting ownership to Caucasians proves that old, racist ideas die hard. In fact, in UA the practice carried on for years after Shelley v. Kraemer. In 1971, a Franklin County suit charged the Northwest Arlington Homeowners Association trustees, including John Pace, who was also president of King Thompson Realty and chairman of the Ohio Real Estate Commission, with blocking a black man from buying a home in Pace's all-white subdivision. The trustees were found guilty, and the association was dissolved.

&ldquoIt was found that the Northwest Arlington Homeowners Association for 22 years was operating as a nonprofit organization, and that it was used by the defendants to discharge their private prejudices,&rdquo wrote Diane Kelly Runyon and Kim Shoemaker Starr in their 2017 book, Secrets Under the Parking Lot.

This year also marks the 50th anniversary of the Fair Housing Act, a landmark piece of civil rights legislation that made it illegal to discriminate on the basis of race in home sales or rental agreements. Residential segregation declined in its wake but never fully went away.

&ldquoEven into the '80s, there's still language about the introduction of &lsquocontentious groups,'&rdquo Olinger said. &ldquoSo explicit race language might be taken out, but then there's coded language, and we see that even today.&rdquo

&ldquoOne of the challenges with the act is that it still doesn't do anything to block the exclusionary zoning practices that are out there,&rdquo Reece said. &ldquoWe have a Fair Housing Act, but if they're not caught discriminating by race &hellip they can still discriminate by class. We've learned that if they do that with zoning, they get the same effect. This is why we have so much economic segregation.&rdquo

The Community Reinvestment Act, which was passed in 1977 to help counter redlining by reducing discriminatory credit practices and by encouraging lenders to meet the needs of borrowers in low-income neighborhoods, was also hugely important, but the effectiveness of the legislation is still debated.

The Near East Side, for instance, languished for decades. Recently the neighborhood, rebranded the King-Lincoln District, has seen a resurgence in development and revitalization, including the restoration of the Lincoln Theatre and the Legacy Pointe at Poindexter mixed-income apartments. In 2014, the Long Street and Spring Street bridges over I-71 reconnected the neighborhood to Downtown. But the area has yet to fully recover from the disinvestment that took place over decades.

The South Side, too, is still reeling. While the entire area was not historically black, much of it was labeled hazardous or declining, likely because of its mix of races and social classes, with Jewish, Russian, Hungarian and African-American communities putting down roots close to their manufacturing jobs at Buckeye Steel Castings and Federal Glass. Longtime resident Anne Stewart remembers the South End (as natives refer to it) as a great equalizer.

Over the years, though, the neighborhood became more divided.

&ldquoThere's a modern, 21st-century version of redlining that has a devastating impact on the South Side of Columbus,&rdquo said Rev. John Edgar, pastor of the United Methodist Church for All People and head of Community Development for All People. &ldquoI don't know what color ink they're using. I'm not saying it's redlining. But the appraisal industry draws lines. They have factually negative impacts on what side of the line you're on, and I would contend they are unjustifiable. The clearest one is Parsons Avenue.&rdquo

Since 2005, Community Development, which partnered with Nationwide Children's Healthy Neighborhoods Healthy Families initiative in 2008, has renovated blighted and vacant homes and built new homes throughout the South Side. But when appraisals for the homes came in, Edgar noticed a clear divide.

&ldquoParsons Avenue is a line, and when we develop properties on the east side of Parsons, the appraisers will not pull [comparable properties] for west of Parsons, no matter how close the house is to Parsons,&rdquo Edgar said. &ldquoIt unfairly, artificially deflated the value of our property.&rdquo

Parsons Avenue runs north to south through the South Side, and on the northern end, just south of Livingston Avenue, Schumacher Place sits to the west of Parsons and Southern Orchards to the east. The two neighborhoods are strikingly similar. &ldquoBasically, it's all the same,&rdquo Edgar said. &ldquoWhen it was built, no one was thinking there was any meaningful difference between what was built in Schumacher Place and what was being built in Southern Orchards.&rdquo

There's one noticeable difference, though. &ldquoEast of Parsons is predominantly African-American, and west of Parsons is predominantly white,&rdquo Edgar said.

&ldquoThe Berlin Wall is less of an obstacle than Parsons,&rdquo Thomas told me on a recent four-hour driving tour of the South Side. Not long ago, an appraiser stood next to him at a house located east of Parsons. &ldquoBy that time Nationwide Children's had put a million dollars into the properties over there, but he's standing on the front porch looking around going, &lsquoWow, this is a declining neighborhood.' And I'm going, &lsquoNo no no, let me give you numbers and show you,'' Thomas said. &ldquoBut the appraisal was cut.&rdquo

There's progress, though, thanks in no small part to the more than 100 homes Edgar and Nationwide Children's have rehabbed or rebuilt. Driving through the South Side with windows down, Thomas points to dozens of renovated houses: &ldquoThat's a hospital house. &hellip John [Edgar] did that one. &hellip That one is a private developer.&rdquo

A Nationwide Children's security vehicle drives by, and on the corner of East Whittier Street and Heyl Avenue, a worker hammers a giant sign into the ground that reads &ldquoNow leasing&rdquo in front of the Residences at Career Gateway, a Community Development for All People complex of apartments and townhomes with income restrictions. The center will also provide workforce training for residents and the surrounding community.

With property values rising, appraisals have begun to improve. (Even with Community Development's commitment to keeping rehabbed homes affordable, gentrification is a current challenge.) And driving through the South Side, it's apparent that some streets have become more racially mixed. But the east-west Parsons divide has been difficult to fully dismantle. The Berlin Wall didn't come down in a day.

&ldquoIt's gotten better. And yet this gap is still pronounced,&rdquo Edgar said. &ldquoIf you averaged it out, there is probably $100,000 difference in value simply on which side of Parsons Avenue you live on.&rdquo

The value difference, Edgar said, is not a result of racist appraisers, but rather the result of unconscious associations. &ldquoAppraisers would argue that they're objective, but the categories and factors that they are using have intertwined within them aspects that have their own implicit biases,&rdquo he said.

&ldquoPeople say, &lsquoWell, it's the market.' But the market isn't just this thing floating in space. There are people and values and decisions that inform it,&rdquo said the Kirwan Institute's Olinger. &ldquoThere's decades of explicit, derogatory language about the value of African-Americans in terms of credit risk, and over time the way implicit mental associations are made is this repeated exposure, and that's how they become implicit.&rdquo

Columbus has come a long way from the city Frank Quillin described in 1913. But there are uncomfortable parallels to today.

In one of his classes at Ohio State, Reece uses a copy of a nativist newspaper from the late 1800s as a teaching tool, and in the last couple of years it has felt eerily relevant. &ldquoIn the 2016 election, you could have taken the stuff right out of this newspaper, and it basically was the same debate fodder going on,&rdquo Reece said, quoting the paper's reference to &ldquoforeign paupers who are draining our public resources.&rdquo &ldquoHistorically, every time we go through one of these periods of demographic transition, there's always this vehement, horrible backlash. &hellip I think this is the American experience.&rdquo

On a recent Friday morning, downstairs from Edgar's Parsons Avenue office at the Church for All People, dozens of community members of color sit around tables waiting for the church's Free Store to open. Blue Ikea bags hang on hooks in front of a giant yoke mounted to the wall. It's a visual reference to a passage in the book of Matthew from the New Testament. &ldquoTake my yoke upon you &hellip and you will find rest for your souls,&rdquo Jesus says. &ldquoFor my yoke is easy, and my burden is light.&rdquo

The New Testament was written in Greek, and in those books of the Bible the word metanoia is often translated as &ldquorepentance.&rdquo &ldquoMetanoia,&rdquo Edgar explained, &ldquomeans to turn around 180 degrees. So to repent isn't so much, &lsquoI feel bad, and I'm sorry for what I did.' It's turning around and doing it different. There's a bunch of stuff we do individually and collectively as a society that we need to repent of. But to repent is to do it different and do it better.&rdquo

Columbus Genealogy (in Franklin County, OH)

NOTE: Additional records that apply to Columbus are also found through the Franklin County and Ohio pages.

Columbus Birth Records

Columbus Cemetery Records

Asbury Methodist Episcopal Cemetery Billion Graves

Beth Jacob Cemetery Billion Graves

Camp Chase Cemetery US Gen Web Archives

Camp Chase Confederate Cemetery Billion Graves

Clime Cemetery Billion Graves

Davis Historical Cemetery US Gen Web Archives

Eastlawn Burial Park Billion Graves

Evergreen Burial Park Billion Graves

Forest Lawn Memorial Gardens Billion Graves

Green Lawn Cemetery, File 1 of 4 US Gen Web Archives

Green Lawn Cemetery, File 2 of 4 US Gen Web Archives

Green Lawn Cemetery, File 3 of 4 US Gen Web Archives

Green Lawn Cemetery, File 4 of 4 US Gen Web Archives

Greenlawn Cemetery US Gen Web Archives

Greenlawn Cemetery Billion Graves

Kempton Cemetery Billion Graves

Madison-Truro Cemetery US Gen Web Archives

Mount Calvary Cemetery Billion Graves

New Agudas Achim Cemetery Billion Graves

Obetz Cemetery US Gen Web Archives

Ohio, Columbus, Union Cemetery, Burial Records, ca. 1878-1980 Family Search

Postle Cemetery Billion Graves

Riverside Cemetery Billion Graves

Saint James Lutheran Cemetery Billion Graves

Sunset Cemetery Billion Graves

Taylor Cemetery US Gen Web Archives

Temple Israel Cemetery Billion Graves

Tifcreth Israel Cemetery Billion Graves

Union Cemetery US Gen Web Archives

Union Cemetery Billion Graves

Union Cemetery Billion Graves

Union Methodist Cemetery Billion Graves

Walnut Grove Cemetery Billion Graves

Walnut Hill Cemetery Billion Graves

Wesley Chapel Cemetery Billion Graves

Columbus Census Records

Federal Census for Franklin County, 1st Ward: File 1 to 10 1850 US Gen Web Archives

Federal Census for Franklin County, 2nd Ward: File 1 to 6 1850 US Gen Web Archives

Federal Census for Franklin County, 3rd Ward: File 1 to 7 1850 US Gen Web Archives

Federal Census for Franklin County, 4th Ward: File 1 to 8 1850 US Gen Web Archives

Federal Census for Franklin County, 5th Ward: File 1 to 7 1850 US Gen Web Archives

Federal Census of 1940, Columbus, Ohio LDS Genealogy

United States Federal Census, 1790-1940 Family Search

Columbus Church Records

Columbus City Directories

Columbus City Directory 1843 Morgan Ohio Library

Columbus City Directory 1845 Morgan Ohio Library

Columbus City Directory 1848 Morgan Ohio Library

Columbus City Directory 1850 Morgan Ohio Library

Columbus, Ohio city directory 1913 Internet Archive

Columbus, Ohio, city directory.. 1843-4 Internet Archive

Columbus, Ohio, city directory.. 1855 Internet Archive

Columbus, Ohio, city directory.. 1870-71 Internet Archive

Columbus, Ohio, city directory.. 1879 Internet Archive

The Occident, West High School (Columbus, Ohio) Genealogy Gophers

Columbus Court Records

Columbus Death Records

Columbus Histories and Genealogies

Centennial history of Columbus and Franklin County, Ohio Vol. 01 Genealogy Gophers

History of the city of Columbus, capital of Ohio, Vol. 1 Genealogy Gophers

Index of names for Columbus, Ohio : its history, resources and progress (including Franklin County) Genealogy Gophers

The Welsh of Columbus, Ohio: a study in adaptation and assimilation Public Library of Cincinnati

Year book of the Columbus Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution Genealogy Gophers

Columbus Immigration Records

Columbus Land Records

Columbus Map Records

Birds eye view map of Columbus, Ohio, 1872 Library of Congress

Sanborn Fire Insurance Map from Columbus, Franklin County, Ohio, 1891 Library of Congress

Sanborn Fire Insurance Map from Columbus, Franklin County, Ohio, February 1887 Library of Congress

Columbus Marriage Records

Columbus Military Records

Columbus Minority Records

German Village Gazette, 2003-2005 Google News Archive

The Welsh of Columbus, Ohio: a study in adaptation and assimilation Public Library of Cincinnati

Columbus Miscellaneous Records

Columbus Newspapers and Obituaries

Booster 09/12/2007 to 04/16/2012 Genealogy Bank

Booster, 2003-2005 Google News Archive

Buckeyextra 06/12/2018 to Current Genealogy Bank

Columbus Alive: Blogs 12/14/2006 to 08/05/2012 Genealogy Bank

Columbus Dispatch 01/01/1920 to 12/31/1985 Genealogy Bank

Columbus Dispatch 07/16/1985 to Current Genealogy Bank

Columbus Dispatch, The: Web Edition Articles 12/13/2016 to Current Genealogy Bank

Columbus Evening Dispatch 1877-1969 Newspapers.com

Columbus Evening Dispatch 1895, 1909, 1913, 1928, 1947, 1969 Newspaper Archive at FindMyPast

Columbus Monthly 06/12/2009 to Current Genealogy Bank

Columbus OH Statesman 1862-1869 Fulton History

Crisis 01/31/1861 to 01/19/1870 Genealogy Bank

Daily Ohio State Journal 03/13/1839 to 11/22/1876 Genealogy Bank

Daily Ohio Statesman 08/11/1847 to 01/30/1869 Genealogy Bank

Daily Ohio Statesman 1861-1869 Newspapers.com

Daily Ohio statesman. (Columbus, Ohio) (from Jan. 2, 1861 to Jan. 30, 1869) Chronicling America

Daily Political Tornado 10/06/1840 to 10/31/1840 Genealogy Bank

Daily Reporter 01/09/2002 to Current Genealogy Bank

Der Westbote 09/03/1863 to 06/11/1895 Genealogy Bank

Der Westbote 09/03/1863 to 06/11/1895 Genealogy Bank

Der westbote. (Columbus, Ohio) (from Feb. 15, 1872 to June 11, 1895) Chronicling America

Der westbote. (Columbus, Ohio) (from Sept. 3, 1863 to Jan. 5, 1871) Chronicling America

Gahanna News 09/17/2007 to 03/26/2012 Genealogy Bank

German Village Gazette 11/07/2007 to 01/09/2012 Genealogy Bank

German Village Gazette, 2003-2005 Google News Archive

Lantern, The: Ohio State University 08/03/1998 to Current Genealogy Bank

Lincoln Village Railsplitter 1991-2012 Westland Area Library

NBC - 4 WCMH 01/05/2008 to Current Genealogy Bank

Northland News 09/13/2007 to 03/26/2012 Genealogy Bank

Northland news, 2003-2005 Google News Archive

Northwest Columbus News 01/08/2008 to 04/12/2012 Genealogy Bank

Northwest Columbus News, 1998-2005 Google News Archive

Ohio Coon Catcher 08/17/1844 to 11/16/1844 Genealogy Bank

Ohio Monitor 01/13/1820 to 02/12/1835 Genealogy Bank

Ohio People's Press 05/25/1836 to 11/09/1836 Genealogy Bank

Ohio State Journal 10/13/1825 to 10/09/1860 Genealogy Bank

Ohio Statesman 09/05/1837 to 11/02/1852 Genealogy Bank

Olentangy Valley News 09/18/2007 to 04/03/2012 Genealogy Bank

Olentangy Valley News, 2004-2005 Google News Archive

Other Paper 07/10/2008 to 11/02/2012 Genealogy Bank

Reynoldsburg News, 2004-2005 Google News Archive

The Catholic times. (Columbus, Ohio) (from Oct. 5, 1951 to Dec. 28, 1962) Chronicling America

The Westside Messenger 1982-2005 Westland Area Library

ThisWeek Community Newspapers 05/09/2002 to Current Genealogy Bank

ThisWeek Community Newspapers: Web Edition Articles 06/26/2017 to Current Genealogy Bank

Times 09/17/2007 to 04/13/2012 Genealogy Bank

Tri-Village News 09/19/2007 to 04/02/2012 Genealogy Bank

Tri-weekly Ohio Statesman 03/19/1845 to 08/09/1847 Genealogy Bank

Upper Arlington News, 2003, 2005 Google News Archive

West Columbus Messenger 1977-1982 Westland Area Library

Western Christian Journal 04/16/1847 to 02/08/1850 Genealogy Bank

Westland News 09/19/2007 to 10/12/2011 Genealogy Bank

Whitehall News 09/19/2007 to 04/16/2012 Genealogy Bank

Whitehall News, 2004-2004 Google News Archive

Wochenblatt des Westboten 01/12/1871 to 02/08/1872 Genealogy Bank

Wochenblatt des westboten. (Columbus, Ohio) (from Jan. 12, 1871 to Feb. 8, 1872) Chronicling America

Offline Newspapers for Columbus

According to the US Newspaper Directory, the following newspapers were printed, so there may be paper or microfilm copies available. For more information on how to locate offline newspapers, see our article on Locating Offline Newspapers.

Bohemian. (Columbus [Ohio]) 1882-1885

Booster. (Columbus, Ohio) 1933-Current

Buckeye Farm News : a Publication of the Ohio Farm Bureau Federation. (Columbus, Ohio) 2001-Current

Business First. (Columbus, Ohio) 1984-Current

Catholic Columbian. (Columbus, Ohio) 1875-1939

Catholic Times. (Columbus, Ohio) 1951-Current

Challenger. (Columbus, Ohio) 1963-1964

Columbian. (Columbus, Ohio) 1853-1854

Columbus Challenger. (Columbus, Ohio) 1964-1970s

Columbus Citizen-Journal. (Columbus, Ohio) 1959-1985

Columbus Citizen. (Columbus, Ohio) 1899-1959

Columbus Daily Express. (Columbus, Ohio) 1863-1864

Columbus Daily Monitor. (Columbus [Ohio) 1916-1917

Columbus Daily Press. (Columbus, Ohio) 1888-1889

Columbus Daily Press. (Columbus, Ohio) 1902-1903

Columbus Daily Times. (Columbus, Ohio) 1884-1888

Columbus Democrat and Ohio Statesman. (Columbus, O. [Ohio) 1879-1880

Columbus Democrat. (Columbus, Ohio) 1878-1879

Columbus Democrat. (Columbus, Ohio) 1915-1920

Columbus Dispatch. (Columbus, Ohio) 1975-Current

Columbus Elevator. (Columbus O. [Ohio]) 1854-1856

Columbus Evening Dispatch. (Columbus, Ohio) 1877-1975

Columbus Evening Post-Press. (Columbus, Ohio) 1893-1895

Columbus Evening Post. (Columbus, Ohio) 1888-1890

Columbus Evening Press-Post. (Columbus, Ohio) 1892-1893

Columbus Evening Press. (Columbus, O. [Ohio]) 1895-1898

Columbus Free Press & Cowtown Times. (Columbus, Ohio) 1972-1976

Columbus Free Press. (Columbus, Ohio) 1970-1972

Columbus Freeman. (Columbus, Ohio) 1841-1843

Columbus Freepress. (Columbus, Ohio) 1976-1992

Columbus Gazette. (Columbus, O. [Ohio]) 1856-1883

Columbus Gazette. (Columbus, Ohio) 1817-1825

Columbus Herald. ([Columbus, Ohio]) 1875-1877

Columbus Herold. (Columbus, Ohio) 1920-1941

Columbus Jewish Chronicle. (Columbus, Ohio) 1918-1919

Columbus Labor News. (Columbus, Ohio) 1916-1921

Columbus Messenger. (Columbus, Ohio) 1975-1982

Columbus Morning Journal. (Columbus, Ohio) 1865-1866

Columbus Morning Post. (Columbus, O. [Ohio]) 1895-1898

Columbus News. (Columbus, Ohio) 1909-1911

Columbus Onyx. (Columbus, Ohio) 1971-1970s

Columbus Post. (Columbus, O. [Ohio]) 1890-1892

Columbus Press Post. (Columbus, Ohio) 1906-1909

Columbus Record and Market Reporter. (Columbus, Ohio) 1884-1889

Columbus Record. (Columbus, Ohio) 1890-1900

Columbus Register. (Columbus, Ohio) 1940-1951

Columbus Saturday Monitor. (Columbus, Ohio) 1915-1916

Columbus Sentinel. (Columbus, O. [Ohio]) 1831-1835

Columbus Standard. (Columbus, Ohio) 1898-1901

Columbus Star. (Columbus, Ohio) 1940-1966

Columbus Sun. (Columbus, Ohio) 1892-1895

Columbus Sunday Herald. (Columbus, Ohio) 1877-1891

Columbus Sunday Star. (Columbus, Ohio) 1932-1940

Columbus Telegram. (Columbus, Ohio) 1886-1887

Columbus Tri-Weekly Post. (Columbus, Ohio) 1895-1898

Columbus Voice. (Columbus, Ohio) 1928-1933

Cornerstone. (Columbus, Ohio) 1893-1908

Crisis. (Columbus, Ohio) 1861-1871

Daily Advertiser. (Columbus, Ohio) 1833-1834

Daily Capital City Fact. (Columbus [Ohio]) 1851-1863

Daily Columbus Freeman. (Columbus, Ohio) 1841-1843

Daily Dispatch and Daily Ohio Statesman. (Columbus, Ohio) 1872-1874

Daily Dispatch. (Columbus, Ohio) 1871-1872

Daily Evening Dispatch. (Columbus, Ohio) 1874-1877

Daily Journal and Register. (Columbus, Ohio) 1837-1838

Daily Ohio Press. ([Columbus, Ohio]) 1847-1848

Daily Ohio State Democrat. (Columbus, Ohio) 1853-1854

Daily Ohio State Journal. (Columbus [Ohio]) 1841-1844

Daily Ohio State Journal. (Columbus [Ohio]) 1848-1865

Daily Ohio State Journal. (Columbus, Ohio) 1870-1897

Daily Ohio Statesman and Democrat. (Columbus, Ohio) 1854-1855

Daily Ohio Statesman. (Columbus [Ohio]) 1837-1838

Daily Ohio Statesman. (Columbus [Ohio]) 1847-1854

Daily Ohio Statesman. (Columbus, O. [Ohio) 1876-1879

Daily Ohio Statesman. (Columbus, Ohio) 1855-1870

Daily Press. (Columbus, Ohio) 1889-1892

Daily Reporter. (Columbus O. [Ohio]) 1896-1911

Daily Reporter. (Columbus, Ohio) 1955-Current

Daily Standard. (Columbus, Ohio) 1848-1849

Daily Times and Ohio Statesman. (Columbus, Ohio) 1880-1883

Daily Times. (Columbus, Ohio) 1883-1884

Democratic Call. (Columbus, Ohio) 1894-1896

Dollar Statesman. (Columbus, Ohio) 1849-1852

Dollar Weekly Dispatch. (Columbus, Ohio) 1874-1884

Downtown Alive. (Columbus, Ohio) 1983-Current

Eastern Review. (Columbus, Ohio) 1958-1964

Eastern Spectator. (Columbus, Ohio) 1964-1968

Express Und Westbote. (Columbus, Ohio) 1903-1918

Franklin County Legal Record. (Columbus, Ohio) 1879-1883

Hilltop Record and West Side News. (Columbus, Ohio) 1960-1964

Hilltop Record. (Columbus, Ohio) 1917-1960

Hilltop Spectator. (Columbus, Ohio) 1964-1966

Hilltop Spectator. (Columbus, Ohio) 1972-1973

Hilltop Weekly News. (Columbus, Ohio) 1914-1915

Home Gazette. (Columbus, Ohio) 1884-1886

Josephinum Weekly. (Columbus, Ohio) 1914-1947

Journal and Register. (Columbus, Ohio) 1838-1839

Lantern. (Columbus, Ohio) 1891-1906

Lantern. (Columbus, Ohio) 1972-Current

Liberal Advocate. (Columbus, Ohio) 1892-1918

Linden-Northeast News. (Columbus [Ohio]) 1964-1974

Metropolitan Spectator. (Columbus, Ohio) 1964-1966

Morning Journal. (Columbus, Ohio) 1866-1869

National Enquirer. (Columbus, Ohio) 1827-1828

National Leader. (Columbus, Ohio) 1875-1879

News Tribune. (Columbus, Ohio) 1961-1978

News. (Columbus, Ohio) 1974-1982

News. (Columbus, Ohio) 1974-1986

Northland News. (Columbus, O. [Ohio]) 1972-1974

Ohio Columbian. (Columbus, Ohio) 1854-1856

Ohio Confederate and Old School Republican. (Columbus, Ohio) 1839-1841

Ohio Examiner. (Columbus, Ohio) 1932-1933

Ohio Freeman, and Columbus Herald. (Columbus, Ohio) 1841-1840s

Ohio Jewish Chronicle. (Columbus, Ohio) 1922-1990

Ohio Jewish Chronicle. (Columbus, Ohio) 1958-1962

Ohio Monitor & Patron of Industry. (Columbus, Ohio) 1821-1825

Ohio Monitor. (Columbus, Ohio) 1816-1821

Ohio Monitor. (Columbus, Ohio) 1825-1836

Ohio Populist. (Columbus, Ohio) 1894-1896

Ohio Press. (Columbus, O. [Ohio]) 1846-1848

Ohio Register and Antimasonic Review. (Columbus, Ohio) 1831-1834

Ohio Standard. (Columbus, Ohio) 1848-1851

Ohio State Bulletin. (Columbus, [Ohio]) 1829-1831

Ohio State Bulletin. (Columbus, [Ohio]) 1839-1840

Ohio State Democrat. (Columbus, Ohio) 1853-1854

Ohio State Gazette. (Columbus [Ohio]) 1827-1828

Ohio State Journal and Columbus Gazette. (Columbus [Ohio]) 1825-1837

Ohio State Journal and Register. (Columbus, Ohio) 1838-1839

Ohio State Journal. (Columbus [Ohio]) 1897-1959

Ohio State Journal. (Columbus [Ohio]) 1902-1904

Ohio State Journal. (Columbus, Ohio) 1839-1841

Ohio State Journal. (Columbus, Ohio) 1847-1848

Ohio State Journal. (Columbus, Ohio) 1849-1858

Ohio State Journal. (Columbus, Ohio) 1860s-1869

Ohio State Journal. (Columbus, Ohio) 1869-1870

Ohio State Lantern. (Columbus, O. [Ohio]) 1906-1972

Ohio State Monitor. (Columbus, Ohio) 1918-1922

Ohio State News. (Columbus [Ohio) 1935-1952

Ohio State Sentinel. (Columbus, O. [Ohio]) 1877-1881

Ohio State Tribune, and Columbus Herald. (Columbus, Ohio) 1843-1844

Ohio State Tribune, and Western Laborer. (Columbus, Ohio) 1842-1845

Ohio State Tribune. (Columbus, Ohio) 1844-1845

Ohio Statesman. (Columbus, Ohio) 1837-1846

Ohio Statesman. (Columbus, Ohio) 1838-1844

Ohio Statesman. (Columbus, Ohio) 1870-1872

Ohio Statesman. (Columbus, Ohio) 1873-1880

Ohio Torch. (Columbus, Ohio) 1928-1930

Old School Republican and Ohio State Gazette. (Columbus, Ohio) 1841-1845

Onyx. ([Columbus, Ohio) 1970s-1975

Palladium of Liberty. (Columbus, [Ohio]) 1843-1844

Press Post. (Columbus, O. [Ohio]) 1898-1900

Press Post. (Columbus, Ohio) 1898-1902

Press Post. (Columbus, Ohio) 1904-1906

Republic. (Columbus, Ohio) 1867-1868

Republican Vindicator. (Columbus [Ohio]) 1897-1890s

Rural-Urban News. (Columbus, Ohio) 1955-1964

Rural-Urban News. (Columbus, Ohio) 1955-1966

Rural-Urban News. (Columbus, Ohio) 1957-1964

Rural-Urban Spectator. (Columbus, Ohio) 1964-1966

Rural-Urban Spectator. (Columbus, Ohio) 1964-1970

South Rural-Urban Spectator. (Columbus, Ohio) 1967-1968

South Side Booster. (Columbus, Ohio) 1942-1952

South Side Leader. (Columbus, Ohio) 1952-1964

South Side Spectator. (Columbus, Ohio) 1964-1966

Southeast Rural-Urban Spectator. (Columbus, Ohio) 1966-1968

Southern Light. (Columbus, Ohio) 1979-1988

Spectator East. (Columbus, Ohio) 1973-1974

Spectator West. (Columbus, Ohio) 1973-1974

Spectator. (Columbus, Ohio) 1964-1966

Spectator. (Columbus, Ohio) 1968-1970

Spectator. (Columbus, Ohio) 1968-1970s

State Capital Fact. (Columbus, Ohio) 1851-1863

State Journal and Political Register. (Columbus, Ohio) 1837-1838

Sunday Capital and Morning Tribune. (Columbus, Ohio) 1884-1891

Sunday Capital. (Columbus, Ohio) 1878-1884

Sunday Morning News and the Telegram. (Columbus, Ohio) 1887-1899

Sunday Morning News. (Columbus, Ohio) 1867-1887

Swan's Elevator. (Columbus, Ohio) 1850-1854

Times. (Columbus, Ohio) 1912-1916

Tri-Weekly Ohio Statesman. (Columbus, Ohio) 1844-1871

Union Herald. (Columbus, Ohio) 1899-1900s

Union League. (Columbus, Ohio) 1863-1864

Upper Arlington News. (Columbus, Ohio) 1954-Current

Weekly Ohio Press. (Columbus, Ohio) 1846-1848

Weekly Ohio State Journal. (Columbus, Ohio) 1841-1849

Weekly Ohio State Journal. (Columbus, Ohio) 1858-1860s

Weekly Ohio State Journal. (Columbus, Ohio) 1869-1902

Weekly Ohio State Tribune. ([Columbus, Ohio]) 1844-1845

Weekly Press. (Columbus, O. [Ohio) 1899-1900

Weekly Press. (Columbus, Ohio) 1888-1898

West Columbus Messenger. (Columbus, Ohio) 1974-1975

West Franklin Rural-Urban Spectator. (Columbus, Ohio) 1966-1968

West Side News and Hilltop Record. (Columbus, Ohio) 1960-1964

West Side News. (Columbus, Ohio) 1946-1960

West Village Spectator. (Columbus, Ohio) 1972-1973

Western Christian Journal. (Columbus, Ohio) 1847-1849

Western Hemisphere. (Columbus, Ohio) 1833-1837

Western Statesman. (Columbus, Ohio) 1825-1827

World News. (Columbus, Ohio) 1923-1931

Columbus Probate Records

Columbus School Records

Columbus, OH North High School Alumni Notes 1909-1915 Old Yearbooks

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19th Century in Ohio and Columbus

In 1803, Ohio achieved statehood which led to infighting regarding where their state capital should be. This resulted in the capital being moved from Chillicothe to Zanesville and back again. The desire to settle on a single location brought about consideration of Franklinton, Worthington, and Delaware as potential capitals. However, a compromise was created and a plan to build a new city in the center of the state was formed.

The city was founded in 1812 and Columbus was named in honor of Christopher Columbus. The city was on the high banks across from Franklinton. At the time of founding, the area was only used as a hunting ground and was covered in dense forestland.

In 1816, the Borough of Columbus was officially established and 9 people were elected to fill the various government positions. The success of the new town was soon under threat because of the recession in the area and the conflicting claims to land. The early conditions in the city were terrible and there were often bouts of fevers and in 1833, there was a cholera outbreak.

In 1834, Columbus was chartered as a city and on the day of this, the legislature enacted a special act. Legislative authority was granted to the city council and judicial authority was provided to the mayor. In 1850, the railroad came to Columbus and by 1875 there would be 8 railroads serving the city. A new and more elaborate station would also be built at this time.

Civil War and Beyond

During the Civil War, Columbus was one of the major bases for the volunteer Union Army. There were 26,000 troops housed there and around 9,000 Confederate prisoners of war were held at Camp Chase. Camp Chase is now the Hilltop neighborhood in West Columbus. North of the city was Camp Thomas where the 18th US Infantry was trained and organized.

In the years following the Civil War, Columbus continued to grow. In 1908, The Columbus Experiment was organized which led to the growth of the state capital. The city would also earn the name “The Arch City” because of the many wooden arches which span High Street.

The History of Columbus, Ohio

The land that is now known as Columbus Ohio was once populated by indigenous people known as Moundbuilders. There are still some burial mounds from these cultures in Columbus today. In the Ohio History Center, which is located in Columbus, you can also see a number of artifacts.

Columbus gets its name from explorer Christopher Columbus. The city was planned by the Ohio legislature in 1812. It was intended to serve as a political center. In 1816, the Ohio state government officially moved to Columbus. Later on, the area started to see extensive growth. When Columbus received its first railroad in 1850, it saw even more development.

Over the course of the Civil War, Columbus was used by the Union as a staging area. After the war ended, the economy in the area continued to surge. At one point, Columbus has become one of the top manufacturers of horse-drawn vehicles in the nation. The population surpassed 125,000 by 1900, and it continued to grow from that point on.

From 1940 onward, the Columbus area saw an unparalleled surge of industrial growth. While this began because of a major aircraft plant that was built there, there were also a number of major companies that chose to establish branches in the area. Columbus continued to increase in size, and it became the largest city in Ohio by the year 1990. This is partly because adjacent land was annexed into Columbus. This was standard practice for many years.

The amount of land the city covered increased dramatically between the years 1950 and 2000. The majority of residents in the area are of European descent. However, the city’s African American population has increased for many years. Currently, they make up about 1/4 of the total population. Around 4% of the population is Asian, and approximately 5.6% is Hispanic.

At the dawn of the 21st century, many sectors continued to see high levels of growth, including the health, transportation, and education sectors. Manufacturing also played a vital role in the Columbus economy. Columbus has long benefited from its position. It is close to many main-line railroads as well as an international airport.

Today, there are approximately 1,836,536 people living in the Columbus metro area. It is the second-largest metropolitan area in Ohio and the most populous. There are many Fortune 500 companies headquartered here, and it is likely that Columbus will continue to thrive in the future.

Legacy of Christopher Columbus

Christopher Columbus did not 𠇍iscover” the Americas, nor was he even the first European to visit the “New World.” (Viking explorer Leif Erikson had sailed to Greenland and Newfoundland in the 11th century.)

However, his journey kicked off centuries of exploration and exploitation on the American continents. The Columbian Exchange transferred people, animals, food and disease across cultures. Old World wheat became an American food staple. African coffee and Asian sugar cane became cash crops for Latin America, while American foods like corn, tomatoes and potatoes were introduced into European diets. 

Today, Columbus has a controversial legacy—he is remembered as a daring and path-breaking explorer who transformed the New World, yet his actions also unleashed changes that would eventually devastate the native populations he and his fellow explorers encountered.

Watch the video: 1492: Ο Χριστόφορος Κολόμβος και η Ανακάλυψη της Αμερικής (January 2022).