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Dawn or Eos - History
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Eos, (Greek), Roman Aurora, in Greco-Roman mythology, the personification of the dawn. According to the Greek poet Hesiod’s Theogony, she was the daughter of the Titan Hyperion and the Titaness Theia and sister of Helios, the sun god, and Selene, the moon goddess. By the Titan Astraeus she was the mother of the winds Zephyrus, Notus, and Boreas, and of Hesperus (the Evening Star) and the other stars by Tithonus of Assyria she was the mother of Memnon, king of the Ethiopians, who was slain by Achilles at Troy. She bears in Homer’s works the epithet Rosy-Fingered.
Eos was also represented as the lover of the hunter Orion and of the youthful hunter Cephalus, by whom she was the mother of Phaethon (not the same as the son of Helios). Her most famous lover was the Trojan Tithonus, for whom she gained from Zeus the gift of immortality but forgot to ask for eternal youth. As a result, Tithonus grew ever older and weaker, but he could not die. In works of art Eos is represented as a young woman, usually winged, either walking fast with a youth in her arms or rising from the sea in a chariot drawn by winged horses sometimes, as the goddess who dispenses the dews of the morning, she has a pitcher in each hand.
FAMILY OF EOS
[1.1] HYPERION & THEIA (Hesiod Theogony 371, Apollodorus 1.8, Hyginus Pref, Ovid Fasti 5.159)
[1.2] HYPERION & EURYPHAESSA (Homeric Hymn 31 to Helios)
[2.1] PALLAS (Ovid Fasti 4.373, Valerius Flaccus 2.72)
[1.1] THE ANEMOI (BOREAS, ZEPHYROS, NOTOS), THE ASTRA (EOSPHOROS) (by Astraios) (Hesiod Theogony 378, Apollodorus 1.9)
[1.2] BOREAS, ZEPHYROS, NOTOS (by Astraios) (Hyginus Preface)
[1.3] BOREAS, ZEPHYROS, NOTOS, EUROS, EOSPHOROS (by Astraios) (Nonnus Dionysiaca 6.18 & 37.70 & 47.340)
[1.4] HESPEROS (by Kephalos) (Hyginus Astronomica)
[2.1] ASTRAIA (by Astraios) (Hyginus Astronomica)
[3.1] MEMNON, EMATHION (by Tithonos) (Hesiod Theogony 984, Apollodorus 3.147)
[3.2] MEMNON (by Tithonos) (Aethiopis Frag 1, Quintus Smyrnaeus 2.549, Pindar Nemean 6 str3, Diodorus Siculus 4.75.4, Callistratus Descriptions 9, Ovid Fasti 4.713)
[3.3] MEMNON (Philostratus Elder 1.7, Callistratus Descriptions 1)
[4.1] PHAETHON-TITHONOS (by Kephalos) (Hesiod Theogony 984, Apollodorus 3.181, Pausanias 1.3.1)
Eos – Goddess of the Dawn
Eos, the Dawn, like her brother Helios, whose advent she always announced, was also deified by the early Greeks. She too had her own chariot, which she drove across the vast horizon both morning and night, before and after the sun-god. Hence she is not merely the personification of the rosy morn, but also of twilight, for which reason her palace is placed in the west, on the island Ææa. The abode of Eos is a magnificent structure, surrounded by flowery meads and velvety lawns, where nymphs and other immortal beings, wind in and out in the mazy figures of the dance, whilst the music of a sweetly-tuned melody accompanies their graceful, gliding movements.
Eos is described by the poets as a beautiful maiden with rosy arms and fingers, and large wings, whose plumage is of an ever-changing hue she bears a star on her forehead, and a torch in her hand. Wrapping round her the rich folds of her violet-tinged mantle, she leaves her couch before the break of day, and herself yokes her two horses, Lampetus and Phaethon, to her glorious chariot. She then hastens with active cheerfulness to open the gates of heaven, in order to herald the approach of her brother, the god of day, whilst the tender plants and flowers, revived by the morning dew, lift their heads to welcome her as she passes.
Eos first married the Titan Astræus, and their children were Heosphorus (Hesperus), the evening star, and the winds. She afterwards became united to Tithonus, son of Laomedon, king of Troy, who had won her affection by his unrivalled beauty and Eos, unhappy at the thought of their being ever separated by death, obtained for him from Zeus the gift of immortality, forgetting, however, to add to it that of eternal youth. The consequence was that when, in the course of time, Tithonus grew old and decrepid, and lost all the beauty which had won her admiration, Eos became disgusted with his infirmities, and at last shut him up in a chamber, where soon little else was left of him but his voice, which had now sunk into a weak, feeble quaver. According to some of the later poets, he became so weary of his cheerless and miserable existence, that he entreated to be allowed to die. This was, however, impossible but Eos, pitying his unhappy condition, exerted her divine power, and changed him into a grasshopper, which is, as it were, all voice.
Source: A HAND-BOOK OF MYTHOLOGY. THE Myths and Legends OF ANCIENT GREECE AND ROME. by E. M. BERENS.
A Little-Known Mass Extinction and the “Dawn of the Modern World”
Volcanic eruptions in what is now western Canada may have triggered a million years of rain and a mass extinction that launched the reign of the dinosaurs.
The earliest crocodilian reptiles, like Hesperosuchus, arose during the Carnian. Credit: iStock.com/Aunt_Spray
Massive volcanic eruptions followed by climate change, widespread extinction, and, eventually, the emergence of new life forms. It sounds like the story of one of Earth’s five great mass extinctions.
Now researchers say the same description applies to a lesser known—but highly consequential—event referred to as the Carnian Pluvial Episode (CPE), 233 million years ago.
Unlike some of the more dramatic mass extinctions, the signature of the CPE is difficult to trace. But working across disciplines and continents, a team of scientists has been able to piece together a broad overview, showing that it was a period of rapid biological turnover on a global scale.
The accumulated evidence, including results of a new fossil analysis, shows that the CPE was a major extinction event. More than that, however, the evidence indicates it was a period of new beginnings. Most notably, the CPE marks the start of the dinosaurs’ ascendence to ubiquity and ecological dominance.
Ecologically, researchers say, the Carnian extinction marks the “dawn of the modern world.” The new study appeared online in September in Science Advances.
Extinction and Recovery
The CPE is named for the stage of the Late Triassic in which it occurred—the Carnian—and for its signature feature: rain. A lot of rain, in four main pulses lasting over a million years, fell across much of the supercontinent of Pangaea.
Study coauthor Mike Benton, a professor of vertebrate paleontology at the University of Bristol in the United Kingdom, said one of the team’s goals was to determine the ranking of the Carnian event among other mass extinctions. “It appears not as substantial as the ‘big five,’ but not far off, and with proper analysis in future it might turn out to be of similar magnitude,” he said.
It was an ill-timed disaster for a planet still only very slowly recovering from the biggest mass extinction of them all, at the end of the Permian period just 20 million years earlier. “The end-Permian extinction wiped out 95% of all marine species, and the Triassic was a time of recovery,” Benton noted. “It now seems the CPE was a key punctuation [in that process].”
“A key feature of the CPE is that extinction was very rapidly followed by a big radiation,” said lead author Jacopo Dal Corso, a geology professor at the China University of Geosciences in Wuhan. “A number of groups that have a central role in today’s ecosystems appeared or diversified for the first time in the Carnian.”
Benton notes that this period saw “the rise of modern reefs and plankton in the oceans and the rise of modern tetrapod groups, including frogs, lizards, turtles, crocodilians, dinosaurs, and mammals…along with some important plant groups such as conifers, and some new groups of insects.” All of this innovation, he says, forms much of the basis of modern ecosystems. “Even the dinosaurs, as birds, are part of our modern fauna.”
The Carnian Pluvial Episode was sandwiched between two of the largest mass extinctions, the end Permian and the end Triassic. Credit: D. Bonadonna/MUSE, Trento
Gerta Keller, a geology professor at Princeton University who was not part of the study, said the work sheds new light on “one of the least known and underrated mass extinction events. I congratulate the authors for placing the Carnian extinction on the map with the other five big mass extinctions, among which it may eventually take its place after further investigations.”
The Wrangellia Eruptions
Other mass extinctions are known to have been caused by climate change initiated by volcanism, and researchers say the same is probably true for the Carnian. During this time a series of enormous eruptions occurred in Wrangellia, then an equatorial island region off the coast of Pangaea. The Wrangellia basaltic accretions now form a substantial part of western Canada.
Researchers estimate Wrangellia volcanism produced more than a million cubic kilometers of basalts—but that may be an underestimate since much of the volcanic rock has since been subducted. Researchers think that this release was the trigger for the climatic and biological changes of the CPE.
The new study is the first comprehensive review of the timing and global impact of the Wrangellia eruptions and their probable link to the climate episode and mass extinction. The work draws on studies from geological, paleontological, and climatological literature conducted in Europe, China, and South America. To this the researchers added a new analysis of two large fossil databases representing thousands of collections to demonstrate the magnitude of extinction and origination associated with the CPE.
“In our review we were able, through a long work of synthesis and revision of available information, to show with a high resolution the synchroneity between biological and environmental changes we observe in the rocks of 233 million years ago,” Dal Corso said.
The scientists say much work remains to more precisely uncover the scope of the Carnian extinction, its link to the Wrangellia eruptions, and possibly other volcanic events. They hope the new review will help bring the CPE to the attention of a broader research community.
“Until now,” Dal Corso says, “the Carnian Pluvial Episode has been the research topic of a very small community of scientists. I think that many people were unaware of it or of its importance.”
Eos, the Ancient Greek Goddess of the Dawn
Eos, the Greek Goddess of the Dawn, with Memnon So-called “Memnon pieta”: Eos is shown lifting the body of her son Memnon. Kalos inscription. Interior from an Attic red-figure cup, ca. 490–480 BC. Signed by Douris (painter) and Kalliades (potter) from Capua, Italy. Credit: Bibi Saint-Pol/Public Domain
Eos, the ancient Greek goddess of the dawn, with her abode the sky, was perhaps the most resplendent of all the beings in the Greek pantheon. With the brilliant dye of saffron as her color, she is also associated with roses, which also embody the glowing hues of the dawn.
Born, according to some Greek myths, from the gods Hyperion and Theia, her siblings were Helios, the god of the sun, and Selene, the goddess of the moon. Her name was spelled in Ionic and Homeric Greek Ἠώς, or Ēṓs, and in Attic Greek Ἕως, or Héōs.
Her children were Anemoi and Astraea, the gods and goddess of the four winds Boreas, Notus, Eurus, and Zephyrus and of five Astra Planeta, or “Wandering Stars”, i.e. planets: Phainon (Saturn), Phaethon (Jupiter), Pyroeis (Mars), Eosphoros/Hesperos (Venus), and Stilbon (Mercury).
Some sources mention one daughter of Eos, Astraea, who is the goddess of innocence and, sometimes, justice.
Her other notable offspring were Memnon and Emathion by the Trojan prince, Tithonus. Sometimes, Hesperus, Phaethon and Tithonus (not the lover) were called the children of Eos by the Athenian prince Cephalus.
“Dawn,” by Romantic painter Willam Adolphe Bougereau. Credit: Public Domain
With her Roman equivalent of “Aurora,” she personified the glory of the new day.
Her consort was Astraeus, the god of the dusk, who was wither a second-generation Titan or one of the Gigantes, descended from Tartarus and Gaia, the god and goddess of the Underworld and the Earth.
Eos was one of the Titans, who rose each morning from her home at the edge of the Oceanus.
Like her Roman identity of Aurora and the Rigvedic Ushas in India, Ēṓs continues the name of an earlier Indo-European dawn goddess known as Hausos.
All four are considered derivatives of the Proto-Indo-European stem *h₂ewsṓs (later *Ausṓs), “dawn”. This root also gave rise to the Proto-Germanic word *Austrō, Old High German *Ōstara and Old English Ēostre / Ēastre.
According to etymological experts, these cognates led to the reconstruction of the name of the Proto-Indo-European dawn goddess, known as Hausos (*H₂éwsōs).
Eos was the daughter of the Titans Hyperion and Theia: Hyperion was known as a bringer of light, the One Above, Who Travels High Above the Earth Theia was referred to as The Divine, and also called Euryphaessa, “wide-shining” and Aethra, or “bright sky.”
Hesiod, in his work Theogony, stated that Eos was the sister of Helios, the god of the sun, and Selene, one of the goddesses of the moon, “who shine upon all that are on earth and upon the deathless gods who live in the wide heaven.”
Eos as portrayed in the Gigantomachy Frieze, riding sidesaddle on the Pergamon Altar, Pergamon Museum, Berlin, Germany. Credit: Miguel Hermoso Cuesta/CC BY-SA 4.0
The generation of Titans preceded all the familiar deities of Olympus — who largely supplanted them in the Ancient Greek pantheon of gods and goddesses. In some accounts, Eos’ father was also called Pallas.
Eos, the goddess of the Dawn, was almost always described having “rosy fingers” or “rosy forearms,” as she opened the gates of heaven for the Sun to rise each day.
Rosy-fingered and with golden arms, she is depicted on Attic vases as a beautiful woman, crowned with a tiara or diadem and with the large white-feathered wings of a bird. In Homer’s work the Iliad, her saffron-colored robe is embroidered or woven with flowers.
The Iliad describes her thus: “Now when Dawn in robe of saffron was hastening from the streams of Oceanus, to bring light to mortals and immortals, Thetis reached the ships with the armor that the god had given her.
Eos in her chariot flying over the sea red-figure krater from South Italy, 430–420 BC. Staatliche Antikensammlungen. Credit: Bibi Saint-Pol/Public Domain
“But soon as early Dawn appeared, the rosy-fingered, then gathered the folk about the pyre of glorious Hector.”
Eos is most often associated with her Homeric epithet “rosy-fingered” Eos Rhododactylos (Ancient Greek: Ἠὼς Ῥοδοδάκτυλος), but Homer also bestows the name of Eos Erigeneia on her in The Odyssey:
“That brightest of stars appeared, Eosphoros, that most often heralds the light of early-rising Dawn (Eos Erigeneia).”
Near the end of Homer’s Odyssey, the goddess Athena, wanting to buy Odysseus some time with his wife Penelope after they finally reunited with each other after twenty years, orders Eos not to yoke her two horses, thus delaying the coming of the new day.
“And rose-fingered Dawn would have shone for the weepers had not bright-eyed goddess Athena thought of other things. She checked the long night in its passage, and further, held golden-throned Dawn over Ocean and didn’t let her yoke her swift-footed horses, that bring daylight to men, Lampus and Phaethon, the colts that carry Dawn.”
Hesiod, in Theogony, writes of Eos: “And after these Erigeneia (“Early-born”) bore the star Eosphoros (“Dawn-bringer”), and the gleaming stars with which heaven is crowned.”
Eos, preceded by the Morning Star, is seen as the genetrix of all the stars and planets on the Roman poet Ovid’s monumental work Metamorphoses her tears are considered to have created the morning dew, personified as Ersa or Herse.
Role of Eos in the Gigantomachy
Eos played a small role in the battle of the giants against the gods in Greek mythology when the earth goddess Gaia learned of a prophecy that the giants would perish at the hand of a mortal, Gaia sought to find a herb that would protect them.
So Zeus ordered Eos, as well as her siblings Selene (Moon) and Helios (Sun) not to shine, and harvested all of the plant for himself, denying Gaia the chance to make the giants indestructible, according to Apollodorus.
Eos is known in myths as a goddess who fell in love several times. According to the writer known as Pseudo-Apollodorus in his work “Bibliotheca,” it was the jealous Aphrodite who cursed her to be perpetually in love and have an insatiable sexual desire because Eos once had lain with Aphrodite’s sweetheart Ares, the god of war.
This desire caused her to abduct a number of handsome young men.
In Homer’s Odyssey, Calypso complains to Hermes about the male gods taking many mortal women as lovers, but not allowing goddesses to do the same. She brings up as example Eos’s love for the hunter Orion, who was killed by Artemis in Ortygia.
Apollodorus also mentions Eos’ love for Orion, and adds that she brought him to the island of the Greek gods, Delos, where he met Artemis, the Greek goddess of the moon, the hunt, the wilderness and chastity.
The handsome man Cleitus was reportedly kidnapped and made immortal by her, according to Homer’s Odyssey.
The goddess of the Dawn also fell in love with and abducted Tithonus, a handsome prince from Troy. She went with a request to Zeus, asking him to make Tithonus immortal for her sake. Zeus then agreed and granted her wish, but Eos forgot to ask for eternal youth as well for her beloved.
For a while, they two lived happily, until Tithonus’ hair started turning gray, and Eos ceased to visit him in bed. But he kept aging, and was soon unable to even move. In the end, Eos locked him up in a chamber, where he withered away, forever a helpless old man. According to the Homeric Hymn of Aphrodite.
Out of pity, she then turned the unfortunate man into a cicada.
The story of Cephalus, a boy who according to myth was form Athens, had a special appeal for an Athenian audience. His abduction myth element appeared frequently in Attic vase-paintings — and was exported to the wider world outside Greece with them.
In these myths, as related by several writers, including Apollodorus, Pausanias and Ovid, Eos snatched Cephalus against his will when he was hunting and took him to Syria. Although Cephalus was already married to Procris, Eos bore him three sons, including Phaethon and Hesperus, but he then began pining for Procris.
An unhappy Eos then returned him to his wife, but not before sowing the seeds of doubt in his mind, telling him that it was highly unlikely that Procris had stayed faithful to him this entire time.
Cephalus, troubled by her words, asked Eos to change his form into that of a stranger, in order to secretly test Procris’s love for him. Cephalus, disguised, then propositioned Procris, who at first declined but eventually gave in.
He was hurt by her betrayal, and she left him in shame, but eventually they got back together. This time, however it was Procris’ turn to doubt her husband’s fidelity while hunting, he would often call upon the breeze (‘Aura’ in Latin, sounding similar to Eos’s Roman equivalent Aurora) to refresh the body.
Upon hearing him call “Aura,” Procris followed and spied on him. Cephalus, mistaking her for a wild animal, threw his spear at her, killing her, according to Ovid’s Metamorphoses. The second-century traveller and historian Pausanias knew of the story of Cephalus’ abduction as well, but interestingly by that time he referred to Eos by the name of Hemera, the goddess of day.
Eos figures in Trojan War
According to Hesiod, Eos had two sons, Memnon and Emathion. Memnon fought with the Trojans in the Trojan War, against Achilles. Pausanias mentions images of Thetis, the mother of Achilles, and Eos begging Zeus on behalf of their sons, in his works.
Achilles triumphed, however, and slew Memnon in battle. Mourning deeply over the death of her son, Eos made the light of her brother, Helios the god of the sun, to fade, and begged Nyx, the goddess of the night, to come out earlier, so she could be able to freely steal her son’s body undetected by the armies, according to Philostratus of Lemnos, in his work “Imagines.”
Eos then asked Zeus to make her son immortal, and he granted her wish. Her image with the dead Memnon across her knees, like Thetis with the dead Achilles are icons that some scholars believe may have inspired the Christian Pietà, with Mary cradling Jesus after the crucifixion.
Eos’ divine horses pull her chariot across sky every day
Eos’ team of horses, which pull her chariot across the sky every day, are called “Firebright” and “Daybright” in the Odyssey. Quintus, in his work “Postomerica,” described her exulting in her heart over the radiant horses (Lampus and Phaëton) that drew her chariot, amidst the bright-haired Horae, the feminine Hours, climbing the arc of heaven and scattering sparks of fire.
Oddly, there are no known temples, shrines, or altars to Eos that are known at this time. However, Ovid seems to allude to the existence of at least two shrines dedicated to her, as he describes them in plural, in a line from the Metamorphoses: “Least I may be of all the goddesses the golden heavens hold – in all the world my shrines are rarest.”
Etruscan versions of Eos
The generative dawn-goddess for the Etruscan peoples was known as “Thesan.” Depictions of her with a young lover became popular in Etruria in the fifth century, most likely inspired by imported Greek vase-paintings.
Though Etruscans preferred to show the goddess as a nurturer (Kourotrophos) rather than an abductor of young men, the late Archaic sculptural acroterion from Etruscan Cære, now in Berlin, showing the goddess in archaic running pose adapted from the Greeks, and bearing a boy in her arms, has commonly been identified as Eos and Cephalus.
Thesan is also depicted on an Etruscan mirror carrying off a young man, whose name is inscribed as “Tinthu.”
The later Roman equivalent of Eos, as noted previously, is Aurora, also a cognate showing the characteristic Latin rhotacism, showing the addition of an “r” in her name. Dawn became associated in Roman cults with Matuta, later known as Mater Matuta.
Aurora was also associated with sea harbors and ports, and had a temple dedicated to her on the Forum Boarium. The Matralia was celebrated every June 11 at that temple in honor of Mater Matuta this festival was only for women during their first marriage.
"Dawn" derives from the Old English verb dagian, "to become day".
Dawn begins with the first sight of lightness in the morning, and continues until the sun breaks the horizon. This morning twilight before sunrise is divided into three categories depending on the amount of sunlight that is present in the sky, which is determined by the angular distance of the centre of the Sun (degrees below the horizon) in the morning. These categories are astronomical, nautical, and civil dawn.
Astronomical dawn Edit
Astronomical dawn begins when the sun is 18 degrees below the horizon in the morning. Astronomical twilight follows instantly until the sun is 12 degrees below the horizon.  At this point a very small portion of the sun's rays illuminate the sky and the fainter stars begin to disappear. Astronomical dawn is often indistinguishable from night, especially in areas with light pollution. Astronomical dawn marks the beginning of astronomical twilight, which lasts until nautical dawn. 
Nautical dawn Edit
Nautical twilight begins when there is enough illumination for sailors to distinguish the horizon at sea but the sky is too dark to perform outdoor activities. Formally, it begins when the Sun is 12 degrees below the horizon in the morning. The sky becomes light enough to clearly distinguish it from land and water. Nautical dawn marks the start of nautical twilight, which lasts until civil dawn.  
Civil dawn Edit
Civil twilight begins when there is enough light for most objects to be distinguishable, so that some outdoor activities can commence. Formally, it occurs when the Sun is 6 degrees below the horizon in the morning. 
If the sky is clear, it is blue colored, and if there is some cloud or haze, there can be bronze, orange and yellow colours. Some bright stars and planets such as Venus and Jupiter are visible to the naked eye at civil dawn. This moment marks the start of civil twilight, which lasts until sunrise. 
The duration of the twilight period (e.g. between astronomical dawn and sunrise) varies greatly depending on the observer's latitude: from a little over 70 minutes at the Equator, to many hours in the polar regions.
The period of twilight is shortest at the Equator, where the equinox Sun rises due east and sets due west, at a right angle to the horizon. Each stage of twilight (civil, nautical, and astronomical) lasts only 24 minutes. From anywhere on Earth, the twilight period is shortest around the equinoxes and longest on the solstices.
Polar regions Edit
Daytime becomes longer as the summer solstice approaches, while nighttime gets longer as the winter solstice approaches. This can have a potential impact on the times and durations of dawn and dusk. This effect is more pronounced closer to the poles, where the Sun rises at the vernal equinox and sets at the autumn equinox, with a long period of twilight, lasting for a few weeks.
The polar circle (at 66°34′ north or south) is defined as the lowest latitude at which the Sun does not set at the summer solstice. Therefore, the angular radius of the polar circle is equal to the angle between Earth's equatorial plane and the ecliptic plane. This period of time with no sunset lengthens closer to the pole.
Near the summer solstice, latitudes higher than 54°34′ get no darker than nautical twilight the "darkness of the night" varies greatly at these latitudes.
At latitudes higher than about 60°34, summer nights get no darker than civil twilight. This period of "bright nights" is longer at higher latitudes.
Around the summer solstice, Glasgow, Scotland at 55°51′ N, and Copenhagen, Denmark at 55°40′ N, get a few hours of "night feeling". Oslo, Norway at 59°56′ N, and Stockholm, Sweden at 59°19′ N, seem very bright when the Sun is below the horizon. When the sun gets 9.0 to 9.5 degrees below the horizon (at summer solstice this is at latitudes 57°30′–57°00′), the zenith gets dark even on cloud-free nights (if there is no full moon), and the brightest stars are clearly visible in a large majority of the sky.
In Islam, Zodiacal Light (or "false dawn") is referred to as False Morning (Subhe-Kadhib, Arabic صبح کاذب) and astronomical dawn is called called Sehr (سحر) or True Morning (Subhe-Sadiq, Arabic صبح صادق) and it is the time of first prayer of the day, and the beginning of the daily fast during Ramadan. 
Many Indo-European mythologies have a dawn goddess, separate from the male Solar deity, her name deriving from PIE *h2ausos-, derivations of which include Greek Eos, Roman Aurora and Indian Ushas. Also related is Lithuanian Aušrinė, and possibly a Germanic *Austrōn- (whence the term Easter). In Sioux mythology, Anpao is an entity with two faces.
The Hindu dawn deity Ushas is female, whereas Surya, the Sun, and Aruṇa, the Sun's charioteer, are male. Ushas is one of the most prominent Rigvedic deities. The time of dawn is also referred to as the Brahmamuhurtham (Brahma is god of creation and muhurtham is a Hindu unit of time), and is considered an ideal time to perform spiritual activities, including meditation and yoga. In some parts of India, both Usha and Pratyusha (dusk) are worshiped along with the Sun during the festival of Chhath.
Prime is the fixed time of prayer of the traditional Divine Office (Canonical Hours) in Christian liturgy, said at the first hour of daylight.
In Judaism, the question of how to calculate dawn (Hebrew Alos/Alot HaShachar, or Alos/Alot) is posed by the Talmud,  as it has many ramifications for Jewish law (such as the possible start time for certain daytime commandments, like prayer). The simple reading of the Talmud is that dawn takes place 72 minutes before sunrise. Others, including the Vilna Gaon, have the understanding that the Talmud's timeframe for dawn was referring specifically to an equinox day in Mesopotamia, and is therefore teaching that dawn should be calculated daily as commencing when the sun is 16.1 degrees below the horizon. The longstanding practice among most Sephardic Jews is to follow the first opinion, while many Ashkenazi Jews follow the latter view.
Each and every day, Eos rose from the rivers of Poseidon and brought along dawn. How she did this varies between myths. In some myths she was carried in a gold chariot by winged horses or she had her own pair of white wings that sparkled that allowed her to fly.
Some myths also say that Aphrodite cursed Eos so that she loved good-looking and young men. She would also sometimes carry away mortal men that were good-looking.
Eos once fell in love with a young man named Tithonos. The only problem that Eos saw was that how could she marry this man if she was immortal and he was just a mortal. Eos then went to Zeus and asked him to give him an eternal life. Zeus did as she asked but he didn't grant him eternal youth. Tithonos continued to age on and on until he eventually became the first grasshooper. Their sons were Memnon, king of Ethiopia, and Emathion, king of Arabia.
Dawn or Eos - History
Eos is a Greek goddess who shows up more often in literature, such as the Odyssey, than in actual religious practice. She remains reasonably famous in spite of that fact, mostly because one of her main myths was popular in Athens, which left more written records than most other parts of Greece.
Who Was She?
Many people say that Eos was the goddess of the dawn, but this only partly true. It’s much more accurate to say that she was the dawn. In Greek, eos refers to the goddess when it begins with a capital letter, but to the physical sunrise when it starts with a lowercase letter.
In Greek myth, she was one of the titans. They were the second generation of the gods, and were usually associated with natural phenomena. Eos, being the dawn, was the daughter of Hyperion, who was one of several Greek sun gods. This made her the sister of Selene, the moon, and Helios, another sun god.
Eos is an extremely old goddess, and she probably existed long before Greek culture developed. Linguists have found that her name is related to that of both the Sanskrit and Latin sun goddesses, and it appears to be descended from a Proto-Indo-European word for the dawn. That implies that most of the dawn goddesses that people in Europe and India worshiped originated as a single goddess. When the people that worshiped that goddess spread out and settled in the different parts of Europe and India, they took their goddess with them. The names and traditions surrounding her changed over time as the new populations developed their own culture, but clear similarities remained.
The Greeks rarely addressed their gods and goddesses purely by name. Instead, they used a variety of titles, which are called epithets. If a god filled multiple roles in society, worshipers would use these titles to distinguish between them. In literature, poets would use them as formulaic statements to help fill out lines in the appropriate meter.
Eos only has three epithets, and two of them closely related. She is most often called “rose-fingered” but some poets instead call her “rose-armed.” This is a reference to the colors of the sunrise, and it is more likely that it began as a poetic title than as a religious one. She is also occasionally called the “dawnbringer” which is only attested in poetry.
Culture and Worship
Greeks did not worship their gods purely out of devotion. When they made sacrifices, they expected to get something back in return, usually some sort of blessing, healing, or protection. They would often go to a temple to ask a god for a favor, and only make a sacrifice if they got what they wanted. Since Eos was the goddess of the dawn, she didn’t have much to offer to worshipers. That prevented her from becoming too popular in a religious context, so she usually received collective worship along with other gods when she got it at all.
On the other hand, she was very popular in art. As a titan, she plays a part in many of the creation myths about the world. For example, Hesiod credits her with creating the stars, and a later Roman poet named Ovid says that her tears formed dew.
She was also associated with love, with some sources saying that Aphrodite cursed her to feel constant desire. The most famous of those sources says that she carried off a man named Cephalus, but returned him to his wife with a curse after he started to pine for her. His wife, named Procris, later heard him singing and mistakenly thought he was lamenting his separation from Eos, so she spied on him as he hunted. Cephalus mistook her for an animal and killed her, thus fulfilling the curse. Since Cephalus came from Athens, the Athenians loved this story, and spread it all over Greece by decorating pots with images from it.
In Egyptian mythology, Tefnut, in part of her being goddess of the morning dew.
In Sioux mythology, Anpao, the spirit of the dawn, has two faces.
- Munag Sumalâ: the golden Kapampangan serpent child of Aring Sinukuan represents dawn 
- Tala: the Tagalog goddess of stars  daughter of Bathala and sister of Hanan  also called Bulak Tala, deity of the morning star, the planet Venus seen at dawn 
- Hanan: The Tagalog goddess of the morning daughter of Bathala and sister of Tala 
- Liwayway: the Tagalog goddess of dawn a daughter of Bathala 
- - Hausos (reconstructed proto-goddess) - Ayg, Arshaluys
- Greek - Eos
- Etruscan - Thesan, Albina (possibly)
- Georgian - Dali
- Germanic - Ēostre
- Hindu-Vedic - Ushas
- Norse - Dellingr
- Roman - Aurora (and later Mater Matuta)
- Slavic - Zorya
- Irish - Brigid
- Lithuanian - Aušra or Aušrinė
- Latvian - Austra
- ^ Nicdao, A. (1917). Pampangan Folklore. Manila.
- ^ Calderon, S. G. (1947). Mga alamat ng Pilipinas. Manila : M. Colcol & Co.
- ^ ab Jocano, F. L. (1969). Philippine Mythology. Quezon City: Capitol Publishing House Inc.
- ^ Pardo, F. (1686–1688). Carte [. ] sobre la idolatria de los naturales de la provincia de Zambales, y de los del pueblo de Santo Tomas y otros cicunvecinos [. ]. Sevilla, Spain: Archivo de la Indias.
- ^ Romulo, L. (2019). Filipino Children's Favorite Stories. China: Tuttle Publishing, Periplus Editions (HK) Ltd.
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