History Podcasts

Junkers Ju 286

Junkers Ju 286

Junkers Ju 286

The Junkers Ju 286 was to have been a high-altitude bomber based on the Ju 86. It would have had a wider wingspan than the standard Ju 86, and been powered by six Jumo 208 diesel engines. The Ju 286 never progressed beyond the drawing board and was abandoned after work on the Jumo 208 engine was cancelled.


The Junkers Ju 87 Stuka: A Complete History

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Contents

World War I

The history of Junkers aircraft production begins with the Junkers J 1 mid-wing monoplane (not to be confused with the later, all-metal sesquiplane ground attack aircraft J.I which had a factory designation J 4). Research for this aircraft began in 1914 and was interrupted by the start of the First World War. The prototype aircraft, named the Blechesel (Tin or Sheet-metal Donkey), was completed in very late 1915 after the outbreak of the war. This aircraft is significant in that it was the first flyable aircraft to utilize an all-metal "total structural" design. Contemporary aircraft were built around wooden frames constructed in a rib-and-stringer fashion, reinforced with wires, and covered with a stretched fabric. The J 1 was a semi-monocoque design, using steel ribs and sheeting that formed both the stringers and the skin. At the time aluminium was still fairly expensive and the desirable, newest light duralumin alloy could not be worked in sheet form without damaging flaking occurring, so the J 1 was made of sheet electrical steel. It was quite heavy as a result, which translated into poor climb and maneuverability, yet its clean monoplane layout, which even featured a ventral "belly" radiator installation for its Mercedes D.II inline-six cylinder engine, had very low drag, and the J 1 was one of the fastest planes of its day, reaching speeds of 170 km/h, with only a 120 hp engine for power.

Following the J 1, a series of "J-designated" aircraft followed, each advancing the state of the art in terms of strength and weight, but no single design progressed much beyond the prototype stage in terms of production potential. The Junkers J 2 was an extensively "cleaned up" and armed single-seat fighter descendent of the J 1, while the J 3, a never-completed single rotary engined mid-wing monoplane design that only consisted of covered wing panels and a nearly complete fuselage frame, replaced the smooth exterior electrical steel sheeting with corrugated duralumin. IdFlieg, in charge of aircraft evaluation, was unconvinced of the monoplane layout of these designs, and ordered a sesquiplane design as the J 4. Junkers took this opportunity to produce all the flying surfaces (wings and horizontal stabilizer) of the J 4 aircraft of corrugated duralumin (except for some fabric on the rear fuselage, and the armored steel fuselage "bathtub") in order to lower weight. The J 4 became Junkers' first design to enter production, with orders totalling 283, of which about 184 were delivered to operational units. Since it was the first design from Junkers to serve in the Luftstreitkräfte's "J-class" of armored, infantry co-operation aircraft, which also had aircraft designed by Albatros and AEG serving with it in the same capacity, the curious and confusing instance of the Junkers J 4 armored all-metal sesquiplane getting the German military designation "J.I" was one caused solely by the Luftstreitkräfte's choice of letter for all of their armored, ground forces co-operation aircraft class in World War I, with other J-class aircraft coming from Albatros Flugzeugwerke and the aviation division of AEG.

Junkers continued to believe in the monoplane layout constructed entirely in metal, and continued the J-series with a number of newer monoplane designs. One of the most successful was the J 7 which went through five major and minor changes in its airframe design during tests throughout 1917, which was later stretched to form the two-seat J 8. The J 8 was the first cantilever monoplane design, and looked extremely "modern" when compared to contemporary wire-braced biplane designs. The J 8 was put into limited production by the Junkers-Fokker Werke as the J 10, receiving the IdFlieg designation of CL.I, a small number of which saw service on the Eastern Front just before the war ended. Likewise, the single-seat J 7 itself led to the J 9 design, built in small numbers by both the Junkers firm itself (abbreviated "Jco" or "Jko"), and the Junkers-Fokker-Werke AG (abbreviated "Jfa"), as the Junkers D.I low wing fighter plane, with the "Jfa" collaborative firm founded through strong influence of the German government on October 20, 1917.

The corrugated duralumin wing and fuselage "skin" introduced in the J-series became a trademark of Junkers aircraft built in the 1920s and 30s. Development continued during the course of World War I, including a growing (but troublesome) partnership with Fokker, as the Junkers-Fokker Aktiengesellschaft, or "Junkers-Fokker Werke", abbreviated "Jfa" by the German government of the time and founded on October 20, 1917. Several Junkers designs were licensed to Fokker during this period. The visual similarity of Junkers and Fokker aircraft during the next decade, especially after Reinhold Platz adapted some of the Junkers design concepts, but mostly crafted in wood for the Fokker designs' wing structures instead of the all-metal Junkers construction techniques, is attributable to this early affiliation. The Great War ended with German Navy trials of model J11, which was an all-metal floatplane prototype.

Early inter-war period

In the immediate post-war era, Junkers used their J8 layout as the basis for the F-13, first flown on 25 June 1919 and certified airworthy in July of the same year. This four passenger monoplane was the world's first all-metal airliner. Of note, in addition to significant European sales, some twenty-five of these airplanes were delivered to North American customers under the Junkers-Larsen affiliate and were used primarily as airmail planes.

The Treaty of Versailles signed only days after the F-13 flew, initially forbade any aircraft construction in Germany for several months. After that span of time only the design of civilian aircraft was permitted to Germany. Junkers developed a series of progressively larger civil aircraft including the single-engined G.24 and three-engined G.31. Neither aircraft was a commercial success. With the expiration of treaty restrictions in 1926, Junkers introduced the Junkers W33 and Junkers W34 series which did find significant commercial success via large production orders in passenger, freight hauling, and, somewhat later, military configurations. The W-33/W-34 series also set multiple aviation "firsts" including records for flight duration, flight distance, altitude, rocket assisted take-off and inflight refueling between 1926 and 1930.

Junkers' produced a design study in 1924 for a visit to the United States. The study outlined a four-engined 80-passenger plane, incorporating a forward canard wing, as well as a main wing, both of which were fitted above twin pylons. Called the Junkers J.1000 Super Duck passenger seating was to be provided both in the main wing and the hull sections of the craft. This Junkers design, including a scale model, was intended to illustrate an aircraft capable of trans-Atlantic operations of 8 to 10 hours and was completely revolutionary for its day. [1]

The basic principles outlined in this design were later introduced in the Junkers G.38, which was introduced and put into regular service by Deutsche Luft Hansa. At the time of its introduction, this four-engined transport was the largest landplane in the world carrying thirty-four passengers and seven crew members. The G.38 sat some of its passengers in the wing area outboard of the fuselage, the front of which was covered with windows.

Also, in 1932, Junkers joint project with Maybach designed and built an aerodynamic car but found due to the depression that the market for high end luxury cars was saturated. [2]

Financial troubles

Around 1931 the company suffered from a series of financial difficulties that led to the collapse of the group of companies. The existing shareholders pressured Hugo to leave the company. Hugo, however, was the patent holder on a wide variety of the technologies used in most of the existing Junkers designs, including many of their engines.

A plan was started to solve both problems by "buying out" Hugo's engine patent portfolio and placing it into the hands of a new company, the Junkers Motoren-Patentstelle GmbH, which was eventually formed in November 1932. [3] The new company would then license the technologies back to the various companies, most notably what was then Junkers Motorenbau (one of many "Jumo" companies). However, before Junkers actually transferred his patents to the Patentstelle, the collapse of the Junkers consortium was solved by the sale of the Junkers Thermo Technik GmbH to Robert Bosch, who still uses the brand name to the present. Adolf Dethmann, a Communist activist and friend of Hugo, was appointed managing director. [4]

Nazi takeover

The Nazi party came to power in Germany in 1933, and all German aviation development was shifted away from long-range civil aircraft types. Hugo Junkers himself was forced to transfer all his patents to the Nazis, who doubted that Junkers (a socialist pacifist) would comply with their plans. Shortly after, his holdings were expropriated and he was placed under house arrest. The company that had pioneered commercial aviation development for at least a decade was relegated to relatively small one- and two-engined military design competitions issued by the Reichsluftfahrtministerium (RLM) the "Reich Aviation Ministry". Two exceptions to this were the legendary Ju 52 and the Ju 90.

Ju 52 development had started in 1928 as a single-engined commercial transport and evolved, initially to a two-engined, later into the classic "trimotor" design for which the Tante Ju became world famous. The Ju 52 was a bona fide commercial success, with over 400 airplanes delivered to various airlines around the world prior to the outbreak of World War II, including the countries of: Finland, Sweden, Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, Ecuador, Peru, Mexico, South Africa, Denmark, Norway, Italy, UK, Belgium, Hungary, Estonia, Greece, Spain, and of course, Germany. As a consequence of its rugged design, Spain and France resumed Ju 52 production after cessation of the Second World War.

With the introduction of the Junkers Ju 86 bomber of 1934, Junkers abandoned the corrugated sheeting of his earlier designs. The basic layout was used in the four-engine Junkers Ju 89 heavy bomber, but this program ended with the death of Walther Wever, and his Ural bomber program along with him. Junkers then adapted the Ju 89 to passenger use, introducing the Junkers Ju 90, one of the first planes specifically designed for scheduled trans-Atlantic flights to the US. Developed in 1937, the aircraft suffered multiple setbacks with crashes of prototypes in 1937 and 1938. Further refinements enabled certification in 1939 and spurred South African Airways to make an initial order for two aircraft fitted with US-built Pratt & Whitney engines. Just as the aircraft was being readied for its first commercial flights, World War II began. With the outbreak of hostilities, all models were requisitioned by the Luftwaffe for military air-transport roles, and later, long-range maritime patrol.

World War II

Military aircraft production was begun by the company in the 1930s and eventually monopolized all its resources. Perhaps the most notable design was the Junkers Ju 87 Stuka dive bomber, one of the Luftwaffe's most effective aerial weapons in the early-war period and continually used for bombing attacks as an integral part of the Blitzkrieg strategy. The Stuka was used both for precision tactical bombing and the strafing of enemy positions, acting as a sort of "airborne artillery" that was able to keep up with the fast-moving tanks and attack defended points long before traditional artillery could be brought into range. Later in the war it was fitted with a large cannon and employed in a "tank busting" role against Soviet armour. It gained notoriety for its use at both Dunkirk and later Stalingrad, where it caused enormous destruction under Field Marshal Wolfram von Richthofen's VIII Air Corps.

Perhaps even more successful was the Junkers Ju 88, the primary medium bomber of the German forces. It was used in practically every role imaginable level bomber, shallow-angle dive bomber, night fighter, and bomber destroyer, as well as in anti-shipping raids. A variety of improved versions were also produced over the course of the war, including the Ju 188 and Ju 388 which included numerous features for better performance, but never replaced the Ju 88 outright. A much more formidable aircraft was also planned, the Junkers Ju 288 for the Bomber B design competition, which it handily won — but the required high-power engines never worked properly in tests, and as the design was also plagued with insufficiently strong main landing gear, the effort was eventually abandoned.

The Ju 52 was a transport aircraft, roughly equivalent to the Allies' DC-3 Dakota, that was also modified to carry out bombing raids. A total of 4,845 Ju 52 were produced before and during World War II, leading to widespread use delivering men and supplies in support of the German war effort. The Ju 52 had previously seen service in the Spanish Civil War, where it took part in the Condor Legion's destructive raids on Durango and Guernica in 1937 which illustrated to the world—for the first time—the destructive potential and horror of strategic bombing. Unfortunately for its pilots and military passengers, by the outbreak of World War II, the Ju 52 was a thoroughly obsolete military design and unlike many other famous Luftwaffe aircraft, the Tante Ju was cumbersome, slow, and therefore vulnerable to attack. This resulted in many losses, namely at Crete and Stalingrad.

The abortive Amerika Bomber design competition for a trans-Atlantic range strategic bomber saw the Junkers firm build two prototypes of its six-engined Junkers Ju 390, basically a stretch of the four-engined Ju 290 transport — competing against the trio of Me 264 four-engined prototypes as the only fully airworthy competitors for the contract, which had included designs from Focke-Wulf and Heinkel that were never built, with the competition ended in July 1944 due to the developing need for interceptors to defend the Reich.

Post World War II

The Junkers company survived the Second World War and was reconstituted as Junkers GmbH and eventually merged into the MBB consortium (via joint venture Flugzeug-Union-Süd between Heinkel and Messerschmitt in 1958). [5] Messerschmitt ended the joint venture in 1965 by acquiring control of JFM AG and absorbed within Messerschmitt in 1967. [5] Within West Germany, Junkers GmbH was engaged in research on the future of aerospace transportation during the fifties and early-1960s. During this period, Junkers employed the famous Austrian engineer and space travel theorist, Eugen Sänger, who in 1961 completed work for the design of an advanced orbital spacecraft at Junkers. Junkers GmbH was absorbed within MBB and the Junkers name disappeared in 1969. [6]


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Commissioned by Robert Ritter von Greim to aid ground forces in the African campaign, the Ju-286 was built to efficiently destroy and cripple allied tanks in the desert and small boats on the coast and to perform reconnaissance missions.

AG 1 - Drop bombs
AG 2-6 - Fire rockets

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Operational history

Including prototypes, 47 Ju 160s were produced. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] Lufthansa were the main commercial operator, receiving 21 production aircraft. They were running on 13 domestic routes in 1935 alone and stayed in service for example on the fast route between Berlin and Vienna until 1941. One of the 21 was initially operated by the Lufthansa subsidiary Eurasia this aircraft, however, crashed in Shanghai and was taken back to Germany and to Lufthansa after repairs. The first 11 Lufthansa machines were Ju 160 A-0s registered in 1935, followed by 10 D-0s in 1936. The D-0 version had larger cockpit windows and other crew comfort enhancements. [ 1 ] Weser Flugbau used an ex-Lufthansa aircraft. Two machines appeared on the Manchurian civil register, one of then having earlier been registered in Germany, the other sold direct.

The German Research Institute for Aviation (Deutsche Versuchsanstalt fur Luftfahrt e.V ) operated four Ju 160s. [ 2 ] Five others operated at the Flight Research Centre (E-Stelle) at Travemünde. The remaining aircraft were mostly military versions. Most of the surviving civilian Ju 160s in Germany were eventually impressed in Luftwaffe service. The Manchurian aircraft appear to have ended up in Japan.


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Topper® Deluxe Classic

The best-looking Topper to ever come off the line, this is a serious upgrade of our original, featuring a vent-rib 28" barrel, screw-in choke and genuine American walnut stock with fine checkering and a recoil pad. Available in 12 and 20 gauge.




Model Topper® Deluxe Classic
Gauge 12 Gauge (SB1-118) Order Online from Gallery of Guns
Stock American black walnut pistol grip stock with checkering ventilated recoil pad.
Barrel 12 Gauge - 28" with ventilated rib
20 Gauge - 28" with ventilated rib
Chamber Up to 3"
Sights Bead front
Choke Screw-in modified
Length 12 Gauge - 43"
20 Gauge - 43"
Length of Pull 14-1/4"
Drop at Comb 1-1/4"
Drop at Heel 2-1/4"
Weight 6-7 lbs.

(Specifications subject to change without notice)


Tartalomjegyzék

Hugo Junkers 1895-ben alapította cégét, amely kezdetben kazánok, radiátorok és gáztűzhelyek gyártásával foglalkozott. Az 1910-es évek elején érdeklődni kezdett a repülőgépek iránt és 1914-ben elkezdte kísérleteit egy csak fémből készített konstrukcióval. Az akkori repülőgépek jellemzően rétegelt falemezből, szárnyuk pedig fakeretre feszített vászonból épültek. 1915 végére elkészült az egyfedelű Junkers J 1 (nem összetévesztendő a későbbi Junkers J.I vadászgéppel), becenevén Pléhszamár (Blechesel). Az acéllemezekből épített gép szárnyát nem külső huzalok feszítették, hanem belső konzol tartotta. A J 1 nehéz, rosszul manőverező repülő volt, de kedvező aerodinamikai tulajdonsági miatt a mindössze 120 lóerős, hathengeres Mercedes D.II motor is elég volt, hogy 170 km/h-s sebességet érjen el.

A J 2 egy katonai célokra továbbfejlesztett, géppuskával felfegyverzett prototípus volt, amit a J 3 követett, amin már forgómotort és az acéllemez-borítás helyett dúralumíniumból készült hullámlemezt alkalmaztak. A hadsereg ragaszkodott az akkor elterjedt kétfedelű konstrukcióhoz, így készült a J 4, amelyen már a szárny és a farok is dúralumíniumból volt. A J 4 volt az első sorozatgyártásba került Junkers-modell, 283-at rendeltek belőle, amiből 184 készült el. A páncélozott, puskalövésektől védett repülő alkalmasnak bizonyult a földi célpontok géppuskázására és a gyalogság támogatására. A légierő Junkers J.I néven regisztrálta a J 4-et és a későbbiekben a más gyártók (Albatros Flugzeugwerke, AEG) hasonló funkciójú repülőit is J kóddal illette.

Hugo Junkers továbbra is az egyfedelű megoldást tekintette a jövő útjának és további prototípusai monoplánként készültek. Az 1917-es J 7, majd az annak módosításaival született kétüléses J 8 szárnya már a törzs alatt helyezkedett el és a korabeli repülőgépekhez képest kimondottan modern külsejűek. A J 8-ból 51 db készült és Junkers CL.I néven került a keleti frontra. A dúralumínium hullámlemez felület a háború alatt és a 20-as években is gyakorlatilag a Junkers védjegyévé vált.

1917. október 20-án a Junkers és a Fokker repülőgépgyártó a kormányzat nyomására Junkers-Fokker Werke AG (Jfa) néven egyesült. A Fokker licencet kapott a Junkers-modellekre és ennek köszönhető, hogy amikor a háború után, 1919-ben ismét szétváltak, a két gyár külsőre hasonló gépeket épített (bár a Fokker eleinte fával dolgozott dúralumínium helyett).

A békekötés után a J 8 alapján hamarosan elkészült az F.13, a világ első fémből készült utasszállító repülőgépe. A négy utasra méretezett gép 1919 júniusában szállt fel először. Gyártását eleinte a versailles-i szerződés minden más német repülőgépével együtt megtiltotta, de a tilalmat később a polgári célú gépek számára feloldották. .

Junkers néhány nagyobb utasszállítót is tervezett, mint az egymotoros G.24-et vagy a hárommotoros G.31-et, de ezek nem lettek sikeresek. A békeszerződés megszorításait 1926-ban visszavonták és az azután piacra dobott Junkers W 33 és Junkers W 34 sorozat már jóval nagyobb számban talált vevőre általánosan használták, utas-, teher- és később csapatszállításra. W 33/W 34 gépekkel több rekordot is felállítottak 1926 és 1930 között: leszállás nélküli repülési időt, távolsági és magassági rekordot, rajta próbálták ki a rakétahajtású felszállást és a levegőben történő üzemanyag-feltöltést. 1928-ban egy W 33-mal repülték át először kelet-nyugat irányban az Atlanti-óceánt.

Junkers 1924-ben kidolgozott egy forradalmi tervet egy (akkor elképesztően nagy) 80 főt szállítani képes négymotoros "csupaszárny" repülőgépre, ahol az utasok a szárny belsejében lettek volna elhelyezve. Tervei szerint a gép képes lett volna 8-10 óra alatt átrepülni az Atlanti-óceánt. [1] Néhány alapelvet végül a Junkers G.38-ban valósított meg, amely a maga korában a világ legnagyobb utasszállítója volt, bár csak 34 utas és 7 főnyi személyzet fért el rajta. Néhány utasnak a szárny tövének belsejében biztosítottak helyet, amelybe elöl ablakokat is beépítettek.

1932-ben a Junkers tervezett egy aerodinamikus karosszériát a Maybach autógyár számára, de a gazdasági válság miatt a hasonló luxusautókra nem volt nagy kereslet. [2]

1931 körül a cégnek pénzügyi gondjai támadtak és a részvényesek nyomására Hugo Junkers az igazgatói széket átadta barátjának, a kommunista nézeteiről is ismert Adolf Dethmann-nak. A gazdasági gondokat végül úgy oldották meg, hogy a fűtéstechnikai részleget eladták Robert Bosch cégének, amely a mai napig használja a Junkers márkát. [3]

Hitler 1933-as hatalomra jutása után a német repülőgépipart az utasszállításról átterelték hadi célokra. A pacifista és szocialista Hugo Junkerst politikailag megbízhatatlannak ítélték és bebörtönzéssel fenyegetve kényszerítették, hogy adja át az államnak cégeinek többségi részvényeit és szabadalmainak tulajdonjogát. A Repülésügyi Minisztérium (Reichsluftfahrtministerium) egy- és kétüléses harci gépek fejlesztésére állított át a céget ez alól két jelentősebb kivétel volt, a híres Ju 52 és a Ju 90.

A Ju 52 fejlesztése még 1928-ban indult és a korai egymotoros szállítógépből végül a hárommotoros változat, a "Ju néni" (Tante Ju) lett világhírű. A világ számos országának légitársaságai alkalmazták (Magyarországon is) és a més a második világháború után is gyártotta Spanyolország és Franciaország.

Az 1934-ben kihozott Ju 86 bombázótól kezdődően a Junkers szakított a termékeire jellemző hullámlemezes borítással. A cég részt vett Walther Wever stratégiai bombázóprogramjában és kifejlesztette a Ju 89 nehézbombázót ám miután Wever légibalesetben meghalt, a minisztérium törölte a programot és inkább a taktikai bombázókat támogatta (később, az angliai csata idején ez a döntés megbosszulta magát). A Ju 89-et végül a Junkers Ju 90-né fejlesztették tovább, ami egy transzatlanti utakra specializált utasszállító volt. Mire azonban végeztek a teszteléssel és megkezdődhetett volna tényleges használatbavétele, kitört a második világháború.

Az államosítás után a Junkers fő profilja a harci repülőgépek készítése lett. A legsikeresebb és legismertebb terméke a Ju 87 Stuka zuhanóbombázó volt, amely a földi csapatok támogatására terveztek és jelentősen hozzájárult a Blitzkrieg kezdeti sikereihez. Pontos bombatámadásaival egyfajta légi tüzérség szerepét töltötte be, amely lépést tudott tartani a gyorsan előrenyomuló tankhadosztályokkal. A háború későbbi szakaszában nagykaliberű gépágyúval szerelték fel és tankelhárító szerepkörben is alkalmazták. A Dunkerque-nél és Sztálingrádnál vijjogva lecsapó Stukák a német hadigépezet egyik szimbólumává váltak.

Hasonlóan sikeres modellnek bizonyult a Junkers Ju 88, amely formálisan közepes bombázó volt, de szinte minden funkcióra bevetették: stratégiai bombázóként, zuhanóbombázóként, éjszakai interceptorként és bombázóvadászként vagy akár hajók ellen. Több továbbfejlesztett verziója is gyártásba került, mint a Ju 188 vagy Ju 388, de ezek sem tudták kiszorítani az eredeti modellt. A Ju 52-eseket is széleskörűen használták a háborúban, főleg szállítási, de kisebb bombázói feladatokra is később azonban már elavultnak számított és a lassú, kevéssé fordulékony típus nagy számban veszett oda Krétán vagy Sztálingrádnál.

A Junkers az Amerikabomber-program keretein belül kifejlesztett egy hatmotoros nehézbombázót, a Ju 390-et, amivel el lehetett volna érni az Egyesült Államokat is, de a háború késői szakaszában Németországnak már a védekezésre kellett koncentrálnia meglévő erőforrásait és a Ju 390-ből csak két prototípus készült el.

Németország veresége után a cég átalakult Junkers GmbH-vá, amelyet 1958-ban felvásárolt a több repülőgépgyártó összeolvadásából létrejött Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm csoport. [4] 1967-ben a Messerschmitt beolvasztotta a Junkerst és a márkanév használatát 1969-ben megszüntették. [5]

Az első Junkers-repülőgépeket J betűvel és sorszámmal jelölték. 1919 után újabb betűkódokat vezettek be: A (Austausschflugzeug polgári és katonai célra is), EF (Entwurf-Flugzeug kísérleti), F (Flugzeug repülőgép), G (Grossflugzeug nagy repülőgép) H (a cég moszkvai üzemében készült), K (Kampfflugzeug harci repülőgép), S (Spezial különleges), T (gyakorló), W (Wasserflugzeug hidroplán). Az első világháborúban a légierő a gyárétól eltérő jelzést használt, a repülőgép funkciójának megfelelően: CL (kétüléses gyalogsági támogató), D (együléses kétfedelű felderítő), E (együléses egyfedelű felderítő), J (kétüléses páncélozott kétfedelű gyalogsági támogató). Az államosítás után valamennyi modellt a Ju betűkóddal jelölték.


An overview of court management

  • Pennsylvania&rsquos court system docketed 2.6 million cases in 2016.
  • The state court system &mdash a core function of government &mdash receives one-half of 1 percent of the state&rsquos total budget.
  • The judiciary collects far more in fines and fees that it receives. Over the past 10 years, the court system has collected nearly $4.6 billion. These dollars, for the most part, do not flow back to the judiciary. They are distributed to state and local governments, which include airport and parking authorities, and programs that support victims.
  • The court system maintains automated statewide court case and financial management systems that provide enhanced court access and accountability to the courts, criminal justice agencies and a host of others including the Commonwealth&rsquos citizens.

Over 100 years of tradition

The AAU Is Founded

The AAU was founded on January 21, 1888, with the goal of creating common standards in amateur sport. Since then, most national championships in the United States have taken place under AAU leadership. From its founding as a publicly supported organization, the AAU has represented US sports within the various international sports federations. It has grown over the years to become one of the leading and most influential associations.

First AAU Event Held

The AAU conducts its first championships for boxing, fencing and wrestling on April 6 at New York&rsquos Metropolitan Opera House.

First Five AAU Associations Created

A.G. Mills, a member of the AAU Board of Governors, introduces a plan which calls for the AAU to reorganize into a union of Associations (now called Districts) rather than an association of clubs. What will later be known as the &ldquoMills Plan&rdquo passes unanimously, creating the first five AAU Districts &ndash Atlantic, Central, Metropolitan, New England and Pacific Coast.

AAU National Men's Basketball Championships Held for First Time

The AAU conducts the first National Men&rsquos Basketball Championship. The winner is the 23rd Street YMCA from New York City.

Women's Swimming Recognized as Sport

AAU President George J. Turner concludes his national convention address in Baltimore by announcing that women's swimming will be recognized by the organization.

First AAU Women's Basketball Tournament Held

Six teams compete in the inaugural AAU Women&rsquos Basketball tournament held in the Los Angeles Athletics Club crowning the Pasadena Athletic & Country Club Flying Rings as champions.

Golfer Bobby Jones, Jr. Received the First AAU James E. Sullivan Award

The AAU honors golfer Robert Tyre &ldquoBobby&rdquo Jones, Jr., as the first recipient of the James E. Sullivan Memorial Award given in recognition of the founder and President of the AAU. Other finalists for the award are Barney Berling (athletics), Clarence De Mar (athletics), Tommy Hitchcock (polo), Helen Madison (swimming), Helen Wills Moody (tennis), Harlon Rothert (all-around), Ray Rudy (swimming), George Simpson (athletics) and Stella Walsh (athletics).

AAU President Withdraws Amendment to Boycott 1935 Olympic Games

Following five hours of debate, AAU President Jeremiah T. Mahoney withdraws his proposed amendment to boycott the Olympic Games in Berlin, Germany. Instead, a resolution was passed stating the certification of the U.S. athletes for overseas competition will not be construed to imply endorsement of the Nazi government.

Beginning of AAU Physical Fitness Program

The AAU authorizes a program that encourages and monitors physical fitness among America&rsquos school-aged children with the assistance of Dr. Robert Grueninger.

First Woman to Receive AAU James E. Sullivan Award

Ann Curtis, an 18-year old swimmer from San Francisco, becomes the first woman to receive the AAU James E. Sullivan Memorial Award. Curtis, who turned down movie, offers to continue training for the Olympic Games in London, captured AAU titles in eight events during the year.

Junior Olympics Program Formed

A Junior Olympics program designed to develop young athletes in the U.S. is introduced at the AAU Annual Convention on December 5 in New York City and receives approval. Past AAU President Willard Greim is elected first President of the international basketball federation, F.I.B.A. while serving as AAU Men&rsquos Basketball Chair.

Junior Olympic Program Conducts First Event

The Junior Olympic program conducts the first AAU Junior Olympic regional track and field competitions in Connecticut, Florida, Illinois, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Oregon and Texas, followed by a national meet in Cleveland.

AAU sanctions the first AAU California Beach Volleyball Championships in Manhattan Beach, CA as an adult open event.

AAU sanctions the first AAU California Beach Volleyball Championships in Manhattan Beach, CA as an adult open event.

The search begins for a permanent national office site for the AAU rather than renting office space in New York City.

The search begins for a permanent national office site for the AAU rather than renting office space in New York City.

Congressional Blue Ribbon Arbitration Board appointed

A Congressional Blue Ribbon Arbitration Board is appointed in an effort to produce a final and conclusive settlement between the AAU and the National College Athletic Association (NCAA) over which organization has control over college athletes, both in the U.S. and internationally. The head of the independent arbitration panel is the famous labor negotiation Theodore W. Kheel.

Vice-President Hubert H. Humphrey proclaims the first AAU Junior Olympic Games Open

This event marks the first time that two national championship events are held at the same time. It is also the first time that the national championships in swimming and track and field are determined on a direct competitive basis instead of through telephone and/or mail entries.

AAU On the Move to Indiana

The AAU moves its National Headquarters to Indianapolis, serving as a catalyst which eventually bills the city as the &ldquoAmateur Sports Capital&rdquo of the United States.

Greg Louganis competes at the AAU Junior Olympic Games

Future Olympic Gold Medalist, Greg Louganis competes in the AAU Junior Olympic Games Boys 11-12 Diving Championships at Gonzaga University.

AAU hosts its inaugural AAU Junior National Volleyball Championships

A total of 19 teams coming participated in the inaugural AAU Junior National Volleyball Championships in Catonsville, Maryland. The teams represented 10 states and competed for 3 National Championship titles.

Amateur Sports Acts Passed

The 95th Congress of the United States passes the Amateur Sports Act, which states that no one organization may govern more than one sport. On addition, it requires vertical integrated national governing bodies immediately be instituted for all Olympic sports. The decision decentralizes the power of the AAU, but returns the organization to the basic principles upon which it was founded: to maintain amateur sports and to protect the mutual interests of its members while advancing and improving amateur sports.

Jackie Joyner-Kersee wins AAU Junior Olympic Games Gold Medal

At the AAU Junior Olympic Games in Santa Clara, CA, Jackie Joyner-Kersee wins a gold medal in the girls long jump competition. Joyner-Kersee, regarded as one fo the all-time greatest athletes in the women&rsquos heptathon and long jump, went on to 6 Olympic medals, 3 of which were gold.

AAU Athletes Shine at 1980 Olympic Games

Former AAU Junior Olympians account for 18 individual and 12 team gold meals at the Olympic Games in Los Angeles during the summer. Leading the gold medal count is track and field star Carl Lewis with four, followed by swimmers Rowdy Gaines, Tracy Caulkins and Mary T. Meagher with three each.

AAU Administers Presidential Sports Award from the President&rsquos Council on Physical Fitness and Sport

The AAU expands its program services, receiving authority to administer the Presidential Sports Award from the President&rsquos Council on Physical Fitness and Sport. The AAU also coordinates the AAU/Mars Milky Way All American Award, selecting and recognizing the outstanding male and female high school athletes in the U.S.

AAU Members Have Strong Showing in Olympic Games

During the summer Olympic Games in Seoul, Korea former AAU member athletes account for 30% of the medals won by the United States. Swimmer Matt Biondi leads all medal winners with seven (five gold, one silver, one bronze).

Gussie Crawford is First Woman Elected as AAU President

Gussie Crawford becomes the first woman elected as President of the AAU in the 100-year history of the organization.

AAU forms the 2nd Century Committee

AAU forms the 2nd Century Committee to focus on its future working towards the goal of providing &ldquoSports for All, Forever.&rdquo

Tallahassee Hosts XXV AAU Junior Olympic Games

The XXV AAU Junior Olympic Games sets a participant record with 5,866 young athletes ages 8-18 competing in 13 sporting events at Tallahassee, Florida, July 27 &ndash August 3. In boy&rsquos basketball, Chris Webber lead his team Detroit Superfriends to a gold medal and was named to the AAU All-American Team. Webber was a future NBA #1 overall draft pick and 5-time NBA All-Star.

AAU hosts its inaugural AAU Beach Volleyball National Championships

The event took which took place in San Pedro, California crowned five champions, including Kimberly Loeffler/Jenny Peterson (12U), Tracy Lindquist/Chrissie Zartman (14U), Shawny Lopez/Raini Lopez (15U/16U), Malaika Naulls/Joi Thomas (17U/18U) in the girls&rsquo divisions and Frankie Bencun/Anthony Dobay in the boys&rsquo 14U division. This event had over 300 teams in 2016 and continuously features athletes from over 30 states

AAU Forms Alliance with The Walt Disney World Company

AAU Congress approves a 30-year alliance with The Walt Disney World Company, relocating its National Headquarters to Orlando, Florida. The AAU is one of the three major tenants in Disney&rsquos hundred million dollar sports complex along with the Atlanta Braves and the Harlem Globetrotters.

AAU Congress authorizes an online computer registration network.

AAU opens its headquarters in Orlando, Florida.

AAU Girls&rsquo Basketball Committee hosts the first AAU event with Walt Disney World Sports in the Orlando area.

AAU launches its first national website at aausports.org

First Event at Disney's Wide World of Sports Complex

The AAU hosts its first event, AAU Karate National Team Championships and Chinese Martial Arts Championships, at Disney&rsquos Wide World of Sports complex. At summer&rsquos end, AAU sets record with over 20,000 athletes competing in 44 events at the new complex during the first summer.

&ndash First Time the AAU Junior National Volleyball Championships is held at Disney&rsquos Wide World of Sports Complex

A total of 127 teams attend the National Championships, which was the first volleyball event to be played in the Fieldhouse at Disney&rsquos sports complex. These teams represented 20 states and Puerto Rico and competed for 4 National Championship titles (Ages 12, 14, 16, 18).

AAU Meets with National Federation of State High School Associations

In an historic meeting, the AAU and the National Federation of State High School Associations (NFHS) convene on Marco Island to discuss the challenges of AAU and High School sport programs. The AAU adopts a national policy precluding sports agents, agencies and representatives from membership in the AAU.

First Siblings to Share AAU Sullivan Award

Kelly and Coco Miller become the first siblings to share the AAU Sullivan Award, making the second year in a row that a female basketball player(s) took home the prestigious award following Chamique Holdsclaw&rsquos win in 1998.

AAU continues its sponsorship drive by signing a multi-year contract with POWERaDE/Coca-Cola.

AAU receives it first grant from NFL Youth Football Funds as a National Youth Football Partner.

The grand funds are used for local clubs and teams to start new football programs.

AAU announces a 10-year plan for the AAU Junior Olympic Games

AAU announces a 10-year plan for the AAU Junior Olympic Games event which includes a rotation with the cities of Detroit, MI Des Moines, IA Hampton Roads, VA, New Orleans, LA and Knoxville, TN.

AAU Junior Olympic Games Dance Championships features future Dancing with the Stars cast members

Mark Ballas and Julianne Hough, cast members of Dancing with the Stars, partnered to win AAU Junior Olympic Games Dance gold medals in the Junior Open Latin Championship division. The event was held in Detroit, MI.

AAU surpasses the half-million mark in memberships purchased with 509,744

AAU offers a Level 3 Club membership. Third Party Insurance Certificates and event licenses come online.

AAU Sullivan Award Forms Partnerships

AAU forms partnership with USA Today for the AAU James E. Sullivan Award. This year&rsquos award is presented to gymnast Paul Hamm who receives over a half million votes.

Disney&rsquos Wide World of Sports Celebrates its One Millionth Athlete during AAU Girls&rsquo Junior National Volleyball Championships

Eight-and-a-half years and more than a thousand events since Disney&rsquos Wide World of Sports Complex officially opened on March 28, 1997, the 220-acre sports complex at Walt Disney World Resort welcomed its One Millionth Athlete on Monday. Desirre Wilkerson (Louisville, Ky.), a 13-year-old girls&rsquo volleyball player from the Kentucky Indiana Volleyball Academy (KIVA), was officially honored as the One Millionth Athlete. Wilkerson and her teammates from the KIVA Red 13-and-Under girls&rsquo volleyball squad participated in a morning ceremony at registration for the 32nd Annual AAU Junior Volleyball National Championships.

Inaugural West Coast AAU Junior Olympic Games Held

The inaugural West Coast AAU Junior Olympic Games is held on the campus of the University of California Davis with 6 sports including baseball, boys&rsquo basketball, girls&rsquo basketball, diving, jump rope and wrestling.

AAU offers multiple year memberships and the ability to reprint individual memberships via online.

AAU Basketball Televised on ESPNU

The semi-finals and finals of the AAU Division I Junior Boys&rsquo Basketball Championship at Disney&rsquos Wide World of Sports are televised on ESPNU. Team Breakdown of Florida Gold Coast wins the championship.

Future Heisman Trophy Winner Shines at the AAU Junior Olympic Games

Robert Griffin III &ndash Broke the National Record in the 400 Meter Hurdles, beating the competition by almost a full 2 seconds. Went on to win the Heisman Trophy in 2011, becoming the 2nd overall pick in the NFL Draft. In 2012 he won the 2012 Offensive Rookie of the Year award and is currently the quarterback for the Cleveland Browns.

AAU launches its online event registration system.

AAU and NCAA Have Open Dialogue

AAU opens dialogue with the NBA then partners with the NCAA to promote &ldquothe good of the game.&rdquo Mr. Wallace Renfro of the NCAA addresses AAU Congress as the keynote speaker. The AAU provides free college coaches packets & admissions to NCAA coaches attending AAU events.

Shawn Johnson, Olympic Gymnast, and winner of Dancing with Stars, garners the AAU James E. Sullivan Award.

Largest AAU Junior Olympic Games Held in New Orleans

The largest AAU Junior Olympic Games concludes in New Orleans, LA with 18,087 athletes and coaches in 18 sports. This also marks the largest track & field competition with 12,644 athletes. The event finishes just days prior to Hurricane Katrina.

Louis Stout from Lexington, KY becomes first African-American president in AAU history

Guinness World Records Recognizes AAU Volleyball

The AAU Girls&rsquo Junior National Volleyball Championship named the largest volleyball tournament in the world by Guinness World Records. The event was held at ESPN&rsquos Wide World of Sports and the Orange County Convention Center in Orlando, FL.

AAU and USARS Hockey hosts the FIRS World Championships and Junior Olympics

With over 20 countries represented, 424 teams play over 1,100 games in the hockey championships.

AAU Football Plays National Championships in the Citrus Bowl

Championship games played in the Citrus Bowl in Orlando, FL

AAU Football starts rivalry in Dallas at AT&T Stadium

The Battle of the Borders between rival AAU football leagues in Arkansas and Texas is held in AT&T Stadium.

Gatorade Becomes Sponsor of AAU Events

Gatorade joins forces with AAU to provide a million dollars of product to AAU athletes at events.

Ezekiel Elliot Wins the AAU Sullivan Award

The Ohio State&rsquos Ezekiel Elliott named 85th AAU Sullivan Award Winner over Olympian&rsquos Simone Biles (gymnastics) and Katie Ledecky (swimming) with approximately 100,000 votes cast for the finalists.

Inaugural Baseball International Championships

Teams from Mexico, Caribbean and US compete in the first AAU Baseball International Championships in Ft. Lauderdale, FL.

AAU, Visit Orlando and the Orange County Convention Center sign agreement to keep world&rsquos largest volleyball event in Central Florida through 2020.

The AAU announces opening of the AAU West Coast Office with the support of Visit Anaheim.

President Roger Goudy launches the AAU Cares Initiative

AAU Cares, established by President Goudy as a way of giving back to the community, kicks off the 86th AAU James E. Sullivan Award. With the assistance of New York State Senator Kevin Parker, bicycles are assembled by the AAU Board of Directors and presented to underprivileged New York City area youth.

First-Ever AAU Proud Initiative

AAU Proud is established to encourage the involvement and provide an introduction of sports to young children. At the AAU Baseball 9U/10U Grand Nationals at ESPN Wide World of Sports, the Baseball Little Sluggers takes place offering drills and activities for ages 3 to 8.

AAU Junior Olympic Games Celebrates 50th Anniversary

The 50th AAU Junior Olympic Games takes place in Houston, TX with 18 sports and over 16,000 participants. Carl Lewis, 9-time Olympic gold medalist, lights the torch at the Celebration of Athletes

AAU Congress uses electronic voting for the first time at its 125th AAU National Convention in San Antonio, Texas.

AAU Athletics Changes Name to AAU Track & Field

The official name change of AAU Athletics is made to AAU Track & Field. The goal of this change is to develop a brand that will resonate with mainstream culture and be more recognizable to fans, sports enthusiast and future partners.

AAU Gussie Crawford Lifetime Achievement Award Established

AAU Gussie Crawford Lifetime Achievement Award established to honor Gussie Crawford, voted the first female president of the AAU, as a trailblazer in amateur sports. The award recognized those athletes whose efforts have paved the way for great change in amateur sports. Jesse Owens posthumously awarded during the AAU Sullivan Award Ceremony.

First Volleyball Player to Win AAU Sullivan Award

Wisconsin Volleyball All-American Lauren Carlini announced as the winner of the 87th AAU James E. Sullivan Award in a ceremony at the New York Athletic Club. A member of the bronze medal-winning US National Team at the 2016 Pan American Cup, Carlini is the first four-time All Big Ten pick in program history.

Inaugural National AAU Track and Field Day

The day is a celebration to recognize the beginning of District Championship season for more than 60,000 AAU track and field athletes.

Inaugural AAU Pacific Rim Basketball Championships

Hosted by Jam On It, The Pacific Rim Basketball Championships are held at the Hawaii Convention Center. Over 140 teams comprised of 60 teams from outside of Oahu compete on 13 courts over a 3 day period for a chance at the AAU title.

AAU Launches New Website

AAU Aids Those Impacted by Hurricane Harvey

As part of the AAU Cares initiative, the AAU assisted those impacted by Hurricane Harvey. Numerous AAU Districts, Sport Committees, clubs and individuals donated money to AAU Cares4Houston to aid in the relief efforts in the Houston area. AAU President Dr. Roger J. Goudy along with AAU national staff delivered non-perishable items, bottled water and AAU t-shirts/apparel to Houston. Joining in the efforts was 5-time Olympian and track legend Carl Lewis who is a Houston native.

AAU launched new website

AAU launched the new website through Blue Star/Stack Sports

New Website by Bluestar Sports

AAU launched the new website through Blue Star/Stack Sports

Roger Goudy re-elected as National President

Dr. Roger Goudy was re-elected to a second term as President/CEO

Dr. Roger Goudy was re-elected to a second term as President/CEO

The Amateur Athletic Union (AAU), one of the largest, non-profit multi-sport amateur sports organizations in the world, announced Dr. Roger J. Goudy of Madison, Ohio, won another four-year term as President/CEO during elections at the 126th AAU National Convention held at the Hilton Cleveland Downtown. Dr. Goudy, the 47th president of the AAU, is the first AAU President from Ohio since 1947.

AAU becomes the administrator for the Presidential Youth Fitness Program

National Fitness Foundation and AAU announce partnership as AAU becomes the administrator for the Presidential Youth Fitness Program.

AAU and National Fitness Foundation Partnership

The National Fitness Foundation and AAU announce partnership as AAU becomes the administrative arm for for the Presidential Youth Fitness Program (PYFP).

AAU Track And Field record participation in AAU Junior Olympic Games

This is the first time AAU Junior Olympic Games are in Greensboro, North Carolina. AAU Junior Olympic Games had a record track participation of 13,601.

AAU Cares Event at Leadership Conference

Partnering with the local YMCA chapter, 2,000 packages were put together in an assembly line process involving the 240 plus AAU leaders at the Conference. Hygiene kits included such items as a toothbrush, toothpaste, washcloth, bar of soap, shampoo, conditioner, body lotion, and an encouragement note for recipients. The event was part of the AAU Cares initiative.


Watch the video: Junkers Ju 86 (January 2022).