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3 October 1939

3 October 1939


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3 October 1939

October 1939

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Western Front

1st Corps of the BEF takes up a position on the Belgian border



In the Labor Unions

From Socialist Appeal, Vol. III No. 75, 3 October 1939, p.ق.
Transcribed & marked up by Einde O’ Callaghan for the Encyclopaedia of Trotskyism On-Line (ETOL).

Until recently, British labor leaders were recognized universally as peers in the fine art of selling out the interests of the workers under the guise of obtaining a victory. Cooperating with the “enlightened” British ruling class, the labor fakers did quite splendidly. Rewards of knighthood and baronage testify to that fact.

However, we are willing to risk the charge of chauvinism and state plainly that in this art the American labor bureaucracy, assisted by the clever Mr. Roosevelt, is now surpassing its British prototype.

In England, the labor fakers and their masters slipped up badly in chaining the union movement to the war machine. His Majesty’s Minister of Supply, Leslie Burgin, advised poorly by dull labor leaders, forgot to consult officially with the trade union movement on war production.
 

Roosevelt Strategy

Meeting only with big business representatives, the Minister of Supply ignored certain inevitable problems which arise in war production maladjustments, unemployment in some industries, speed-up, working hours, etc. The result was widespread dissatisfaction among union men, and this week the General Council of the Trades Union Congress is conferring to handle the problem. Labor representation will be demanded and probably granted. But the seeds of dissent have been sown.

In America, some naive people have been quite concerned that President Roosevelt would make the similar “mistake.” Mr. Roosevelt recently appointed a War Resources Board,which was ballyhooed as the controlling body of American industry for war.

Liberals were shocked by the composition of this Board. Four men from the House of Morgan, including Edward Stettinius, president of U.S. Steel, were selected. And no representative of the labor movement was among the committee of seven.

Both the CIO and the AFL top leaders worked up a righteous indignation over this omission. John L. Lewis, thundered forth in his Olympian fashion. William Green preached his usual sermon on democracy and labor’s rights.

Friendly correspondents, sympathetic columnists, and “left-wing” New Dealers kept a steady barrage of criticism against the personnel of the War Resources Board.
 

Victory or Fake?

This week Roosevelt announced that the Board would make a report and then go out of existence in a few weeks. WAR INDUSTRIES BOARD TO GO! UNDER FIRE AS REACTIONARY! said the head-lines.

What a “victory” for labor and the true democrats! This will be the theme of every speech for the next few weeks in the camp of Roosevelt supporters. Labor probably will get a representative on a new board. Maybe two, one from the CIO and one from the AFL.

No British muddling through in the Roosevelt strategy. It’s as slick as a whistle. For Roosevelt kills two birds with one stone. General Hugh Johnson, who had a little experience in these matters during the world war, let the cat out of the bag before Roosevelt finished his magic act.
 

Road to War

The selection of the Morgan men was a deliberate move, calculated to arouse antagonism against the present War Industries Board. Taint it with Morgan-British world war infamy! Keep labor off. Give the liberals and labor fakers a phoney issue to howl about.“This isn’t democracy. Labor isn’t represented.”

The pillow fight rages. Then Roosevelt calmly announces the dismissal of the Board. He retreats before “progressive” pressure. A new board is chosen. Labor is represented! Lewis and Green claim a big “victory.” Liberals cry that this proves America is really fighting a war for democracy.

And labor’s rights are strangled by this “victory.” For this very victory spells the road to war, with Lewis and Green showing the way.


1939 – The real Eleanor Rigby died in her sleep of unknown causes at the age of 44. The 1966 Beatles’ song that featured her name wasn’t written about her, as Paul McCartney’s first draft of the song named the character Miss Daisy Hawkins. Eleanor Rigby’s tombstone was noticed in the 1980s in the graveyard of [&hellip]

1939 – Born on this day, Colin Cooper, Climax Blues Band, (1977 US No.3 & 1976 UK No.10 single ‘Couldn’t Get It Right’). Died on 3rd July 2008.

Help Stu in his battle with Cancer!


Churchill dies on Nelson October 1939

Sure, I think it could break the back, but I just don't think is HAS to break the back (keel). Now sure it will flood, but I granted the ships sinks. Generally speaking, 3 sub/ship launched torpedoes always sink a capital ship, the question is how fast. (Note: Not always true with air launched, smaller torps). And so we are in a situation where he might live, might not. Given say 15 minutes, or even 7, he may make it to a life boat. He may say be on the bridge so it would be fairly easy to get one man to safety. He could also be deep in the ship, drunk off his ass. Or asleep in his quarters.

And we can get anything from a roll over or catastrophic magazine explosion to a slower sinking and roll. Almost all ships roll while sinking, so this will be expected.

Now I can't speak to if this class of ship has a particularly weak keel.

Deleted member 1487

Sure, I think it could break the back, but I just don't think is HAS to break the back (keel). Now sure it will flood, but I granted the ships sinks. Generally speaking, 3 sub/ship launched torpedoes always sink a capital ship, the question is how fast. (Note: Not always true with air launched, smaller torps). And so we are in a situation where he might live, might not. Given say 15 minutes, or even 7, he may make it to a life boat. He may say be on the bridge so it would be fairly easy to get one man to safety. He could also be deep in the ship, drunk off his ass. Or asleep in his quarters.

And we can get anything from a roll over or catastrophic magazine explosion to a slower sinking and roll. Almost all ships roll while sinking, so this will be expected.

Now I can't speak to if this class of ship has a particularly weak keel.

Curiousone

Why is it 'Mythical'? It flew..
Why 'a waste of time & money'? An un-interceptable 40 tonne bomb load is going to make a dent.

That link has HMS Nelson getting mined & damaged in Dec 1939, two months later. Might as well look at what the damage was then.

Few minutes of googling later, found a source:

4th - At 0752 hours when entering the Loch at 13 Knots NELSON, when in position 5.4 cables 38 degrees from Rudha nan Sasan triangulation station, passed over and detonated a type TMB magnetic mine although the massive explosion did not kill anyone 73 were injured, of whom 52 suffered lacerating injuries to delicate parts of their anatomies when ceramic toilet pans shattered in the blast. She took on a list to starboard and drew 39 ft forward. Before she could anchor in an appropriate position the light cruiser DRAGON who was fouling the berth had to be moved. At 1210 hours, with the destroyers VIMY and WARWICK secured to starboard and port she finally anchored.

(The mine was one of 18 laid by U 31on the night of 27/28 October, each one of which contained between 420 and 560kg of explosive. U-31 had been ordered to lay her mines within Loch Ewe but was unable to because of the effectiveness of the net between Lookout Point and Mellon Charles. Therefore U 31's captain Habecost laid 18 TMB mines across the narrow entrance instead)

The NELSON sustained serious structural damage and flooding. Within minutes she took on a 3¼ list to starboard caused by flooding between No. 23 and No. 80 bulkheads. Her bottom was also torn in several places, mainly to starboard the outer bottom plating for a distance of 70 feet was forced inboard by about 4 feet, and flooding extended over a distance of 140 feet. Main armament equipment, mainly the ammunition supply machinery, was also damaged by shock. No boilers, engines, electrical, steering, or power machinery were affected.
Although seriously damaged she could not immediately be moved for repairs, due to the shortage of minesweepers.
The destroyers FAULKNOR, FORESTER and FURY reminded off the entrance to Loch Ewe carrying out A/S sweeps, as it was first thought that NELSON had been torpedoed.

(The Salvage tugs RANGER (409grt) on other duties, and DISPERSER (313grt) were diverted to Loch Ewe to assist. Destroyer ECHO escorted RANGER from Kilchattan Bay, Isle of Bute, arriving at Loc Ewe on the 5/12/39)


The War Deal

From Socialist Appeal, Vol. III No. 76, 6 October 1939, p.ق.
Transcribed & marked up by Einde O’ Callaghan for the Encyclopaedia of Trotskyism On-Line (ETOL).

This week I should like to develop a little further the theme of my last column: that modern war is so vast a social undertaking and the capitalism it expresses is by now so closely integrated with the bourgeois state, as to make it impossible for old-style “private enterprise” either to fight a war or even to meet the problems of neutrality. The state simply must step in and handle matters.

In 1914� the dynamic leadership of the war drive came from Wall Street, with the Wilson Administration up to the last putting on at least an appearance of opposition. This time the Roosevelt Administration is openly playing a war game, with Wall Street rather inclined to keep in the background. This is by no means to imply that this war is not, like the last one, Wall Street’s war. The basic motivation of Roosevelt’s war drive is to protect the interests and profits of American big business. And the final, fateful decision as to the time and conditions of our entry into the war will be determined in Wall Street and not in the White House.
 

Instrument of Big Business

The Roosevelt Administration is as much the instrument of the big bourgeoisie as was that of Woodrow Wilson. Even more so, indeed, since in the last two decades there has taken place, a gradual coalescence of big business and the government. This means that the relationship of Wall Street and Washington in this war is far more subtle and complicated than it was in the last war. It is not enough to perceive the basic fact that the country is being dragged into a second world slaughter in the interests of American capitalism. We must also understand just how this is being done this time. We must be aware of certain differences in technique which in turn reflect twenty-five years of development of our monopoly capitalism.

The other day the U.S. Chamber of Commerce reported to its members on the outlook for foreign trade. This report was a sermon in caution and scepticism, warning that war booms produce bad economic hangovers, and advising its members against “over-confidence.” This tone of moderation and wariness is characteristic these days of the whole financial press. On the other hand, the President whips up the war spirit with ever-increasing abandon, the current climax being his personal announcement – such dirty jobs are usually left to minor officials – that submarines “of unknown nationality” had been sighted off our coast. This bit of frank war-mongering, released just as the Congress was about to start debating neutrality legislation, got the front-page scareheads it was intended to.
 

The Morgan Myth

There is a widespread illusion, sometimes to be found even in the pages of the Appeal, that J.P. Morgan & Co. is playing exactly the same role in maneuvering America into this war it did in the last. This emphasis does not correspond with the known facts.

When the last world war hit the American economic system, no governmental measures whatever had been taken to cope with it. The financial community was hastily mobilized by the Governors of the N.Y. Stock Exchange and by the leading Wall Street bankers, headed by Mr. Morgan. But this mobilization was insufficient. The impact of war abroad and the hasty selling of large blocks of American securities by foreign holders, these caused a temporary financial panic. The Stock Exchange had to be closed for several months. There was an industrial slump before the Allies began to buy over here in big quantities.

This time, J.P. Morgan, symbolically enough, happened to be on the high seas when the war began. It would have made little difference if he had been on the spot, as he was in 1914. For one thing, the present Morgan is rather stupid, carries little weight in Wall Street, and for many years has had very little to do with running the House of Morgan. But even if he possessed the brains and the influence his father had in his day, the present J.P. Morgan would have played a rather small part in the drama. Months ago the arrangements to meet the impact of a European war on our financial system had been made, and when war actually came they were merely put into effect. This job was done neither by the Stock Exchange governors nor by the big bankers of Wall Street, but rather by the Federal agencies which now dominate the nation’s financial system: the Securities & Exchange Commission, the Federal Reserve Board, and the U.S. Treasury Department. Working in close collaboration with the British Exchequer and the Bank of England, these powerful state agencies drew up plans so effectively that from the firing of the first gun in Poland, stocks began to soar, and an uninterrupted war boom began over here.

So it has been also with two other functions which the House of Morgan fulfilled for the Allies in the last war: the raising of credits over here, and the purchase of American war materials. In the first week of the war, Administration officials announced they were prepared to extend credits to the Allied nations through two governmental agencies: the Reconstruction Finance Corp, and the Export-Import Bank.

It is true that when J.P. Morgan got off the boat the other day, he said something about it being “reasonable” to assume that the Allies would call on his firm “to repeat our performance.” But this remark, which caused a great flutter in left-wing journals, turned out to be merely an indication of how much out of touch with things Mr. Morgan is these days. His partners promptly denied any such possibility, and so did the British and French governments. Officials of the War Deal disclosed that Roosevelt had advised the British government against allowing the House of Morgan to give an encore of its famous 1914 performance. As T.R.B. cynically notes in the Sept. 27 New Republic:

“The advice was sensible. To create pro-English sentiment among the mass of voters here, the House of Morgan should be kept out of sight . In 1914�, the English government had Ambassador Page to help them influence American opinion: in this war they seem to have done much better.”
 

A Matter of Scale

But it is not only for propagandistic reasons that the House of Morgan is not being called in again by the Allies. The main reason is that today Government agencies rather than Wall Street bankers control the technical workings of our financial system. (The basic control of the system, of course, remains in the hands of big business. It has merely been found advisable, for the benefit not of “the people” but of business interests, to centralize technical management in Washington.) This is true in times of peace, and it is truer than ever now that war has enlarged the problems of capitalism to abnormal size.

An anonymous “financier” put the essence of the matter pretty well when he was quoted in the N.Y. World-Telegram of Sept. 14 as follows:

“Buying materials is not a banking firm’s function anyway. When J.P. Morgan & Co. went into it in the last war, everyone thought the fight would be over quickly and the work could be done. Then it turned out to be a gigantic undertaking. It expanded tremendously. Buying for this war is expected to begin at the same scale and may go on from there to something which would dwarf the imagination.”

The French have already announced that all their purchases will, for the time being, clear through the commercial attaché of their embassy in Washington. There is also a semi-official report that a Franco-British joint purchasing agency will be set up in Canada to arrange all purchases in North America. This agency, it is expected, will work closely with the procurement division of the U.S. Treasury.

War today is just, too vast an enterprise for even the most powerful private bankers to handle. If war hasn’t been exactly socialized, it has at least reached the stage of government ownership. It goes without saying that, as in the case of other forms of government ownership under capitalism, the change is made in the general interests of monopoly capitalism.


The Jews who fought back: the story of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising

During the Second World War, Jews forced to live in the Warsaw Ghetto in Poland had little choice: they could either fight their Nazi oppressors, or be transported to certain death at Treblinka extermination camp. Here, Alexandra Richie explores the events of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, a remarkable act of Jewish resistance in 1943

This competition is now closed

Published: April 17, 2020 at 7:01 am

The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising was one of the most significant and tragic events in the history of the Second World War. It was a demonstration of heroic resistance, when Jews decided to fight against their oppressors rather than be forced to die in a concentration camp. It has left a remarkable legacy, which reverberates to this day.

By the outbreak of the Second World War, Jews had been living in Poland for more than a thousand years. Around 10 per cent of the country’s pre-war population was Jewish, but in some cities the proportion was much higher. Only New York had a higher number of Jewish residents than Warsaw, which was home to around 375,000 Jews – approximately 30 per cent of the city’s population. They had created a rich and diverse culture – something that the Germans were determined to destroy.

The Nazi persecution of the Jews in Poland began with the invasion of the country in 1939. Jews very quickly lost their rights by October 1939 they were forced to register and have the word ‘Jude’ stamped on their identity papers. They were soon forbidden from many ordinary activities, such as walking on the pavement, or going to schools, libraries or museums. Synagogues were blown up, or turned into prisons or factories, and many Jews were abused and humiliated on the streets.

From October 1939, the Germans began to create a system of ghettos throughout Poland. The Warsaw Ghetto was created in November by the German Governor General Hans Frank. More than 140,000 Jews who lived outside the area – on the so-called ‘Aryan side’ – were forced to gather their belongings and move into the ghetto, while 110,000 non-Jewish Poles were made to move out. The Jews were then sealed off from the rest of the city by a gigantic brick wall, which was topped with barbed wire and patrolled night and day. Fragments of this wall still exist today, a shocking remnant of what was effectively a huge prison built in the middle of one of Europe’s great capital cities.

The suffering in the ghetto was extreme, and conditions deteriorated rapidly. At its height, more than 450,000 people were crammed into an area of 1.3 square miles, and in some buildings as many as 20 people were living to a single room. Around 100,000 people died of starvation, sickness and maltreatment. Anyone caught trying to leave was shot, and non-Jewish Poles caught helping Jews were killed along with their families.

On 20 January 1942, the decision was taken in Berlin to begin the ‘Final Solution of the Jewish question’ using new camps built for no other purpose than the mass murder of human beings: Sobibor, Chelmno, Auschwitz-Birkenau, Belzec, and Treblinka.

In July 1942, the Nazis announced that all Jewish persons living in Warsaw, regardless of age and gender, were to be ‘resettled in the East’ – a euphemism for murder. As part of the so-called ‘Gross Aktion Warschau’ (Great Action Warsaw), they began to round up Jews at a collection point, or ‘Umschlagplatz’, on Stawki Street, and then pushing them onto trains heading for Treblinka. Within 10 weeks, 310,000 people were murdered at the concentration camp – and most victims were from the Warsaw Ghetto.

Listen: Historians Mary Fulbrook and Richard J Evans explore the aftermath of the Nazi genocide, looking at how thousands of perpetrators escaped justice and considering how subsequent generations have sought to understand the greatest atrocity of the 20th century

After the completion of the ‘Gross Aktion, around 70,000 Jews remained in Warsaw (many of whom had been temporarily spared because they were working in German enterprises). Despite German attempts at secrecy, information about the industrial killings at Treblinka leaked out. This prompted a group of young Jewish men and women to form a resistance, and in July 1942 they created two armed self-defence units: the Jewish Military Union (ZZW) and the Jewish Fighting Organization (ŻOB). Through representatives like Arie Wilner, who was living outside the Warsaw Ghetto, ŻOB established contact with external Polish resistance forces who were able to provide some help and a small number of arms, including a few dozen pistols and grenades. Mordecai Anielewicz, a 23-year-old Zionist activist, was appointed ŻOB’s commander.

One of the first leaflets from ŻOB, which circulated in the ghetto in December 1942, read: ‘Jews! Citizens of the Warsaw ghetto, be alert! Do not believe a single word, a single pretext of the SS criminals. Mortal danger awaits… Let us defend our honour with courage and dignity! Let liberty live!’

Heinrich Himmler, the chief of the SS, was determined to make Warsaw ‘Judenrein’ – ‘cleansed of Jews’ – and on 16 February 1943 he gave the order to clear out the ghetto. Despite the grave danger, the Jews in ŻOB and ZZW prepared a massive revolt. The ghetto was transformed into a resistance area – tunnels were dug, the sewers were marked out to allow passage from one bunker to another without having to go above ground, rooftop passages were built and huge bunkers were created under existing buildings. Anielewicz’s headquarters were set up in a large bunker deep underground at 18 Miła Street.

The young men and women now prepared themselves to fight to the death. On 18 April 1943, the Jews noted Ukrainian-Latvian support units (the Germans frequently used auxiliary forces formed by either soldiers from collaborating countries or groups of ex-POWs) moving towards the ghetto along with large numbers of police. Rumours of a new German ‘Aktion’ spread and the Jewish combat groups posted sentries, who looked out for German activity and alerted the fighters. The population went to their prepared shelters in the cellars or attics, leaving their flats standing empty.

At daybreak on 19 April, 850 SS troops and 16 Waffen-SS officers, protected by tanks and armoured cars, marched into the ghetto intending to force people to report for ‘resettlement’. The Jewish residents refused to come out. Instead, and to their surprise, the Germans found themselves being shot at from all sides with rifles, pistols and automatic weapons. Grenades and Molotov cocktails were thrown from windows, and a handful of Germans were killed.

Wladyslaw Bartoszewski, a Polish Catholic who served as a liaison between the Polish underground and the Jewish leaders in the ghetto, watched as ambulances carried the German dead and wounded from the ghetto. Jürgen Stroop, the SS and Police Leader in Warsaw, was particularly incensed by the fact that the Polish flag and the white and blue Star of David had been raised high on a house on Muranowski Square. “This was a summons to fight us,” he complained. He later had the flags ripped down by a special combat unit.

On the third day of the revolt, Stroop decided that the only way to defeat the fighters would be to smoke and burn them out. He ordered his men to begin blowing up the ghetto one block at a time, setting fire to the buildings and pumping gas into the underground hiding places. The Jews forced to leave their shelters were shot. Black clouds of smoke hung over the city and fires lit the sky at night.

Although the Jews carried on the fight with great courage, they were vastly outnumbered. On 8 May 1943, the Germans reached Anielewicz’s bunker at 18 Miła Street and began to pump gas into the air ducts. Anielewicz had managed to smuggle one final letter out to the Aryan side: “Our last days are near, but as long as we still have weapons in our hands we will fight…” Realising all was lost, the resistance fighters used cyanide capsules to commit suicide rather than be taken alive. To this day, they are entombed underground at 18 Mila Street and a monument marks their graves.

Ten members of ŻOB escaped through the sewers, including Zivia Lubetkin, the only female leader of the Jewish Underground in Warsaw, who would later testify at the trial of Adolf Eichmann. More than 7,000 of the ghetto’s inhabitants died during the suppression of the uprising, and the remaining 57,000 were captured and murdered, either shot in the ghetto or sent to Treblinka.

General Stroop was delighted with his handiwork and wrote a now-infamous 125-page report – complete with pictures – entitled: ‘The Jewish Quarter of Warsaw is No More!’ The photographs reflect the pitiless cruelty meted out to the victims: civilians being marched to their deaths past burning buildings or jumping out of windows in desperation to escape the flames. Stroop then destroyed the Great Synagogue on Tlomackie Street, a beautiful landmark built by the famous Italian architect Leandro Marconi. “What a wonderful sight,” he recounted later. “I called out ‘Heil Hitler’ and pressed the button. A terrific explosion brought flames right up to the clouds. The colours were unbelievable. An unforgettable allegory of the triumph over Jewry.” Himmler, too, celebrated the suppression by having all buildings in the ghetto razed to the ground in preparation for a giant park, which was to be named after himself.

Despite its tragic end, the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising left a lasting legacy. It was the largest Jewish uprising in the Second World War and it inspired Jewish youth – in ghettos from Lvov to Będzin to Białystok, and in camps including Treblinka and Sobibor – to resist. It was an act of utmost courage – not least because the men and women fighting knew from the beginning that they had no hope of victory. They had been forced by the sheer inhumanity of the situation created by the occupying Germans to choose death in combat rather than in the camps.

They were rightly proud of their achievement. On the 25th anniversary of the uprising, former ŻOB commander Yitzhak Zuckerman, one of the few survivor’s of the revolt, said: “This was a war of less than a thousand people against a mighty army and no one doubted how it was likely to turn out”. 75 years later, on 19 April 2018, we are right to pay homage to the bravery of these heroic fighters.

Alexandra Richie is the author of the critically acclaimed Faust’s Metropolis: A History of Berlin and Warsaw 1944: Hitler, Himmler, and the Warsaw Uprising

This article was first published on HistoryExtra in April 2019


1939 Timeline

Turn the page to:

January

January 1: The Hewlett-Packard partnership was formed in Palo Alto, California by Bill Hewlett and David Packard.

January 4: The German political-military leader, Hermann Goering, appoints Reinhard Heydrich as head of Jewish Emigration.

January 6: A Jewish woman, Lise Meitner from Vienna publishes her discovery known as the “atom splitting” during her exile in Sweden.

January 13: Five men break loose from the US federal prison on Alcatraz Island and attempt an escape.

January 16: The daily newspaper comic strip Superman debuts by the author, Jerry Siegel, illustrated by Joe Shuster.

January 16: Convicted murderer, Hamilton Howard Fish, also known as “Albert Fish”, “The Boogey Man” and “The Gray Man” is executed.

January 17: The Reich issue an order forbidding anyone of Jewish nationality to practice as chemists, veterinarians and dentists, one of the major 1939 events of the month.

January 20: Adolf Hitler, German politician and leader of the Nazi Party proclaims his intention to exterminate all European Jews to parliament.

January 25: Enrico Fermi takes part in the first ever nuclear fission experiment (splitting of a uranium atom) alongside John R. Dunning and Herbert L. Anderson.

January 30: Adolf Hitler threatens Jews whilst addressing parliament, claiming if “international Jewish financiers” lead the world into another war, it will cause “annihilation of the Jewish race in Europe.”

The first Anderson Bomb Shelter is built in Islington, London

February

February 2: The Belgian Spaak government led by Paul-Henri Spaak, falls.

February 6: The Spanish government flees to France. Francisco Franco is now the Spanish general ruling Spain.

February 14: The German battleship “Bismarck”, named after Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, is launched in Hamburg.

February 16: At 26, the Jewish political and cabaret writer, Jura Soyfer, dies at Buchenwald concentration camp.

February 20: Founded in 1936 to promote Nazism in America, the German American Bund hold a rally in New York, drawing 20,000 supporters.

February 22: The Netherlands formally recognises the Franco regime in Spain, led by General Francisco Franco.

February 24: The anti-Communist pact is signed by Hungary, with Germany, Italy and Japan.

February 25: The first Anderson bomb shelter is erected in an Islington garden in Britain.

February 27: In the Leser v. Garnett case, the US Supreme Court upholds the 19th Amendment to the Constitution that guarantees women the right to vote.

February 27: Britain and France recognise the Franco regime as Spain’s government, one of the pivotal 1939 events to arise in this month.

Mahatma Gandhi during his Mumbai fast

March

March 2: Howard Carter, the lead archaeologist on the discovery of the Tomb of Tutankhamen in 1922 dies.

March 3: Pacifist and Spiritual Leader, Mahatma Gandhi, begins a fast in Mumbai, Bombay, in protest against the autocratic rule in India.

March 14: The Republic of Czechoslovakia is dissolved by Nazi Germany.

March 15: Bohemia and Moravia are occupied by German military and become a German protectorate. Slovakia and Ruthenice become independent, encouraged by Germany.

March 16: Germany occupies the rest of the Czech. Hitler delivers the famous words: “Czechoslovakia has ceased to exist”.

March 16: The Republic of Karpato-Ukraine is annexed by Hungary.

March 20: 7,000 Jews flee German-occupied Memel Lithuania in fear of Hitler’s rule.

March 21: Germany demands Gdansk (Danzig) from Poland.

March 28: Poland formally rejects Hitler’s demand that Danzig is ceded to Germany.

March 31: Britain and France agree to support Poland in the event of German invasion.

Winston Churchill and Joseph Stalin share a smile

April

April 1: Following the end of the Spanish civil war, the United States recognises the Franco government in Spain.

April 3: “Fall Weiss” is issued by Adolf Hitler to the Army High Command to prepare for an attack on Poland and to be implemented on September 1st.

April 6: Great Britain and Poland sign a military pact.

April 8: Under the Fascist dictatorship of Benito Mussolini, Italy seizes the country of Albania.

April 10: Hendrikus Colijn’s Dutch Government opens Westerbork Transit Camp for German Jews.

April 11: Hungary leaves the League of Nations in accord with German opinion.

April 16: General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin, requests a British, French and Russian anti-Nazi pact.

April 19: In the event of war, Great Britain announces it will defend Denmark, Netherlands, and Switzerland.

April 17: USSR’s Joseph Stalin signs the British-France-Russian anti-German pact.

April 28: Adolf Hitler claims the German-Polish non-attack treaty is still in effect.

May 4: Kiichiro Hiranuma, the Japanese Prime Minister, declares Japan will support Germany and Italy in the event of an attack, but not immediately.

May 7: The “Rome-Berlin Axis” is announced between Germany and Italy, a military alliance under the so-called “Pact of Steel”.

May 11: Outer Mongolia at Nomonhan (Khalkin Gol) is attacked by the Japanese army.

May 13: The SS St Louis departs in Hamburg with over 937 passengers. The passengers include over 900 Jewish refugees.

May 17: Finland, Sweden and Norway reject Germany’s non-aggression pact offers.

May 19: British Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, signs the British-Russian anti-Nazi pact.

May 22: Joachim von Ribbentrop and Galeazzo Ciano, the foreign ministers of Germany and Italy, sign the “Pact of Steel” committing Germany and Italy to a military alliance.

May 23: Adolf Hitler proclaims he wants to move into Poland.

May 27: DC Comics publishes its second edition of the superhero comic, Batman.

May 27: The SS St Louis sails into Havana Bay, Cuba, with 937 Jewish passengers fleeing the Nazis but they are turned away and refused refuge.

June 1: The HMS Thetis, a British submarine, sinks in Liverpool Bay, claiming 99 lives.

June 1: Gerd von Rundstedt, the retired German Colonel-General returns to service as the commander of the Army Group South.

June 3: Winston Churchill in Collier’s magazine proclaims “Unless some change of heart or change of regime takes place in Germany she will deem it in her interest to make war, and this is more likely to happen in the present year than later on.”

June 4: The SS St. Louis is denied permission to land in Florida and is turned away. The ship holds 937 fleeing Jews from the Nazis.

June 7: George VI and Elizabeth become the first King and Queen of Britain to visit the United States of America.

June 11: King George VI and his wife, Queen Elizabeth taste their first ever hot dogs at Franklin D. Roosevelt’s party.

June 17: Eugen Weidmann, the convicted murderer is guillotined in Versailles and becomes the last man publicly executed in France.

June 21: Lou Gehrig, baseball legend is forced to retire due to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

June 24: Siam declares a new name for its country, “Thailand” which translates as “Free Land”.

June 29: The French and Turkish authorities orchestrate a referendum annexing Hatay, including the city of Antakya (Antioch).

July 3: Ernst Heinkel, a German aircraft designer, manufacturer and Wehrwirtschaftsführer demonstrates an 800-kph rocket plane to Hitler.

July 4: Lou Gehrig is the first Major League Baseball player to have his number retired. He makes his “luckiest man” speech.

July 6: Nazi Germans close down the last Jewish enterprises and businesses.

July 9: 6000 Indians meet to launch the Passive Resistance Campaign against apartheid and racial policy in South Africa.

July 10: Pius XI’s ban on Catholic participation in the racist right-wing Action Français is reversed by Pope Pius XII.

July 13: Musical legend, Frank Sinatra, records his first song with the Harry James Band, titled “From the Bottom of my Heart”.

July 18: Chiune Sugihara, a Japanese diplomat stationed in Lithuania starts helping people with transit visas across the Soviet Union to Japan.

July 23: Gandhi, the Indian activist, writes a letter to Adolf Hitler urging him to prevent a war which may reduce humanity to the savage state.

July 28: Fighting finally ceases across the border between the Soviet Union and Manchuria between Soviet and Japanese forces.

July 26: The London Times reports the discovery of a buried ship and other artefacts at Sutton Hoo.

August

August 2: Albert Einstein corresponds with President Franklin Roosevelt about using Uranium to develop the Atomic bomb.

August 8: The 7th Venice Film Festival is boycotted by the U.S. due to Benito Mussolini’s Fascist Italian regime.

August 15: The Wizard of Oz, directed by Victor Fleming and King Vidor, premieres at Grauman’s Chinese Theatre, Hollywood.

August 22: The Dutch border guards take position for German invasion pending Hitler’s order.

August 24: Germany and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics sign a 10-year non-aggression pact.

August 23: The Molotov-Ribbentrop non-aggression pact is agreed by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union to secretly divide Poland between themselves.

August 28: Clare Hollingworth, a journalist for The Telegraph, observes large numbers of troops and hundreds of tanks aligned along the Polish border, ready to attack.

August 30: Isoroku Yamamoto, is appointed the supreme commander of the Japanese fleet and is the acting Marshal Admiral of the Navy.

August 30: Poland begins mobilisation to defend itself, intercepting a possible attack from Germany.

August 31: Nazis dress as Poles to “provoke” war and stage a “Polish” assault on a radio station in Gleiwitz as an excuse for Germany to invade Poland.

September

September 1: Germany invades Poland using Blitzkrieg, or “lightning war” by attacking the free City of Danzig. Adolf Hitler also initiates the T4 Euthanasia Program, ordering the extermination of the mentally ill.

September 3: Great Britain declares war on Germany. France shortly follows, including Australia, New Zealand, South Africa & Canada.

September 4: German troops move into the free city of Danzig. The Nazi ghetto, Mir in occupied Poland, is exterminated. “Bloody Monday” is in full force a day later in Czestochowa, Poland. Approximately 150 Jews were shot dead by the Germans.

September 4: The Netherlands and Belgium declare neutrality amidst the growing conflict whilst the RAF raid German warships based in the Heligoland Bight.

September 6: Jan Smuts, leader of the new South African government, declares war on Germany after a vote on the previous day by the South African parliament rejecting a motion to remain neutral in the war.

September 6: Egypt also breaks ties with Germany. The French government begins rounding up German citizens. The first German air attack on Britain begins.

September 17: The British aircraft carrier, Courageous, is sunk by the German U-29. 519 die.

September 21: One of the head Nazi leaders, Reinhard Heydrich, meets in Berlin to discuss the final solution of Jews.

September 27: After 19 days of resistance and German Luftwaffe strikes with (fire)bombs, Warsaw surrenders to the Germans.

September 30: Britain first evacuates citizens in anticipation of war.

Winston Churchill delivers a speech

October

October 1: Amidst the outbreak of war on Britain, Winston Churchill makes his famous speech calling Russia a “riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma”.

October 6: In one of the most important 1939 events of the month, Adolf Hitler denies claims he intends to go to war against Britain and France. He announces his plans to solve the “Jewish problem” and the last Polish army is defeated.

October 11: Theoretical Physicist, Albert Einstein, informs FDR of the possibilities of an atomic bomb.

October 14: Commanded by Kapitan Gunther Prien, the German U-47 sinks British battleship HMS Royal Oak. 833 are killed.

October 19: Throughout Nazi-occupied areas, the Nazi politician, Hermann Goering, plunders through art treasures. The right-wing opponent, Ulrich von Hassell declares Germany’s good name is being disgraced.

October 24: In one of the defining 1939 events in Adolf Hitler’s regime, Nazis require Jews to wear the Star of David to be recognised and segregated.

October 26: Adolf Hitler forces Polish Jews into obligatory work service, an act of slave labour.

October 28: One of the most crucial things that happened in 1939, Anti-German demonstrations and strikes take place in Czechoslovakia. A Spitfire shoots down a German Heinkel-111.

October 30: Germany and the USSR agree on partitioning Poland and Adolf Hitler begins deporting Jews.

October 30: With Winston Churchill, Charles Forbes and Dudley Pound aboard, the English battleship “Nelson” is attacked by a German U boat but the attack fails.

November

November 4: In the U.S, Congress amends the Neutrality Act allowing “cash and carry” arms sales to aid Britain and France.

November 6: 184 professors are arrested in Krakow and deported under “Sonderaktion Krakau”, the Nazi operation against academics.

November 8: Of the most important 1939 events this month, a failed assassination attempt is made on Adolf Hitler’s life in Burgerbraukeller, Munich.

November 12: In Lodz, Poland, Jews are ordered to wear the yellow star of David by the Nazis.

November 15: In Czechoslovakia, Anti-German demonstrations break out. Nazis begin their mass murder of Warsaw Jews.

November 16: 120 miles southeast of Rockall, the Sliedrecht is stopped and documents examined. The tanker is subsequently torpedoed by a German U-boat.

November 24: The Gestapo in Czechoslovakia execute 120 students accused of anti-Nazi plotting.

November 26: Soviets charge Finland with an artillery attack. The Foreign Minister V.M. Molotov accuses Finnish troops of firing at the Russians.

November 28: Pending the accusations against Finland two days earlier, the Soviet Government scraps the Russian-Finnish non-aggression pact.

November 30: The Russo-Finnish war begins. Stalin attacks Finland with 540,000 men, 2000 guns and 2486 tanks. Helsinki is bombed.

“Er – Excuse Me, Fuehrer!” 15th December 1939
Adolf Hitler reads newspaper headline Bremen Safe, whilst Dr Joseph Goebbels holding a newspaper with the headline Graf Spee Battered try’s to get the attention of the Fuehrer

December

December 1: Leading Nazi and Reichsführer of the SS, Heinrich Himmler begins deportation of Polish Jews.

December 13: The Battle of River Plate commences three British cruisers, the “Exeter”, “Ajax”, and “Achilles” fight against German pocket battleship “Graf Spee”.

December 14: After the 105-day Russo-Finnish war, the League of Nations expels the Soviet Union for attacking Finland.

December 16: In the U.S., immediate congressional action on equal rights is urged by the National Women’s Party, founded by Alice Paul and Lucy Burns.

December 17: In the Battle of River Plate near Montevideo, Uruguay, the German pocket battleship “Graf Spee” is trapped by the British.

December 18: German battleship “Graf Spee” is scuttled by its crew members believing resistance is hopeless, trapped by the British cruisers.

December 19: Finnish positions near Summa are thwarted by Russian air and ground attack just a day after the Finnish army recaptures Agläjärvi.

December 20: German captain of the “Graf Spee”, Hans Langsdorff, commits suicide.

December 21: Adolf Hitler names Adolf Eichmann, a high-ranking Nazi SS Officer as the leader of “Referat IV B”, responsible for evictions and Jewish immigration.

December 22: A chain of cataclysmic 1939 events occurs: a train wreck at Magdeburg, Germany kills 125 a Finnish counter offensive at Petsamo is actioned and 99 die in a train wreck at Friedrichshafen, Germany.


Records, RG 114

Established: In the Department of Agriculture (commonly, USDA) by Secretary's Memorandum 1010-1, October 20, 1994, implementing section 246 of the Federal Crop Insurance Reform and Department of Agriculture Reorganization Act of 1994 (108 Stat. 3223), October 13, 1994.

Predecessor Agencies:
Soil Erosion Service (SES), Department of the Interior (1933-35)
SES, Department of Agriculture (USDA, March 23-April 27, 1935)
Soil Conservation Service, USDA (1935-94)

Functions: Provides technical and financial assistance to land users and units of government with the aim of sustaining agricultural activity and protecting natural resources. Responsibilities include making and subsidizing loans for agricultural land purchase and preservation operating test centers for plants with conservation potential issuing the Natural Resources Inventory every five years conducting the National Cooperative Soil Survey, and river basin surveys, in collaboration with state, local, and other Federal agencies promoting flood protection projects and administering such regional programs as the Great Plains Conservation Program, the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Program, and, in 11 western states and Alaska, the Snow Survey and Water Supply Forecasting Program.

Finding Aids: Guy A. Lee and Freeland F. Penney, comps., "Preliminary Checklist of Records of the Soil Conservation Service, 1928-43," PC 52 (May 1947) William J. Heynen, comp., Preliminary Inventory of the Cartographic Records of the Soil Conservation Service, PI 195 (1981) and partial inventory in National Archives microfiche edition of preliminary inventories.

Related Records:
Record copies of publications of the Soil Conservation Service in RG 287, Publications of the U.S. Government.
Records of the Bureau of Plant Industry, Soils, and Agricultural Engineering, RG 54.
Records of the Forest Service, RG 95.
Records of the Bureau of Reclamation, RG 115.

114.2 General Records of the Soil Erosion Service and the Soil
Conservation Service
1915-77

History: Soil Erosion Service (SES) established as a temporary agency in the Department of the Interior, September 13, 1933, without formal order pursuant to provisions of the National Industrial Recovery Act (48 Stat. 201), June 16, 1933, to administer unemployment relief funds used for erosion control. Conducted the national reconnaissance erosion survey, 1934. Transferred to the Department of Agriculture by order of the Secretary of the Interior (in his capacity as Federal Emergency Administrator of Public Works), March 23, 1935, with Presidential approval, March 25, 1935. Effective April 1, 1935, by Agriculture Secretary's memorandum 665, March 27, 1935, SES acquired erosion control experiment stations operated by the Bureau of Chemistry and Soils and the Bureau of Agricultural Engineering the Erosion Plant Nurseries of the Bureau of Plant Industry and erosion control Emergency Conservation Work camps of the Forest Service. SES abolished, with functions transferred to newly established Soil Conservation Service (SCS), by Secretary's Memorandum 673, April 27, 1935, implementing provisions of the Soil Erosion Act (49 Stat. 163), April 27, 1935, also known as the Jones-Dempsey Soil Erosion Act. SCS transferred to the Agricultural Conservation and Adjustment Administration by EO 9069, February 23, 1942 to the Food Production Administration by EO 9280, December 5, 1942 to the Administration of Food Production and Distribution by EO 9322, March 26, 1943, redesignated War Food Administration (WFA) by EO 9334, April 19, 1943 to autonomous status within WFA by WFA Memorandum 27, supplement 4, January 21, 1944 to independent status within USDA upon abolishment of WFA by EO 9577, June 29, 1945. Abolished, effective October 20, 1994, with functions transferred to newly established Natural Resources Conservation Service. See 114.1.

114.2.1 Records of the Office of the Administrator

Textual Records: General correspondence, 1933-41 (943 ft.). Letters sent, 1933-39. Organization and function charts, 1935-43. Scientific studies and administrative reports, 1935-41. Correspondence of SCS Chief Hugh H. Bennett, 1924-47. Correspondence of the SCS administrator, 1947-75, with index, 1961-68. Letters sent by the administrator, 1957-72, with indexes, 1935-71. Legislation file, 1949-68. Progress reports, 1938-74. Cooperative agreements, 1935-46. Minutes of the Inter- Agency Committee on Water Resources, 1955-65. Records of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Advisory Committee on Alaska, 1947-53. Records relating to postwar planning committees, 1941-47. Correspondence, 1937-42, annual reports, 1956-58, project plans and reports, 1935-42, and records relating to conservation districts, 1935-53. Flood control recommendations, Water Resources Program, Northwestern United States, 1935-41. Correspondence of Assistant Chief, SCS, Walter C. Lowdermilk, 1930-47. Regional handbooks, 1934-42.

Maps and Charts: SCS regional boundaries, soil conservation districts, and field activities, 1936-70 (62 items). Drainage basins, 1935-50 (3 items). Great Plains Wind Erosion Region (Dust Bowl), 1939, 1950-55 (10 items). Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, MD, 1938-39 (22 items). Farm conservation plan, Clarke County, GA, 1950 (1 item). Organizational and functional charts, 1936-53 (10 items). Miscellaneous base maps, 1935 and n.d. (6 items). See also 114.15.

Photographs: Soil erosion, collected by SCS Chief Hugh H. Bennett, 1930-34 (3,600 images). See also 114.16.

114.2.2 Records of the Office of the Deputy Administrator for
Management and its predecessors

Textual Records: Ledger books of the Budget and Finance Division, 1935-41. Records of the Information Division and its predecessor, the Information and Education Division, consisting of publications, 1915-51 field memorandums for the District of Columbia, 1937-42 SCS historical files, 1949-65 annual reports, 1934-70 and miscellaneous records relating to the Soil Stewardship Week campaigns, 1939-77, the Great Plains Program, 1965-71, and the Produce More--Protect More Campaign, 1973-74. Records of the Personnel Division and its predecessor, the Personnel Management Division, consisting of a microfilm copy of inactive personnel history cards for persons retiring between 1935 and 1946, ca. 1948-50 (513 rolls), with name index regional organizational charts, 1953-54 and records relating to foreign programs, 1960-64.

114.3 Records Relating to Land Utilization Programs
1933-52

History: Federal purchase of marginal farm land for retirement from agricultural use initiated in 1934 as a joint project of the Land Program Unit, Federal Emergency Relief Administration, and the Land Policy Section, Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA), utilizing funds from the National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933. Land Program Unit transferred to newly established Resettlement Administration by EO 7027, April 30, 1935. Consolidated in Resettlement Administration with AAA Land Policy Section, which had been transferred shortly thereafter, to form Land Utilization Division. Resettlement Administration transferred to Department of Agriculture by EO 7530, December 31, 1936, and terminated by Secretary's Memorandum 732, September 1, 1937, with land utilization functions assigned to the Bureau of Agricultural Economics. Administration of the program transferred to SCS, effective November 1, 1938, by Secretary's Memorandum 785, October 6, 1938, and vested in Land Acquisition, Land Management, and Institutional Adjustment Divisions. under departmental and SCS reorganization pursuant to Secretary's Memorandum 1320, supplement 4, November 2, 1953, land utilization program functions transferred to Forest Service, January 4, 1954.

114.3.1 Headquarters records

Textual Records: Program historical file, 1933-40. General files, 1934-39. Job plans, 1935-38. Case files of approved projects, 1934-39. Case files of unapproved projects, 1934-36. Narrative reports on projects, 1935-37. Records of conservation projects LD-TX and LD-OK, at Lost Pines (Bastrop County, TX), and Jack Fork Mountain (Atoka, Latimer, Pittsburgh, and Pushmataha Counties, OK), 1936. Microfilm copy of vendors' land title case files, 1933-39 (290 rolls). Records of the Land Acquisition Division, consisting of correspondence, 1940-42 and records relating to options, 1935-45. Correspondence of the Land Management Division, 1934-39.

Photographs: Land utilization project construction work ("Photographs of Work on Jobs"), primarily from the collection of W.M. Russell, Chief, Division of Land Development, but including also photographs from the Project Plans Division, 1933-42 (2,814 images). See also 114.16.

Maps: Land Acquisition Division project maps, 1934- 42 (1,291 items). Land utilization project maps, 1934-39 (2,248 items). U.S., regional, and state maps showing the locations of land utilization and related projects, 1934-52 (123 items). Regional administrative maps, 1935-38 (11 items). Problem area and land use planning maps, 1934-39 (25 items). Soil maps, Resettlement Administration Region IX (Southwest), 1936 (230 items). Northern Great Plains land utilization research maps, 1938 (8 items). Miscellaneous, specimen, and base maps, 1936-39 (62 items). See also 114.15.

114.3.2 Field records

History: Land utilization projects were administered by field offices of the AAA Land Policy Section (1934-35), Resettlement Administration (1935-37), Bureau of Agricultural Economics (1937- 38), and SCS (1938-53). The records described below represent cities which, in 1937, were headquarters of Resettlement Administration Region 6 (AR, LA, MS), Little Rock, AR Region 7 (NE, ND, SD, and parts of KS and WY), Lincoln, NE Region 8 (most of TX and OK part of KS), Dallas TX and Region 12 (NM southeast CO west TX, OK, KS), Amarillo, TX.

Textual Records: Records (in Fort Worth) of offices in Amarillo, TX, 1937-42 Dallas, TX, 1934-39 and Little Rock, AR, 1934-38. Records of the Lincoln, NE, office, 1936-38 (in Kansas City).

114.4 Records of the Office of Research
1875-1953 (bulk 1926-41)

History: Established as Division of Research by SCS Field Memorandum 253, February 10, 1936, with responsibility for erosion control research and for management of erosion control experiment stations previously under the Division of Drainage and Erosion Control, Bureau of Agricultural Engineering, and the Soil Erosion and Moisture Conservation Investigations, Soil Investigations Division, Bureau of Chemistry and Soils. Became the Office of Research by SCS Field Memorandum 795, June 20, 1939. Abolished, effective January 16, 1953, with research functions transferred to Agricultural Research Service, pursuant to Secretary's Memorandum 1318, October 14, 1952.

114.4.1 General records

Textual Records: Correspondence and miscellaneous records, 1928- 34, of Soil Erosion Service and SCS Director Hugh H. Bennett, primarily as Director, Soil Erosion and Moisture Conservation Investigations (1928-34). Reports and correspondence of the Soil Erosion and Moisture Conservation Investigations, 1929-35. Correspondence of the Division of Drainage and Erosion Control, 1931-34. General administrative records of the Division of Research, 1935-40. Research information files, 1929-40. Research summaries, 1941. Correspondence with regional offices, 1935-39. Records relating to projects, 1935-38. Records of the Soil Erosion Investigations Studies Section, including administrative files, 1929-35 an information file on the Northwest Appalachian Erosion Experiment Station (Zanesville, OH), 1926-34 farm census reports, 1929-35 and erosion history (1834-1922) data cards, n.d. Catalog of publications relating to the SCS, ca. 1920-40. Records of the Emergency Conservation Work Program, 1933-35 and of the Agricultural Conservation Program, 1936-53. Research project subject files, 1943-51. Rainfall and runoff studies, 1936-43. Records relating to soil and water control in the Everglades region, 1938-47.

Maps and Charts: Soil erosion investigations, 1930-33 (140 items). See also 114.15.

Maps: Research activity locations in the United States, 1939, 1949 (3 items). Alaska farmlands, n.d. (1 item). "Survey of Land Use in the Old World," 1941, derived from soil erosion survey conducted by Walter C. Lowdermilk, Chief of the Division and Office of Research, 1938-39 (120 items). See also 114.15.

Photographs: By Walter C. Lowdermilk, Chief of the Division and Office of Research, dealing with SCS erosion control experiments in Puerto Rico, 1937-38 (WCLM, 321 images) and land utilization, soil conservation, and flood control practices in Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East, 1938-39 (L, 428 images), and in China, 1942-43 (L, 836 images). See also 114.16.

114.4.2 Records of the Conservation Experiment Stations Division

History: Erosion control experiment stations at Bethany, MO Clarinda, IA Fort Hays, KS Guthrie, OK La Crosse, WI Pullman, WA Statesville, NC Temple, TX Tyler, TX and Zanesville, OH, transferred to Soil Erosion Service from Bureau of Chemistry and Soils and Bureau of Agricultural Engineering, April 1, 1935. Additional stations established, 1935-39, at Amarillo (Dalhart), TX Athens, GA Beemerville-Marlboro, NJ Dixon Springs, IL Ithaca, NY McCredie, MO Marcellus, NY Mexican Springs, NM and State College, PA. Hydrologic studies conducted at Auburn, AL East Lansing, MI and Logan, UT. Small-plot experiments conducted at Bozeman, MT Brookings, SD College Park, MD and Iola, KS. Infiltration studies conducted at Edwardsville, OK. Work of stations supervised by Soil and Water Conservation Investigations Section, established by SCS Field Memorandum 253, February 10, 1936 redesignated Conservation Experiment Stations Division by SCS Field Memorandum 795, June 20, 1939 and consolidated with Climatic and Physiographic Division (See 114.4.5), Economics Division, and Hillculture Division (See 114.4.8) to form Erosion Control Practices Division by SCS Field Memorandum 1061, May 5, 1942.

Textual Records: Correspondence with experiment stations, 1929- 40. Annual reports of stations, 1929-37. Monthly progress reports, 1940-41. Miscellaneous records, 1934-38. Records of experiment stations at Amarillo, TX Cheyenne Wells, CO Dalhart, TX Elkhart, KS Fort Hays, KS and Iola, KS, 1934-45.

Maps and Charts: Station locations, 1931-37 (4 items). Activities at Fort Hays station, 1930-37 (87 items), and at La Crosse station, 1935-39 (11 items). Sand dune project, Dalhart, TX, 1936-39 (60 items). Topography of Mexican Springs, NM, 1934 (1 item). See also 114.15.

114.4.3 Records of the Watershed and Hydrologic Studies Section
and the Hydrologic Division

History: Watershed and hydrologic research projects formally organized as Watershed and Hydrologic Studies Section by SCS Field Memorandum 253, February 10, 1936. Redesignated Hydrologic Division by SCS Field Memorandum 795, June 20, 1939. Consolidated with the Sedimentation Studies Division (See 114.4.4) and Farm Drainage Division (114.4.6) to form Water Conservation and Disposal Practices Division (114.4.9) by SCS Field Memorandum 1061, May 5, 1942.

Textual Records: Stress gauge records for Ralston Creek, IA, 1930. Miscellaneous studies, 1928-30. Correspondence, work plans, and weekly reports, 1935-40. Correspondence with hydrologic laboratories, 1935-42. Subject files, 1936-48.

Maps and Charts: Organizational and functional charts, 1936 (7 items). Numbered map file, 1925-41 (628 items). Graphs and tables of experiment station rainfall and runoff studies, 1927-42 (1,920 items) and of National Hydraulic Laboratory measuring flume studies, 1936-38 (16 items). Miscellaneous maps illustrating research activities, selection of experimental watersheds, and Everglades, FL, drainage districts, 1936-47 (25 items). See also 114.15.

Architectural and Engineering Plans: Hydrologic equipment, 1935-38 (173 items). See also 114.15.

114.4.4 Records of the Sedimentation Studies Section and
Sedimentation Studies Division

History: Sedimentation and hydraulic research projects formally organized as Hydrodynamic Studies Section by SCS Field Memorandum 253, February 10, 1936, and redesignated Sedimentation Studies Section by November 1937. Redesignated Sedimentation Studies Division by SCS Field Memorandum 795, June 20, 1939. Consolidated with the Hydrologic Division (see 114.4.3) and Farm Drainage Division (114.4.6) to form Water Conservation and Disposal Practices Division (see 114.4.9) by SCS Field Memorandum 1061, May 5, 1942.

Textual Records: Work plans and studies, 1935-37. Field survey notebooks, 1934-47. Index to literature on sedimentation (1861- 1939), n.d.

Maps and Charts: General maps showing sedimentation studies in progress, 1947-48 (1 item) sedimentation effects of the 1937 Ohio River floods, 1937-38 (148 items), and the 1938 floods in Southern California, 1938-40 (1,060 items) sedimentation studies of the Upper Arkansas River, CO, 1938-43 (18 items), and Lower Colorado River, TX, n.d. (2 items) and siltation studies of the Chesapeake Bay, 1943-44 (46 items), and Pajaro River, CA, 1940 (15 items). Topographic maps of the area to be flooded by Lake Mead, AZ and NV, 1937 (52 items). Miscellaneous maps and base maps of selected Wyoming counties, 1936-37 (19 maps). General maps of the Reservoir Section, 1935-45 (70 items) maps documenting reservoir sedimentation in the Central Valley, CA, 1947 (6 items) and sedimentation survey maps and cross sections, 1934-47 (3,380 items). Stream and Valley Section maps and cross sections, 1936-42 (890 items) and miscellaneous sedimentation maps, 1936, 1950, n.d. (6 items). Bedload Section maps of work at Bedload Experiment Stations at Dadeville (South Sandy Creek), AL, 1936-37 Statesville (Rocky Creek), NC, 1936-37 and Greenville (Enoree River), SC, 1936-41 (227 items). See also 114.15.

Architectural and Engineering Plans: Reservoir Section shallow-water mud sampler, 1941 (22 items). Bedload Section construction drawings, 1936 (18 items). See also 114.15.

Photographs: Sedimentation studies, showing rivers, dams, reservoirs, floods, and topographical features throughout the United States, 1935-46 (SSWR, SS, WR 6,190 images). See also 114.16.

114.4.5 Records of the Climatic and Physiographic Studies Section
and the Climatic and Physiographic Division

History: Climatic and physiographic research projects formally organized as Climatic and Physiographic Research Section by SCS Field Memorandum 253, February 10, 1936, redesignated Climatic and Physiographic Factors of Erosion Studies Section by November 1937, and Climatic and Physiographic Studies Section by June 30, 1938. Redesignated Climatic and Physiographic Division by SCS Field Memorandum 795, June 20, 1939. Consolidated with the Economics Division, Hillculture Division (See 114.4.8), and Conservation Experiment Stations Division (See 114.4.2) to form Erosion Control Practices Division by SCS Field Memorandum 1061, May 5, 1942.

Textual Records: Experiment station transpiration journals, 1897- 1922. Historical summaries of excess precipitation (1860-1931), n.d. Precipitation data for Mesquite Flats, NM, 1943-45. Weather data for Muskingum River watershed, 1937-41, and for selected eastern cities, 1897-1939. Erosion history and weather reports, 1936-40. Miscellaneous weather reports, 1875-1939.

Maps and Charts: General maps, 1921-42 (26 items). Maps of the Climatic Section relating to vegetation, precipitation, growing seasons, rainfall patterns, temperatures, and climate, 1933-42 (2,223 items). Physiographic Section maps of geomorphological studies of Polacca Wash, AZ, 1934-41 Spartanburg, SC, 1936-40 and Muskingum River, OH, n.d. (436 items). Maps of special studies for Oklahoma, 1932-36 (216 items) Kingfisher Microclimatic Project, OK, 1935-37 (34,826 items) Muskingum Watershed Microclimatic Project, OH, 1937-42 (126,698 items) and Enoree River Basin, SC, 1939-40 (3,000 items). See also 114.15.

Charts: Rain gauge charts of the Climatic and Physiographic Studies Section, 1936 (1,300 items). See also 114.15.

114.4.6 Records of the Farm Drainage Division

History: Established by SCS Field Memorandum 795, June 20, 1939. Consolidated with the Hydrologic Division (See 114.4.3) and Sedimentation Studies Division (114.4.4) to form Water Conservation and Disposal Practices Division (114.4.9) by SCS Field Memorandum 1061, May 5, 1942.

Textual Records: Land utilization records, 1921-22. Mississippi Statewide Drainage Survey field notebooks, 1939-40.

Maps and Charts: Numbered map file, 1903-41 (5,000 items), with card index. Drainage maps for the Red River of the North (MN, ND, SD), 1920 (27 items) and for the Big Four Drainage District, Ford County, IL, 1937 (15 items). Graphs and tables relating to terraces and terracing, 1937 and n.d. (14 items) and to drainage formulas, 1937-40 (11 items). Miscellaneous maps, 1937-38, 1940, 1946-48 (31 items). See also 114.15.

Architectural and Engineering Plans: Miscellaneous subjects, 1938 (5 items). See also 114.15.

114.4.7 Records of the Farm Irrigation Division

History: Established by SCS Field Memorandum 795, June 20, 1939. Abolished by transfer of function, 1953.

Maps and Charts: Maps of the western United States showing irrigation assistance, n.d., and snow-course network, 1936 (2 items). Stream flow and water use on the Colorado River, 1937 (1 item). Irrigation maps of CA and TX, 1922 and n.d. (4 items). See also 114.15.

Architectural and Engineering Plans: Construction plans of irrigation ditch sand traps, 1938-48 (4 items). See also 114.15.

114.4.8 Records of the Hill Culture Research Section and the
Hillculture Division

History: Established as Hill Culture Research Section by SCS Field Memorandum 253, February 10, 1936. Redesignated Hillculture Division by SCS Field Memorandum 795, June 20, 1939. Consolidated with the Economics Division, Climatic and Physiographic Division (see 114.4.5), and Conservation Experiment Stations Division (see 114.4.2) to form Erosion Control Practices Division by SCS Field Memorandum 1061, May 5, 1942.

Textual Records: General records, 1936-40. Index card catalog, 1939-40. Miscellaneous records relating to plants, 1937-40. Hillculture projects and research proposals, 1937-44.

Maps and Charts: Climate and vegetation, arboretums, and California soils, 1936-41 (11 items). See also 114.15.

Photographs: Research projects, 1933-48 (HC, 4,000 images). See also 114.16.

114.4.9 Records of the Water Conservation and Disposal Practices
Division

History: Established by consolidation of Hydrologic Division (SEE 114.4.3), Sedimentation Studies Division (see 114.4.4), and Farm Drainage Division (see 114.4.6) by SCS Field Memorandum 1061, May 5, 1942. Abolished by transfer of function, 1953.

Textual Records: Personnel correspondence of the Sedimentation Section, 1935-41. Technical records of the Upper Arkansas, CO, and Middle Rio Grande, NM, drainage areas, 1938-43. Records of the Enoree River, SC, Bedload Experiment Station, 1935-43. Hydrologic and hydraulic studies, correspondence, and reports, 1940-52.

Maps and Charts: Hydrologic and hydraulic studies, 1941-42 (204 items). See also 114.15.

114.5 Records of Field Services Units
1885-1972 (bulk 1930-59)

History: Established as Field Operations, 1935, and redesignated Division of Conservation Operations by SCS Field Memorandum 253, February 10, 1936, with responsibility for agronomy, range, woodland, and wildlife management plant nurseries erosion control demonstration projects and other direct applications of soil conservation. Redesignated Office of Technical Operations by SCS Field Memorandum 795, June 20, 1939. Consolidated with Office of Surveys and Project Plans to form Office of Operations by SCS Field Memorandum 1061, May 5, 1942. Office of Operations abolished and its functional divisions assigned to offices headed by Assistant Administrators for Soil Survey (see 114.6) and Field Services by SCS Administrator's Memorandum, November 27, 1953. Watershed and flood control units detached from Field Services, effective November 1, 1958, by SCS Advisory Notice W-625, October 29, 1958, and placed under an Assistant Administrator for Watersheds (see 114.7). Assistant Administrator for Field Services redesignated Deputy Administrator, 1963. Existing deputy administrators redesignated assistant administrators, 1976, with Assistant Administrator for Field Services and Assistant Administrator for Soil Survey assigned to newly established Deputy Administrator for Technical Services. In 1980, a further reorganization abolished positions of deputy and assistant administrators and assigned field services functions to Deputy Chief for Technology Development and Application, and in 1983 reorganization to Deputy Chief for Technology.

114.5.1 General records

Textual Records: Records of Carl Brown, Chief of the Planning Division (1954-58), relating to Japan, 1949-54, and to sedimentation, 1949-55.

Maps: Demonstration projects, 1934-38 (248 items). Water facilities farm plans, Gila River Area, AZ, 1935-41 (250 items). See also 114.15.

Architectural and Engineering Plans: Pasture contour furrowing machine developed at the Limestone Creek Demonstration Project, Mankato, KS, 1935 (1 item). See also 114.15.

114.5.2 Records of the Nursery Division

History: Established as Nurseries Section in the Division of Conservation Operations, 1936. Became Nursery Division, 1939. Consolidated into Plant Technology Division (see 114.5.5), 1954.

Textual Records: Records of the Milkweed Floss Program, 1942-45. Reports, 1935-43. Records of the Allegan, MI, Nursery, 1939-48. Records of the Ames, IA, Nursery, 1934-39 (in Kansas City).

Map: Plant nursery at Ash Creek, near Safford, AZ, 1935 (1 item). See also 114.15.

114.5.3 Records of the Engineering Division

History: Established as Engineering Division under Field Operations, 1935. Became Engineering Section, Division of Conservation Operations, by SCS Field Memorandum 253, February 10, 1936, and Engineering Division, Office of Technical Operations, by SCS Field Memorandum 795, June 20, 1939. Abolished, January 22, 1952. Reestablished under Field Services, December 11, 1953. Assigned to Deputy Chief for Technology Development and Application, 1980, and to Deputy Chief for Technology, 1983.

Textual Records: Inspection reports, Louisiana, 1935-36 (in Fort Worth). Records of Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) drainage camps, including correspondence, contracts, and completion reports, 1935-40. Drainage studies ("Marsden Permanent Files"), 1911-39. State project files, 1905-40. Records of the Mississippi Statewide Survey, 1936-41. Correspondence relating to statewide surveys, 1907-41. Mississippi and Texas infiltration studies, 1939-40. Technical files, 1885-1943, with index, 1898-1941. Records relating to terracing, 1930-43. State project working files, 1947-52. Group facilities and project reports, 1947-51. Records relating to water projects, 1938-42.

Maps: Corrected hydrologic station maps of watersheds, 1959 (202 items). Drainage problem areas in the northeastern United States, 1955 (1 item). Silt deposition at the National Zoo, Washington, DC, 1951 (2 items). See also 114.15.

114.5.4 Records of the Project Plans Division

History: Established under the Office of Surveys and Project Plans by SCS Field Memorandum 795, June 20, 1939. Became Farm and Ranch Planning Division, January 22, 1952, and Farm and Ranch Planning Branch, Planning Division, December 11, 1953. Redesignated Farm and Ranch Planning Division, 1959. Superseded by Resource and Development Division, 1965.

Textual Records: Records relating to water facilities programs, 1938-45.

114.5.5 Records of the Plant Science Division

History: Established as Engineering Practices Division, January 22, 1952, consolidating previously independent Agronomy, Biology, Forestry, Land Management, Nursery, and Range Divisions of the Office of Operations. Became Plant Technology Division, December 11, 1953. Redesignated Plant Science Division, 1965. Superseded by Ecological Sciences and Technology Division, 1977.

Textual Records: Records relating to SCS biologists, 1936-72.

114.6 Records of Soil Survey Units
1933-74

History: Conservation Surveys Division established under Field Operations, 1935, and designated a section in the Division of Conservation Operations by SCS Field Memorandum 253, February 10, 1936. Transferred with Cartography Section and Flood Control Surveys Section to newly established Division of Watershed and Conservation Surveys, by SCS Field Memorandum 497, July 7, 1937, redesignated Office of Surveys and Project Plans (OSPP) by SCS Field Memorandum 795, June 20, 1939, with Conservation Surveys Section and Flood Control Surveys Section consolidated to form Physical Surveys Division. OSPP and Office of Technical Operations consolidated by SCS Field Memorandum 1061, May 5, 1942, to form Office of Operations, with Physical Surveys Division redesignated Soil Conservation Surveys Division. Functions of Soil Survey Division, Bureau of Plant Industry, Soils, and Agricultural Engineering (see RG 54), transferred to SCS, effective November 15, 1952, by Secretary's Memorandum 1318, October 14, 1952. Soil survey functions realigned in reorganization following abolishment of Office of Operations by SCS Administrator's Memorandum, November 27, 1953, with Soil Conservation Surveys Division abolished and four new divisions (Soil Classification and Correlation, Soil Survey Interpretation, Soil Survey Investigations, and Soil Survey Operations) established under the Assistant Administrator for Soil Survey, redesignated Deputy Administrator, 1963, to whom was also assigned Cartography Division. Deputy Administrator redesignated Assistant Administrator, 1976, and assigned with Assistant Administrator for Field Services to newly established Deputy Administrator for Technical Services. Deputy and assistant administrators abolished, 1980, and soil survey functions, consolidated as Soil Survey Division, assigned to Deputy Chief for Natural Resource Assessments. Reassigned, 1983, to Deputy Chief for Assessment and Planning.

Textual Records: General records, 1935-51. Records of Roy D. Hockensmith, Chief of the Soil Conservation Surveys Division, 1934-68. Files of J. Gordon Steele, Chief of the Surveys Analysis Section, 1946-51. Regional correspondence, 1945-46. Field memorandums, 1935-53. Records relating to the United Nations Conference on Soil Science, 1949-51. Records relating to international soil science, 1965-68. Records of the Soil Survey Investigations Division, consisting of records relating to soil surveys in Asia and Africa, 1948-69, and "Soil 13" state surveys, 1956-71 and records relating to soil geomorphology, 1960-70, and soil taxonomy, 1972. Erosion survey mapping procedural outline, 1934. Instruction handbook for preparing land use capability and conservation survey maps, 1939.

Maps and Charts: Soil erosion in the United States, 1933-34 (9 items). Manuscript county and state maps compiled during the 1934 Reconnaissance Erosion Survey, 1934 (3,000 items), with card index. U.S. and state maps derived from the Reconnaissance Erosion Survey, 1935 (40 items). Soil erosion, conservation, and land use survey maps compiled by the Conservation Surveys Division, 1935-54 (2,081 items). Map files of Roy D. Hockensmith, 1945-55 (60 items). Land use map of New Jersey, 1954 (1 item). Published soil survey maps and reports, 1953-74 (943 items), and manuscript soil survey field sheets, 1954-70 (65,000 items), representing continuation by SCS of soil survey activities previously vested in Soil Survey Division of the Bureau of Plant Industry, Soils, and Agricultural Engineering. Maps compiled by the Cartographic Division, 1940-61 (48 items). See also 114.15.

Aerial Photographs: Demonstration projects, land utilization projects, soil conservation districts, and counties, principally in the southwestern United States, compiled by the Cartographic Division, 1934-49 (484,900 items). See also 114.15.

Finding Aids: Charles E. Taylor and Richard E. Spurr, comps., Aerial Photographs in the National Archives, SL 25 (1971).

114.7 Records of Watershed and Flood Control Units
1929-76 (bulk 1936-76)

History: Watershed and flood control functions initially vested in Division of Watershed and Conservation Surveys, established by SCS Field Memorandum 497, July 7, 1937, and redesignated Office of Surveys and Project Plans by SCS Field Memorandum 795, June 20, 1939. Consolidated with Office of Technical Operations by SCS Field Memorandum 1061, May 5, 1942, to form Office of Operations. Office of Operations abolished by SCS Administrator's Memorandum, November 27, 1953, and watershed and flood control units assigned to Planning Division under the Assistant Administrator for Field Services (see 114.5). Responsibility for watersheds and flood control placed under a separate Assistant Administrator for Watersheds, effective November 1, 1958, by SCS Advisory Notice W- 625, October 29, 1958. Redesignated Deputy Administrator for Watersheds, 1963, and Deputy Administrator for Water Resources, 1974. SCS deputy administrators redesignated assistant administrators, 1976, with Assistant Administrator for Water Resources paired with newly created Assistant Administrator for Land Resources and assigned to Deputy Administrator for Programs. In 1980, a further reorganization abolished positions of deputy and assistant administrators and assigned watershed and flood control responsibilities to newly created Deputy Chief for Natural Resource Projects, and in 1983 reorganization to Deputy Chief for Technology.

114.7.1 Records of the Watershed Planning Division and its
predecessors

History: Flood Control Surveys Section existed in Division of Watershed and Conservation Surveys, 1937-39. Consolidated with Conservation Surveys Section to form Physical Surveys Division (see 114.6), Office of Surveys and Project Plans, 1939. Flood control watershed surveys subsequently conducted by SCS regional offices. Water Conservation Division established, effective June 30, 1944, pursuant to General Departmental Circular 39, May 2, 1944. Became Water Conservation Planning Division, January 12, 1952, and Watershed Planning Branch, Planning Division, by SCS Administrator's Memorandum 84, May 12, 1955. Redesignated Watershed Planning Division, effective November 1, 1958, by SCS Advisory Notice W-625, October 29, 1958. Consolidated with Watershed Operations Division (see 114.7.3) to form Watersheds Division, 1977.

Textual Records: Flood control preliminary examination reports, 1938-52. Flood control survey reports, 1938-52. Records of the Tennessee Valley Correlating Committee, 1944-51. Case-Wheeler reports, 1939-47. Recreation preliminary surveys, 1939-54. Work plans, 1939-54. Records of the Missouri River Basin Committee, 1947-53. Project evaluations, 1956-65. Records of special conferences, 1965-72. General records relating to flood control, 1941-54.

Maps and Charts: Status of flood control activities, 1936-53 (57 items). Administrative responsibility for flood control programs, 1939-49 (9 items). Base maps of watersheds, 1937 (1,227 items). Major river basins, 1950 (23 items). River basin statistical tables, 1937 (23 items). Locations of stream gauges, 1939 (92 items). Extent of 1943 flooding, 1943 (40 items). Flood control and other maps of the Green, Mississippi, Pecos, Pee Dee, Roanoke, and Upper Rio Grande River watersheds, 1937-51 (68 items). Nueces River discharge graph, 1940 (1 item). Maps compiled by the Water Conservation Division, 1944-49 (21 items). Miscellaneous maps relating to watersheds and flood control, 1953-68 (34 items). See also 114.15.

114.7.2 Records of the River Basins Division

History: Established as River Basins Branch, Planning Division, 1957. Became River Basins Division, effective November 1, 1958, by SCS Advisory Notice W-625, October 29, 1958. Assigned to Deputy Chief for Natural Resource Projects, 1980.

Textual Records: River basin reports, 1929-61. Correspondence, 1960-69. Records of the Interagency Committee on Water Resources, 1955-72, including (in Boston) minutes of meetings, 1958-65. Minutes and reports of project development and maintenance committees, 1955-64. Records relating to interagency cooperation, 1956-73. Case files, 1960-76. Correspondence, minutes, and reports of the Northeastern Resources Committee, 1957-67 (in Boston).

114.7.3 Records of the Watershed Operations Division

History: Established under Deputy Administrator for Watersheds, 1970. Consolidated with Watershed Planning Division (see 114.7.1) to form Watersheds Division, 1977.

Textual Records: Reports of the Water Resources Committee, 1950- 75. Flood control survey work plans, 1953-75.

114.8 Records Relating to Operation of Civilian Conservation
Corps (CCC) and Civilian Public Service (CPS) Camps
1933-47

114.8.1 Records of CCC camp operations

Textual Records: Records of CCC camps at Boonsboro, MD, 1935-41 (in Philadelphia) Bridgeport, NE, 1939-41 (in Kansas City) Cartersville, GA, 1935-42 (in Atlanta) Clanton, AL, 1935-42 (in Atlanta) Frederick, MD, 1934-41 (in Philadelphia) Glen Rock, PA, 1939-42 (in Philadelphia) Goldsboro, MD, 1937-42 (in Philadelphia) Lake City, MN, 1936-42 (in Chicago) Lancaster, PA, 1935-42 (in Philadelphia) Lanesboro, MN, 1936-39 (in Chicago) Leeds, UT, 1936-42 (in Denver) McGregor, IA, 1933-39 (in Kansas City) Memphis, TX, 1936-42 (in Fort Worth) Monticello, IA, 1939-42 (in Kansas City) New Madrid, MO, 1935-41 (in Kansas City) Poultney, VT, 1940-42 (in Boston) Red Wing, MN, 1935-39 (in Chicago) Safford, AZ, 1937-41 (in Los Angeles) Seneca, KS, 1935-40 (in Kansas City) Vienna, MD, 1939-40 (in Philadelphia) Waterville, MN, 1935-40 (in Chicago) White Hall, MD, 1936-42 (in Philadelphia) and Wrightstown, NJ, 1936-39 (in New York). Consolidated records for CCC camps in AL, 1937-42 (in Atlanta) AZ, 1936-42 (in Los Angeles) CO, 1935-40 (in Denver) KY, 1935-42 (in Atlanta) MS, 1933-41 (in Atlanta) NM, 1935-42 (in Denver) NC, 1934-42 (in Atlanta) SC, 1935-42 (in Atlanta) TN, 1938-40 (in Atlanta) UT, 1934-42 (in Denver) VA, 1935-42 (in Philadelphia) and WV, 1935-40 (in Philadelphia).

Maps: Locations of CCC Emergency Conservation Work camps assigned to SCS, 1937 (2 items). See also 114.15.

114.8.2 Records of CPS camp operations

Textual Records: CPS program records, 1942-47. Records of CPS camps at Big Flats, NY, 1942-46 Camp Grottoes, VA, 1941-47 Colorado Springs, CO, 1942-46 Glendora, CA, 1941-47 and Powellsville, MD, 1943-47.

114.9 Records of Special Projects
1934-41

114.9.1 Records of the Project for Technical Cooperation with the
Bureau of Indian Affairs (TC-BIA)

Textual Records: Director's files, 1937-39. General files, 1935- 39. Project records, 1936-39.

Maps: Technical survey maps of Indian reservations and grants, 1936-39 (450 items). See also 114.15.

114.9.2 Records of the Prairie States Forestry Project

Textual Records (in Kansas City): Headquarters records, 1934-41. Records of the Nebraska State Office, 1935-38.

114.10 Records of SCS Regional Offices
1933-61

History: SCS established its regional office system, initially consisting of 11 regions, September-December 1935. Consolidations and realignments of jurisdiction reduced the number of regions to 10 in 1939 and to 7 in 1942. SCS discontinued its regional system pursuant to provisions of Secretary's Memorandum 1320, supplement 4, November 2, 1953, substituting a system of decentralized state offices. Regional offices directly supervised the work of project offices within their jurisdictions until the establishment, in 1938, of area offices as intermediates between the regions and local project offices. When area offices were abolished in 1942, their role was assumed by state offices.

114.10.1 Records of the Northeast Region (Region 1)

History: Established by SCS Field Memorandum 94, September 19, 1935, with jurisdiction over ME, NH, VT, RI, MA, NY, CT, NJ, PA, MD, and DE. Headquarters established at Williamsport, PA. Acquired jurisdiction over WV from Ohio Valley Region (Region 3), 1936. Headquarters transferred to Upper Darby, PA, June 16, 1938. Redesignated Northeastern Region (Region 1), June 20, 1938. Abolished, 1953.

Textual Records (in Philadelphia): Cooperative agreements and reports, 1936-42.

Maps: Buffalo Creek and Potomac River watershed flood control maps, 1946-54 (39 items). Drainage problem areas in the northeastern states, 1949 (11 items). Land resources areas, 1949 (9 items). Base maps, 1950 (6 items). Miscellaneous and administrative maps, 1935-51 (18 items). See also 114.15.

114.10.2 Records of the Southeast Region (Region 2)

History: Established by SCS Field Memorandum 95, September 19, 1935, with jurisdiction over VA, NC, SC, GA, FL, AL, and MS. Headquarters established at Spartanburg, SC. Redesignated Southeastern Region (Region 2) by SCS Field Memorandum 793, June 20, 1939. Jurisdiction expanded, effective July 1, 1939, to include PR and VI by SCS Field Memorandum 799, June 27, 1939. Acquired jurisdiction over TN and KY from abolished Ohio Valley Region (Region 3), effective July 1, 1942, by SCS Field Memorandum 1061, May 5, 1942. Abolished, 1953.

Textual Records (in Atlanta): Subject files, 1934-48. Annual reports, 1935-53.

Maps: Land use and engineering maps of farms in the Camp and Gills Creeks demonstration projects, 1935-38 (205 items). Soil conservation survey maps of selected counties, 1936- 49 (144 items). Chancellorsville Homestead Community, Jasper County, GA, 1934 (72 items). Drainage projects and problem areas, 1942-49 (50 items). Coosa, Potomac, Little Tallahatchie, and Yazoo watersheds, 1943-52 (35 items). Pilot Watershed Program areas, 1953-54 (15 items). Administrative and miscellaneous maps, 1936-61 (44 items). See also 114.15.

114.10.3 Records of the Ohio Valley Region (Region 3)

History: Established by SCS Field Memorandum 150, October 26, 1935, with jurisdiction over WV, IN, MI, KY, and TN. Headquarters established at Dayton, OH. Lost jurisdiction over WV to Northeast Region (Region 1), 1936. Abolished, effective July 1, 1942, by SCS Field Memorandum 1061, May 5, 1942, with TN and KY assigned to Southeastern Region (Region 2), and OH, IN, and MI to Upper Mississippi Region (formerly Region 5, redesignated Region 3).

Maps: Administrative maps, 1938-39 (2 items). See also 114.15.

114.10.4 Records of the Western Gulf Region (Region 4)

History: Established as the Midsouth Region (Region 4) by SCS Field Memorandum 109, September 30, 1935, with jurisdiction over AR, LA, and TX (except panhandle). Headquarters established at Fort Worth, TX. Redesignated Western Gulf Region (Region 4), by SCS Field Memorandum 793, June 20, 1939. Acquired jurisdiction over panhandle regions of OK and TX from abolished Southern Great Plains Region (Region 6), effective July 1, 1942, by SCS Field Memorandum 1061, May 5, 1942. Abolished, 1953.

Textual Records (in Fort Worth): Correspondence, issuances, and reports, 1934-38. Reports of sanitation surveys, 1934-37.

Maps: Watershed flood control preliminary examination maps, 1938-41 (131 items). Middle Colorado, Trinity, and Washita watershed flood control maps, 1946-54 (92 items). Administrative, state, and miscellaneous maps, 1937-51 (30 items). See also 114.15.

114.10.5 Records of the Upper Mississippi Region (Region 5)

History: Established by SCS Field Memorandum 204, December 11, 1935, with jurisdiction over IA, IL, MO, WI, and MN. Headquarters established at Des Moines, IA relocated to Milwaukee, WI, March 27, 1939. Acquired jurisdiction over OH, IN, and MI from abolished Ohio Valley Region (Region 3), and redesignated Upper Mississippi Region (Region 3), effective July 1, 1942, by SCS Field Memorandum 1061, May 5, 1942. Abolished, 1953.

Maps: Little Sioux watershed, IA, flood control maps, 1941 (150 items). Farm drainage plans, 1949-50 (30 items). Montgomery, IA, Soil Conservation District survey, 1942 (20 items). Miscellaneous watersheds, 1942-52 (28 items). Administrative maps, 1942-45 (5 items). See also 114.15.

114.10.6 Records of the Southern Great Plains Region (Region 6)

History: Established as the Southern Great Plains Wind Erosion Region (Region 6) by SCS Field Memorandum 140, October 21, 1935, with jurisdiction over the "Dustbowl" regions of TX, OK, CO, NM, and KS. Headquarters established at Amarillo, TX. Acquired jurisdiction over the rest of KS from abolished Central Great Plains Region (Region 7), March 1, 1939. Redesignated Southern Great Plains Region (Region 6), by SCS Field Memorandum 793, June 20, 1939. Abolished, effective July 1, 1942, by SCS Field Memorandum 1061, May 5, 1942, with TX and OK panhandles assigned to Western Gulf Region (Region 4) CO and NM to Southwest Region (Region 8), redesignated Southwestern Region (Region 6) and KS to Northern Great Plains Region (Region 7), formerly the Northwest Region (Region 9).

Textual Records (in Fort Worth): General files, 1935-42. Records of the Regional Conservator, 1934-42. Records of the Coordinator, Regional Agricultural Council for the Southern Great Plains, 1936-42. Records of the Agronomy Division, 1936-42 Engineering Division, 1936-42 Forestry Division, 1936-41 Hydrology Division, 1939-41 Information Division, 1936-41 Nursery Division, 1936-41 Physical Survey Division, 1936-40 Project Plans Division, 1936-41 and Range Conservation Division, 1937- 42. Soil Conservation District files, 1935-42. Records concerning interagency cooperation, flood control, and land utilization, 1936-41.

Maps: Administrative maps, 1936-41 (5 items). See also 114.15.

114.10.7 Records of the Central Great Plains Region (Region 7)

History: Established by SCS Field Memorandum 192, December 2, 1935, with jurisdiction over NE, OK (except panhandle), and KS (except southwestern counties). Headquarters established at Salina, KS. Abolished, effective March 1, 1939, with assignment of KS to Southern Great Plains Region (Region 6), OK to Western Gulf Region (Region 4), and NE to Northwest Region (Region 9).

Textual Records (in Kansas City): Correspondence of the Regional Conservator, 1934-39. Project files for KS and NE, 1935-39. Records of CCC camps at Kansas Lake, 1936-39. SCS accident reports for OK, 1936-38.

Map: Principal drainage basins in KS, NE, and OK, 1937 (1 item). See also 114.15.

114.10.8 Records of the Southwest Region (Region 8)

History: Established by SCS Field Memorandum 24, July 30, 1935, with jurisdiction over UT, AZ, and counties of CO and NM west of the Continental Divide. Headquarters established at Albuquerque, NM. Acquired jurisdiction over eastern CO and NM from abolished Southern Great Plains Region (Region 6) and redesignated Southwestern Region (Region 6), effective July 1, 1942, by SCS Field Memorandum 1061, May 5, 1942. Abolished, 1953.

Textual Records (in Denver): Correspondence, issuances, and reports, 1934-39. Records of the Cartographic and Drafting Division, 1933-40. CCC camp inspection reports, 1936-37.

Maps and Charts: Climatic maps and graphs of the southwest, 1940-41 (214 items). Flood control maps, 1947-51 (25 items). State land status maps, 1936-54 (16 items). Administrative and miscellaneous maps, 1936-54 (33 items). See also 114.15.

114.10.9 Records of the Northwest Region (Region 9)

History: Established by SCS Field Memorandum 186, November 29, 1935, with jurisdiction over MT, WY, ND, and SD. Headquarters established at Rapid City, SD relocated to Lincoln, NE, by SCS Field Memorandum 761, February 21, 1939. Acquired jurisdiction over NE from abolished Central Great Plains Region (Region 7), effective March 1, 1939. Redesignated Northwest Region (Region 7), effective June 1, 1939, by SCS Field Memorandum 777, May 2, 1939. Redesignated Northern Great Plains Region (Region 7) by SCS Field Memorandum 793, June 20, 1939. Acquired jurisdiction over KS from abolished Southern Great Plains Region (Region 6) and redesignated Northern Great Plains Region (Region 5), effective July 1, 1942, by SCS Field Memorandum 1061, May 5, 1942. Abolished, 1953.

Textual Records (in Kansas City): General records, 1936-39. Administrative correspondence, 1935-37. Administrative files, 1938-39. Records of the Agronomy Division, 1935-40 Engineering Division, 1935-38 Information Division, 1935-39 Range Conservation Division, 1937-42 Range Management Division, 1937- 39 and Wildlife Management Division, 1936-38. TC-BIA records, 1936-40 (see 114.9.1). Records concerning the CCC, 1935-37.

Maps: Farms in Cass, Colfax, and Platte Counties, NE, 1936-39 (222 items). Missouri River Basin development, 1947-51 (66 items). Grant Township drainage district project, Reno County, KS, 1949-51 (36 items). Administrative and miscellaneous maps, 1939-52 (30 items). See also 114.15.

Photographic Prints: Soil conservation operations and dry land agriculture in ND, SD, MT, and WY, including scenes of erosion, farmlands, cultivation methods, and irrigation systems, 1935-39 (DL, 3,409 images). See also 114.16.

114.10.10 Records of the Pacific Southwest Region (Region 10)

History: Established by SCS Field Memorandum 141, October 21, 1935, with jurisdiction over CA and NV. Headquarters established at Santa Paula, CA relocated to Berkeley, CA, May 15, 1939. Acquired jurisdiction over HI, effective July 1, 1939, by SCS Field Memorandum 799, June 27, 1939. Consolidated with Pacific Northwest Region (Region 9, formerly Region 11), effective July 1, 1942, by SCS Field Memorandum 1061, May 5, 1942, to form Pacific Region (see 114.10.12).

Textual Records (in San Francisco): Correspondence, issuances, and reports, 1935-42.

Maps: Administrative maps, 1934-40 (7 items). See also 114.15.

114.10.11 Records of the Pacific Northwest Region (Region 11)

History: Established by SCS Field Memorandum 142, October 21, 1935, with jurisdiction over ID, OR, and WA. Headquarters established at Spokane, WA. Redesignated Pacific Northwest Region (Region 9), effective June 1, 1939, by SCS Field Memorandum 777, May 2, 1939. Acquired jurisdiction over AK, effective July 1, 1939, by SCS Field Memorandum 799, June 27, 1939. Consolidated with Pacific Southwest Region (Region 10), effective July 1, 1942, by SCS Field Memorandum 1061, May 5, 1942, to form Pacific Region (see 114.10.12).

Textual Records (in Seattle): Correspondence, issuances, and reports, 1934-40.

Maps: Miscellaneous subjects, 1935-40 (3 items). See also 114.15.

114.10.12 Records of the Pacific Region (Region 7)

History: Established, effective July 1, 1942, by SCS Field Memorandum 1061, May 5, 1942, consolidating Pacific Northwest Region (Region 9, formerly Region 11) and Pacific Southwest Region (Region 10), with jurisdiction over CA, NV, WA, OR, ID, HI, and AK. Headquarters established at Portland, OR. Abolished, 1953.

Maps: Watershed maps for San Joaquin, Merced, Tuolumne, Whitewater, Russian, Stanislaus, Mojave, Santa Ynez, Yuba, and other CA rivers range survey maps for Warm Springs Indian Reservation, OR, Fort Hall Indian Reservation, ID, and Pocatello, ID and miscellaneous cartographic materials concerning agriculture and crop production, 1939-49 (375 items, in Seattle). Land and water inventories of Fresno and Stanislaus Counties, CA, 1950-52 (84 items). Santa Ynez and Los Angeles River flood control maps, 1939-51 (13 items). Miscellaneous maps, 1946-48 (2 items). See also 114.15.

114.11 Records of Area Offices
1934-54

History: Area offices established by SCS Field Memorandum 742, December 19, 1938, to serve as intermediate level between SCS regional headquarters and local project offices. Abolished, effective July 1, 1942, by SCS Field Memorandum 1061, May 5, 1942.

114.11.1 Records of area offices in Alabama (Southeastern Region)

Textual Records (in Atlanta): Records of area offices in Birmingham, 1936-42 and Montgomery, 1935-42.

114.11.2 Records of area offices in Arizona (Southwestern Region)

Textual Records (in Denver): Records of the area office in San Carlos, 1935-41.

114.11.3 Records of area offices in California (Pacific Southwest
Region)

Textual Records (in San Francisco): Records of area offices in Santa Paula, 1935-42 Ukiah, 1939-42 and Watsonville, 1935-42.

114.11.4 Records of area offices in Colorado (Southern Great
Plains Region and Southwestern Region)

Textual Records (in Fort Worth, except as noted): Records of area offices in Denver (Southern Great Plains Region), 1941 Grand Junction (Southwestern Region), 1938-39 (in Denver) and Pueblo (Southern Great Plains Region), 1939-41.

114.11.5 Records of area offices in Georgia (Southeastern Region)

Textual Records (in Atlanta): Records of area offices in Athens, 1935-41 Rome, 1938-41 and Tifton, 1938-41.

114.11.6 Records of area offices in Idaho (Pacific Northwest
Region)

Textual Records (in Seattle): Records of area offices in Boise, 1938-42 Moscow, 1938-47 and Pocatello, 1936-41.

114.11.7 Records of area offices in Kansas (Southern Great Plains
Region)

Textual Records (in Fort Worth): Records of the area office in Dodge City, 1941-43.

114.11.8 Records of area offices in Kentucky (Ohio Valley Region)

Textual Records (in Chicago): Records of the area office in Lexington, 1935-42.

114.11.9 Records of area offices in Maryland (Northeastern
Region)

Textual Records (in Philadelphia): Records of the area office in Catonsville, 1939-42.

114.11.10 Records of area offices in Mississippi (Southeastern
Region)

Textual Records (in Atlanta): Records of the area office in State College, 1934-42.

114.11.11 Records of area offices in Montana (Northern Great
Plains Region)

Textual Records (in Kansas City): Records of the area office in Billings, 1939-42.

114.11.12 Records of area offices in Nebraska (Northern Great
Plains Region)

Textual Records (in Kansas City): Records of the area office in Lincoln, 1941-42.

114.11.13 Records of area offices in Nevada (Pacific Southwest
Region)

Textual Records (in San Francisco): Records of area offices in Caliente, 1935-42 and Yerrington, 1936-42.

114.11.14 Records of area offices in New Jersey (Northeastern
Region)

Textual Records (in Philadelphia): Records of the area office in New Brunswick, 1936-42.

114.11.15 Records of area offices in New Mexico (Southern Great
Plains Region and Southwestern Region)

Textual Records (in Denver, except as noted):Records of area offices in Albuquerque (Southwestern Region), 1938-42 Clovis (Southern Great Plains Region), 1938-42 (in Fort Worth) Las Cruces (Southwestern Region), 1938-42 Roswell (Southwestern Region), 1939-41 Santa Fe (Southwestern Region), 1936-41 and Silver City (Southwestern Region), 1936-41.

114.11.16 Records of area offices in New York (Northeastern
Region)

Textual Records (in Philadelphia): Records of the area office in Bath, 1936-40.

114.11.17 Records of area offices in North Carolina (Southeastern
Region)

Textual Records (in Atlanta): Records of area offices in Raleigh, 1938-42 and Salisbury, 1939-42.

114.11.18 Records of area offices in North Dakota (Northern Great
Plains Region)

Textual Records (in Kansas City): Records of the area office in Mandan, 1940-42.

114.11.19 Records of area offices in Pennsylvania (Northeastern
Region)

Textual Records (in Philadelphia): Records of area offices in Indiana, 1936-42 and Lancaster, 1939-42.

114.11.20 Records of area offices in South Carolina (Southeastern
Region)

Textual Records (in Atlanta): Records of area offices in Columbia, 1935-42 and Spartanburg, 1935-42.

114.11.21 Records of area offices in South Dakota (Northern Great
Plains Region)

Textual Records (in Kansas City): Records of the area office in Rapid City, 1939-42.

114.11.22 Records of area offices in Tennessee (Ohio Valley
Region and Southeastern Region)

Textual Records (in Chicago): Records of the area office in Humboldt (Ohio Valley Region), 1935-42.

Aerial Photographs (in Atlanta): Lauderdale County (Southeastern Region), used in resource planning and soil survey reports, 1937-54 (754 items). See also 114.15.

114.11.23 Records of area offices in Texas (Southern Great Plains
Region and Western Gulf Region)

Textual Records (in Fort Worth): Records of area offices in Dublin (Western Gulf Region), 1939-40 Lubbock (Southern Great Plains Region), 1940-41 Perryton (Southern Great Plains Region), 1939-41 and Tyler (Western Gulf Region), 1938-40.

114.11.24 Records of area offices in Utah (Southwestern Region)

Textual Records (in Denver): Records of area offices in Cedar City, 1939-42 Price, 1938-42 and Salt Lake City, 1939-42.

114.11.25 Records of area offices in Washington (Pacific
Northwest Region)

Textual Records (in Seattle): Records of the area office in Yakima, 1937-40.

114.11.26 Records of area offices in Wyoming (Northern Great
Plains Region)

Textual Records (in Kansas City): Records of the area office in Casper, 1940-42.

114.12 Records of State Offices (Pre-1953)
1933-47

114.12.1 Records of the Colorado State Office, Fort Collins, CO
(Southern Great Plains Region)

Textual Records (in Fort Worth): General correspondence, CCC camp records, and other records, 1935-36.

114.12.2 Records of the Maine State Office, Orono, ME
(Northeastern Region)

Textual Records (in Philadelphia): Correspondence of the State Coordinator's Office, 1937-42.

114.12.3 Records of the Maryland State Office, College Park, MD
(Northeastern Region)

Textual Records (in Philadelphia): General records, 1939-42.

114.12.4 Records of the Minnesota State Office, St. Paul, MN
(Upper Mississippi Region)

Textual Records (in Chicago): General records of the State Coordinator's Office, 1935-38.

114.12.5 Records of the Missouri State Office, Columbia, MO
(Upper Mississippi Region)

Textual Records (in Kansas City): Project correspondence of the State Coordinator's Office, 1939-40. Annual reports, 1933-47. CCC camp reports, 1935-36. Project work plans, 1938-41. Land use planning reports, 1940-41. Cooperative agreements, 1934-43.

114.12.6 Records of the Montana State Office, Bozeman, MT
(Northern Great Plains Region)

Textual Records (in Kansas City): General records of the State Coordinator's Office, 1936-41.

114.12.7 Records of the Nebraska State Office, Lincoln, NE
(Central Great Plains Region)

Textual Records (in Kansas City): General records of the State Coordinator's Office, 1936-38. Publicity files, 1936-38.

114.12.8 Records of the New Jersey State Office, New Brunswick,
NJ (Northeastern Region)

Textual Records (in Philadelphia): General records, 1934-41.

114.12.9 Records of the New York State Office, Ithaca, NY
(Northeastern Region)

Textual Records (in Philadelphia): General records, 1935-42. Correspondence, 1936-42.

114.12.10 Records of the North Carolina State Office, Raleigh, NC
(Southeastern Region)

Textual Records (in Atlanta): General correspondence of the State Coordinator's Office and successor State Conservationist's Office, 1934-43.

114.12.11 Records of the Pennsylvania State Office, State
College, PA (Northeastern Region)

Textual Records (in Philadelphia): General records, 1938-44. Cooperative agreements, 1938-44.

114.12.12 Records of the Texas State Office, College Station, TX
(Western Gulf Region)

Textual Records (in Fort Worth): Publicity files, 1937-38.

114.12.13 Records of the West Virginia State Office, Morgantown,
WV (Northeastern Region)

Textual Records (in Philadelphia): General records, 1939-42.

114.12.14 Records of the Wisconsin State Office, Madison, WI
(Upper Mississippi Region)

Textual Records (in Chicago): General records of the State Coordinator's Office, 1933-37.

114.12.15 Records of the Wyoming State Office, Laramie, WY
(Northern Great Plains Region)

Textual Records (in Kansas City): General records of the State Coordinator's Office, 1937-42.

114.13 Records of State Offices (Post-1953)
1943-75

114.13.1 Records of the California State Office

Textual Records (in San Francisco): Case files of watershed projects, 1950-67.

Architectural and Engineering Plans (in San Francisco): Calleguas Creek modifications, 1959-61 (21 items). See also 114.15.

114.13.2 Records of the Georgia State Office

Textual Records (in Atlanta): Watershed case files, 1953-71.

Maps (in Atlanta): Watershed case files, 1953-70 (48 items). See also 114.15.

114.13.3 Records of the Indiana State Office

Textual Records (in Chicago): Case files of watershed projects at Flat Creek, 1953-59, and Little Raccoon Creek, 1966-67.

114.13.4 Records of the Missouri State Office

Textual Records (in Kansas City): Clippings and excerpts from publications relating to soil conservation subjects, 1943-61.

114.13.5 Records of the New York State Office

Textual Records (in New York): Engineering design and construction records, 1950-72.

Architectural and Engineering Plans (in New York): Buffalo Creek Flood Prevention Project and Ischua Creek Watershed Protection Project, 1950-72 (2,400 items). See also 114.15.

114.13.6 Records of the North Dakota State Office

Textual Records: Tongue River watershed project records, 1953-67 (in Kansas City). Geologic reports, contracts and specifications, test data, and work diaries relating to the Tongue River Watershed, 1955-71 (in Denver).

Architectural and Engineering Plans (in Kansas City): Tongue River project, 1953-67 (37 items). Engineering drawings, 1953-67 (238 items). See also 114.15.

114.13.7 Records of the Oklahoma State Office

Textual Records (in Fort Worth): Selected engineering and watershed project case files, 1953-71, 1974.

114.13.8 Records of the West Virginia State Office

Textual Records (in Philadelphia): Project files, 1955-75.

Architectural and Engineering Plans (in Philadelphia): Project drawings, 1955-58 (1,086 items). See also 114.15.

114.14 Records of Project Offices
1933-47

114.14.1 Records of project offices in Colorado (Southern Great
Plains Region)

Textual Records (in Denver): Records of project offices in Cheyenne Wells, 1935-40 Colorado Springs, 1938-47 and Springfield, 1937.

114.14.2 Records of project offices in Iowa (Upper Mississippi
Region)

Textual Records (in Chicago): Records of the project office in Shenandoah, 1934-37.

114.14.3 Records of project offices in Kansas (Northern Great
Plains Region and Southern Great Plains Region)

Textual Records (in Kansas City): Records of project offices in Liberal (Southern Great Plains Region), 1936-39 and Mankato (Northern Great Plains Region), 1933-34.

114.14.4 Records of project offices in Maryland (Northeastern
Region)

Textual Records (in Philadelphia): Records of project offices in Ellicott City, 1937-39 and Hagerstown, 1936-38.

114.14.5 Records of project offices in Minnesota (Upper
Mississippi Region)

Textual Records (in Chicago): Records of project offices in Caledonia, 1934-39 Faribault, 1936-38 Spring Valley, 1936 and Winona, 1936-37.

114.14.6 Records of project offices in Montana (Northern Great
Plains Region)

Textual Records (in Kansas City): Records of project offices in Culbertson, 1935-39 and Great Falls, 1935-39.

114.14.7 Records of project offices in Nebraska (Northern Great
Plains Region)

Textual Records (in Kansas City): Administrative correspondence, 1934-36 project correspondence, 1936-37 CCC correspondence, 1934-37 and other records, 1934-38, of the project office in Albion.

114.14.8 Records of project offices in New Jersey (Northeastern
Region)

Textual Records (in Philadelphia): Records of project offices in Flemington, 1940-41 Freehold, 1939 and Mooretown, 1940.

114.14.9 Records of project offices in New Mexico (Southwestern
Region)

Textual Records (in Denver): Records of the project office in Albuquerque, 1936.

114.14.10 Records of project offices in North Dakota (Northern
Great Plains Region)

Textual Records (in Kansas City): Records of the project office in Bottineau, 1938-40.

114.14.11 Records of project offices in Pennsylvania
(Northeastern Region)

Textual Records (in Philadelphia): Records of project offices in Indiana, 1934-42 Kutztown, 1938-42 and Lancaster, 1938.

114.14.12 Records of project offices in South Dakota (Northern
Great Plains Region)

Textual Records (in Kansas City): Records of project offices in Huron, 1936-41 and Winner, 1936-41.

114.14.13 Records of project offices in Texas (Southern Great
Plains Region and Western Gulf Region)

Textual Records (in Fort Worth): Records of project offices in Amarillo (Southern Great Plains Region), 1936-40 Channing (Southern Great Plains Region), 1936-39 Hereford (Southern Great Plains Region), 1936-37 Stratford (Western Gulf Region), 1936- 39 and Vernon (Western Gulf Region), 1938-39.

114.14.14 Records of project offices in West Virginia
(Northeastern Region)

Textual Records (in Philadelphia): Records of the project office in Moundsville, 1935-38.

114.14.15 Records of project offices in Wisconsin (Upper
Mississippi Region)

Textual Records (in Chicago): Records of the project office in La Crosse, 1933-35.

114.14.16 Records of project offices in Wyoming (Northern Great
Plains Region)

Textual Records (in Kansas City): Records of project offices in Lander, 1935-40 and Torrington, 1937-40.

114.15 Cartographic Records (General)

See Maps and Charts under 114.2.1, 114.4.1-114.4.9, 114.6, 114.7.1, and 114.10.8.
See Maps under 114.3.1, 114.4.1, 114.5.1-114.5.3, 114.8.1, 114.9.1, 114.10.1-114.10.7, 114.10.9-114.10.12, and 114.13.2.
See Charts under 114.4.5.
See Architectural and Engineering Plans under 114.4.3, 114.4.4, 114.4.6, 114.4.7, 114.5.1, 114.13.1, 114.13.5, 114.13.6, and 114.13.8.
See Aerial Photographs under 114.6 and 114.11.22.

114.16 Still Pictures (General)
1933-77, 1988-95

Photographs: SCS general photographic files, covering the United States, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, South America, Europe, and Africa, documenting land types and utilization, research activities, agricultural and conservation methods, soil erosion, dust storms, floods, and various Works Progress Administration and CCC projects, 1933-77 (G, P, 40,000 images).

Lantern Slides: Soil conservation activities, 1933-77 reservoir surveys, 1941 and stream and valley aggradation, 1937-40 (S, SRS, S-RV, 2,460 images).

Posters: Posters promoting environmental awareness and conservation, 1988-95 (MP, 22 items).

See Photographs under 114.2.1, 114.3.1, 114.4.1, 114.4.4, and 114.4.8.
See Photographic Prints under 114.10.9.

Bibliographic note: Web version based on Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives of the United States. Compiled by Robert B. Matchette et al. Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration, 1995.
3 volumes, 2428 pages.

This Web version is updated from time to time to include records processed since 1995.


Neutrality and War

Tonight, I speak again to the people of this country who are opposed to the United States entering the war which is now going on in Europe. We are faced with the need of deciding on a policy of American neutrality. The future of our nation and of our civilization rests upon the wisdom and foresight we use. Much as peace is to be desired, we should realize that behind a successful policy of neutrality must stand a policy of war. It is essential to define clearly those principles and circumstances for which a nation will fight. Let us give no one the impression that America’s love for peace means that she is afraid of war, or that we are not fully capable and willing to defend all that is vital to us. National life and influence depend upon national strength, both in character and in arms. A neutrality built on pacifism alone will eventually fail.

Before we can intelligently enact regulations for the control of our armaments, our credit, and our ships, we must draw a sharp dividing line between neutrality and war there must be no gradual encroachment on the defenses of our nation. Up to this line we may adjust our affairs to gain the advantages of peace, but beyond it must lie all the armed might of America, coiled in readiness to spring if once this bond is cut. Let us make clear to all countries where this line lies. It must be both within our intent and our capabilities. There must be no question of trading or bluff in this hemisphere. Let us give no promises we cannot keep—make no meaningless assurances to an Ethiopia, a Czechoslovakia, or a Poland. The policy we decide upon should be clear cut as our shorelines, and as easily defended as our continent.

This western hemisphere is our domain. It is our right to trade freely within it. From Alaska to Labrador, for the Hawaiian Islands to Bermuda, from Canada to South America, we must allow no invading army to set foot. These are the outposts of the United States. They form the essential outline of our geographical defense. We must be ready to wage war with all the resources of our nation if they are ever seriously threatened. Their defense is the mission of our army, our navy, and our air corps—the minimum requirement of our military strength. Around these places should lie our line between neutrality and war. Let there be no compromise about our right to defend or trade within this area. If it is challenged by any nation, the answer must be war. Our policy of neutrality should have this as its foundation.

We must protect our sister American nations from foreign invasion, both for their welfare and our own. But, in turn, they have a duty to us. They should not place us in the position of having to defend them in America while they engage in wars abroad. Can we rightfully permit any country in America to give bases to foreign warships, or to send its army abroad to fight while it remains secure in our protection at home? We desire the utmost friendship with the people of Canada. If their country is ever attacked, our Navy will be defending their seas, our soldiers will fight on their battlefields, our fliers will die in their skies. But have they the right to draw this hemisphere into a European war simply because they prefer the Crown of England to American independence?

Sooner or later we must demand the freedom of this continent and its surrounding islands from the dictates of European power. America history clearly indicates this need. As long as European powers maintain their influence in our hemisphere, we are likely to find ourselves involved in their troubles. And they will lose no opportunity to involve us.

Our Congress is now assembled to decide upon the best policy for this country to maintain during the war which is going on in Europe. The legislation under discussion involves three major issues—the embargo of arms, the restriction of shipping, and the allowance of credit. The action we take in regard to these issues will be an important indication to ourselves, and to the nation of Europe, whether or not we are likely to enter the conflict eventually as we did in the last war. The entire world is watching us. The action we take in America may either stop or precipitate this war.

Let us take up these issues, one at a time, and examine them. First, the embargo of arms: It is argued that the repeal of this embargo would assist democracy in Europe, that it would let us make a profit for ourselves from the sale of munitions abroad, and, at the same time, help to build up our own arms industry.


April 19th, 2004 is a Monday. It is the 110th day of the year, and in the 17th week of the year (assuming each week starts on a Monday), or the 2nd quarter of the year. There are 30 days in this month. 2004 is a leap year, so there are 366 days in this year. The short form for this date used in the United States is 4/19/2004, and almost everywhere else in the world it's 19/4/2004.

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Contents

Background Edit

The concept of a peaceful community of nations had been proposed as early as 1795, when Immanuel Kant's Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch [10] outlined the idea of a league of nations to control conflict and promote peace between states. [11] Kant argued for the establishment of a peaceful world community, not in a sense of a global government, but in the hope that each state would declare itself a free state that respects its citizens and welcomes foreign visitors as fellow rational beings, thus promoting peaceful society worldwide. [12] International co-operation to promote collective security originated in the Concert of Europe that developed after the Napoleonic Wars in the 19th century in an attempt to maintain the status quo between European states and so avoid war. [13] [14] This period also saw the development of international law, with the first Geneva Conventions establishing laws dealing with humanitarian relief during wartime, and the international Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 governing rules of war and the peaceful settlement of international disputes. [15] [16] As historians William H. Harbaugh and Ronald E. Powaski point out, Theodore Roosevelt was the first American President to call for an international league. [17] [18] At the acceptance for his Nobel Prize, Roosevelt said: "it would be a masterstroke if those great powers honestly bent on peace would form a League of Peace." [19] [20]

The forerunner of the League of Nations, the Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU), was formed by the peace activists William Randal Cremer and Frédéric Passy in 1889 (and is currently still in existence as an international body with a focus on the various elected legislative bodies of the world.) The IPU was founded with an international scope, with a third of the members of parliaments (in the 24 countries that had parliaments) serving as members of the IPU by 1914. Its foundational aims were to encourage governments to solve international disputes by peaceful means. Annual conferences were established to help governments refine the process of international arbitration. Its structure was designed as a council headed by a president, which would later be reflected in the structure of the League. [21]

Initial proposals Edit

At the start of the First World War, the first schemes for an international organisation to prevent future wars began to gain considerable public support, particularly in Great Britain and the United States. Goldsworthy Lowes Dickinson, a British political scientist, coined the term "League of Nations" in 1914 and drafted a scheme for its organisation. Together with Lord Bryce, he played a leading role in the founding of the group of internationalist pacifists known as the Bryce Group, later the League of Nations Union. [22] The group became steadily more influential among the public and as a pressure group within the then governing Liberal Party. In Dickinson's 1915 pamphlet After the War he wrote of his "League of Peace" as being essentially an organisation for arbitration and conciliation. He felt that the secret diplomacy of the early twentieth century had brought about war and thus could write that, "the impossibility of war, I believe, would be increased in proportion as the issues of foreign policy should be known to and controlled by public opinion." The ‘Proposals’ of the Bryce Group were circulated widely, both in England and the US, where they had a profound influence on the nascent international movement. [23]

Within two weeks of the start of the war, feminists began to mobilise against the war. [24] Having been barred from participating in prior peace organizations, [25] American women formed a Women's Peace Parade Committee to plan a silent protest to the war. Led by chairwoman Fanny Garrison Villard, women from trade unions, feminist organizations, and social reform organizations, such as Kate Waller Barrett, Mary Ritter Beard, Carrie Chapman Catt, Rose Schneiderman, Lillian Wald, and others, organized 1500 women, who marched down Manhattan's Fifth Avenue on 29 August 1914. [24] As a result of the parade, Jane Addams became interested in proposals by two European suffragists—Hungarian Rosika Schwimmer and British Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence—to hold a peace conference. [26] On 9–10 January 1915, a peace conference directed by Addams was held in Washington, D. C., where the delegates adopted a platform calling for creation of international bodies with administrative and legislative powers to develop a "permanent league of neutral nations" to work for peace and disarmament. [27] [28]

Within months a call was made for an international women's conference to be held in The Hague. Coordinated by Mia Boissevain, Aletta Jacobs and Rosa Manus, the Congress, which opened on 28 April 1915 [29] was attended by 1,136 participants from both neutral and non-belligerent nations, [30] and resulted in the establishment of an organization which would become the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF). [31] At the close of the conference, two delegations of women were dispatched to meet European heads of state over the next several months. They secured agreement from reluctant Foreign Ministers, who overall felt that such a body would be ineffective, but agreed to participate or not impede creation of a neutral mediating body, if other nations agreed and if President Woodrow Wilson would initiate a body. In the midst of the War, Wilson refused. [32] [33]

In 1915, a similar body to the Bryce group proposals was set up in the United States by a group of like-minded individuals, including William Howard Taft. It was called the League to Enforce Peace and was substantially based on the proposals of the Bryce Group. [35] It advocated the use of arbitration in conflict resolution and the imposition of sanctions on aggressive countries. None of these early organisations envisioned a continuously functioning body with the exception of the Fabian Society in England, they maintained a legalistic approach that would limit the international body to a court of justice. The Fabians were the first to argue for a "Council" of states, necessarily the Great Powers, who would adjudicate world affairs, and for the creation of a permanent secretariat to enhance international co-operation across a range of activities. [36]

In the course of the diplomatic efforts surrounding World War I, both sides had to clarify their long-term war aims. By 1916 in Britain, the leader of the Allies, and in the neutral United States, long-range thinkers had begun to design a unified international organisation to prevent future wars. Historian Peter Yearwood argues that when the new coalition government of David Lloyd George took power in December 1916, there was widespread discussion among intellectuals and diplomats of the desirability of establishing such an organisation. When Lloyd George was challenged by Wilson to state his position with an eye on the postwar situation, he endorsed such an organisation. Wilson himself included in his Fourteen Points in January 1918 a "league of nations to ensure peace and justice." British foreign secretary, Arthur Balfour, argued that, as a condition of durable peace, "behind international law, and behind all treaty arrangements for preventing or limiting hostilities, some form of international sanction should be devised which would give pause to the hardiest aggressor." [37]

The war had had a profound impact, affecting the social, political and economic systems of Europe and inflicting psychological and physical damage. [38] Several empires collapsed: first the Russian Empire in February 1917, followed by the German Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire and Ottoman Empire. Anti-war sentiment rose across the world the First World War was described as "the war to end all wars", [39] and its possible causes were vigorously investigated. The causes identified included arms races, alliances, militaristic nationalism, secret diplomacy, and the freedom of sovereign states to enter into war for their own benefit. One proposed remedy was the creation of an international organisation whose aim was to prevent future war through disarmament, open diplomacy, international co-operation, restrictions on the right to wage war, and penalties that made war unattractive. [40]

In London Balfour commissioned the first official report into the matter in early 1918, under the initiative of Lord Robert Cecil. The British committee was finally appointed in February 1918. It was led by Walter Phillimore (and became known as the Phillimore Committee), but also included Eyre Crowe, William Tyrrell, and Cecil Hurst. [22] The recommendations of the so-called Phillimore Commission included the establishment of a "Conference of Allied States" that would arbitrate disputes and impose sanctions on offending states. The proposals were approved by the British government, and much of the commission's results were later incorporated into the Covenant of the League of Nations. [41]

The French also drafted a much more far-reaching proposal in June 1918 they advocated annual meetings of a council to settle all disputes, as well as an "international army" to enforce its decisions. [41]

American President Woodrow Wilson instructed Edward M. House to draft a US plan which reflected Wilson's own idealistic views (first articulated in the Fourteen Points of January 1918), as well as the work of the Phillimore Commission. The outcome of House's work and Wilson's own first draft proposed the termination of "unethical" state behaviour, including forms of espionage and dishonesty. Methods of compulsion against recalcitrant states would include severe measures, such as "blockading and closing the frontiers of that power to commerce or intercourse with any part of the world and to use any force that may be necessary. " [41]

The two principal drafters and architects of the covenant of the League of Nations [43] were the British politician Lord Robert Cecil and the South African statesman Jan Smuts. Smuts' proposals included the creation of a Council of the great powers as permanent members and a non-permanent selection of the minor states. He also proposed the creation of a Mandate system for captured colonies of the Central Powers during the war. Cecil focused on the administrative side and proposed annual Council meetings and quadrennial meetings for the Assembly of all members. He also argued for a large and permanent secretariat to carry out the League's administrative duties. [41] [44] [45]

The League of Nations was relatively more universal and inclusive in its membership and structure than previous international organisations, but the organisation enshrined racial hierarchy by curtailing the right to self-determination and prevented decolonization. [46]

Establishment Edit

At the Paris Peace Conference in 1919, Wilson, Cecil and Smuts all put forward their draft proposals. After lengthy negotiations between the delegates, the Hurst–Miller draft was finally produced as a basis for the Covenant. [47] After more negotiation and compromise, the delegates finally approved of the proposal to create the League of Nations (French: Société des Nations, German: Völkerbund) on 25 January 1919. [48] The final Covenant of the League of Nations was drafted by a special commission, and the League was established by Part I of the Treaty of Versailles. On 28 June 1919, [49] [50] 44 states signed the Covenant, including 31 states which had taken part in the war on the side of the Triple Entente or joined it during the conflict. [ citation needed ]

French women's rights advocates invited international feminists to participate in a parallel conference to the Paris Conference in hopes that they could gain permission to participate in the official conference. [51] The Inter-Allied Women's Conference asked to be allowed to submit suggestions to the peace negotiations and commissions and were granted the right to sit on commissions dealing specifically with women and children. [52] [53] Though they asked for enfranchisement and full legal protection under the law equal with men, [51] those rights were ignored. [54] Women won the right to serve in all capacities, including as staff or delegates in the League of Nations organization. [55] They also won a declaration that member nations should prevent trafficking of women and children and should equally support humane conditions for children, women and men labourers. [56] At the Zürich Peace Conference held between 17 and 19 May 1919, the women of the WILPF condemned the terms of the Treaty of Versailles for both its punitive measures, as well as its failure to provide for condemnation of violence and exclusion of women from civil and political participation. [54] Upon reading the Rules of Procedure for the League of Nations, Catherine Marshall, a British suffragist, discovered that the guidelines were completely undemocratic and they were modified based on her suggestion. [57]

The League would be made up of a General Assembly (representing all member states), an Executive Council (with membership limited to major powers), and a permanent secretariat. Member states were expected to "respect and preserve as against external aggression" the territorial integrity of other members and to disarm "to the lowest point consistent with domestic safety." All states were required to submit complaints for arbitration or judicial inquiry before going to war. [22] The Executive Council would create a Permanent Court of International Justice to make judgements on the disputes.

Despite Wilson's efforts to establish and promote the League, for which he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in October 1919, [58] the United States never joined. Senate Republicans led by Henry Cabot Lodge wanted a League with the reservation that only Congress could take the U.S. into war. Lodge gained a majority of Senators and Wilson refused to allow a compromise. The Senate voted on the ratification on March 19, 1920, and the 49-35 vote fell short of the needed 2/3 majority. [59]

The League held its first council meeting in Paris on 16 January 1920, six days after the Versailles Treaty and the Covenant of the League of Nations came into force. [60] On 1 November 1920, the headquarters of the League was moved from London to Geneva, where the first General Assembly was held on 15 November 1920. [61] [62] The Palais Wilson on Geneva's western lakeshore, named after US President Woodrow Wilson in recognition of his efforts towards the establishment of the League, was the League's first permanent home.

The official languages of the League of Nations were French and English. [63]

In 1939, a semi-official emblem for the League of Nations emerged: two five-pointed stars within a blue pentagon. They symbolised the Earth's five continents and "five races." A bow at the top displayed the English name ("League of Nations"), while another at the bottom showed the French ("Société des Nations"). [64]

The main constitutional organs of the League were the Assembly, the council, and the Permanent Secretariat. It also had two essential wings: the Permanent Court of International Justice and the International Labour Organization. In addition, there were several auxiliary agencies and commissions. [66] Each organ's budget was allocated by the Assembly (the League was supported financially by its member states). [67]

The relations between the Assembly and the Council and the competencies of each were for the most part not explicitly defined. Each body could deal with any matter within the sphere of competence of the League or affecting peace in the world. Particular questions or tasks might be referred to either. [68]

Unanimity was required for the decisions of both the Assembly and the Council, except in matters of procedure and some other specific cases such as the admission of new members. This requirement was a reflection of the League's belief in the sovereignty of its component nations the League sought a solution by consent, not by dictation. In case of a dispute, the consent of the parties to the dispute was not required for unanimity. [69]

The Permanent Secretariat, established at the seat of the League at Geneva, comprised a body of experts in various spheres under the direction of the general secretary. [70] Its principal sections were Political, Financial and Economics, Transit, Minorities and Administration (administering the Saar and Danzig), Mandates, Disarmament, Health, Social (Opium and Traffic in Women and Children), Intellectual Cooperation and International Bureaux, Legal, and Information. The staff of the Secretariat was responsible for preparing the agenda for the Council and the Assembly and publishing reports of the meetings and other routine matters, effectively acting as the League's civil service. In 1931 the staff numbered 707. [71]

The Assembly consisted of representatives of all members of the League, with each state allowed up to three representatives and one vote. [72] It met in Geneva and, after its initial sessions in 1920, [73] it convened once a year in September. [72] The special functions of the Assembly included the admission of new members, the periodical election of non-permanent members to the Council, the election with the Council of the judges of the Permanent Court, and control of the budget. In practice, the Assembly was the general directing force of League activities. [74]

The League Council acted as a type of executive body directing the Assembly's business. [75] It began with four permanent members – Great Britain, France, Italy, and Japan – and four non-permanent members that were elected by the Assembly for a three-year term. [76] The first non-permanent members were Belgium, Brazil, Greece, and Spain. [77]

The composition of the Council was changed several times. The number of non-permanent members was first increased to six on 22 September 1922 and to nine on 8 September 1926. Werner Dankwort of Germany pushed for his country to join the League joining in 1926, Germany became the fifth permanent member of the Council. Later, after Germany and Japan both left the League, the number of non-permanent seats was increased from nine to eleven, and the Soviet Union was made a permanent member giving the Council a total of fifteen members. [77] The Council met, on average, five times a year and in extraordinary sessions when required. In total, 107 sessions were held between 1920 and 1939. [78]

Other bodies Edit

The League oversaw the Permanent Court of International Justice and several other agencies and commissions created to deal with pressing international problems. These included the Disarmament Commission, the International Labour Organization (ILO), the Mandates Commission, the International Commission on Intellectual Cooperation [79] (precursor to UNESCO), the Permanent Central Opium Board, the Commission for Refugees, and the Slavery Commission. [80] Three of these institutions were transferred to the United Nations after the Second World War: the International Labour Organization, the Permanent Court of International Justice (as the International Court of Justice), and the Health Organisation [81] (restructured as the World Health Organization). [82]

The Permanent Court of International Justice was provided for by the Covenant, but not established by it. The Council and the Assembly established its constitution. Its judges were elected by the Council and the Assembly, and its budget was provided by the latter. The Court was to hear and decide any international dispute which the parties concerned submitted to it. It might also give an advisory opinion on any dispute or question referred to it by the Council or the Assembly. The Court was open to all the nations of the world under certain broad conditions. [83]

The International Labour Organization was created in 1919 on the basis of Part XIII of the Treaty of Versailles. [84] The ILO, although having the same members as the League and being subject to the budget control of the Assembly, was an autonomous organisation with its own Governing Body, its own General Conference and its own Secretariat. Its constitution differed from that of the League: representation had been accorded not only to governments but also to representatives of employers' and workers' organisations. Albert Thomas was its first director. [85]

The ILO successfully restricted the addition of lead to paint, [86] and convinced several countries to adopt an eight-hour work day and forty-eight-hour working week. It also campaigned to end child labour, increase the rights of women in the workplace, and make shipowners liable for accidents involving seamen. [84] After the demise of the League, the ILO became an agency of the United Nations in 1946. [87]

The League's health organisation had three bodies: the Health Bureau, containing permanent officials of the League the General Advisory Council or Conference, an executive section consisting of medical experts and the Health Committee. The committee's purpose was to conduct inquiries, oversee the operation of the League's health work, and prepare work to be presented to the council. [88] This body focused on ending leprosy, malaria, and yellow fever, the latter two by starting an international campaign to exterminate mosquitoes. The Health Organisation also worked successfully with the government of the Soviet Union to prevent typhus epidemics, including organising a large education campaign. [89]

The League of Nations had devoted serious attention to the question of international intellectual co-operation since its creation. [90] The First Assembly in December 1920 recommended that the Council take action aiming at the international organisation of intellectual work, which it did by adopting a report presented by the Fifth Committee of the Second Assembly and inviting a Committee on Intellectual Cooperation to meet in Geneva in August 1922. The French philosopher Henri Bergson became the first chairman of the committee. [91] The work of the committee included: an inquiry into the conditions of intellectual life, assistance to countries where intellectual life was endangered, creation of national committees for intellectual co-operation, co-operation with international intellectual organisations, protection of intellectual property, inter-university co-operation, co-ordination of bibliographical work and international interchange of publications, and international co-operation in archaeological research. [92]

Introduced by the second International Opium Convention, the Permanent Central Opium Board had to supervise the statistical reports on trade in opium, morphine, cocaine and heroin. The board also established a system of import certificates and export authorisations for the legal international trade in narcotics. [93]

The Slavery Commission sought to eradicate slavery and slave trading across the world, and fought forced prostitution. [94] Its main success was through pressing the governments who administered mandated countries to end slavery in those countries. The League secured a commitment from Ethiopia to end slavery as a condition of membership in 1923, and worked with Liberia to abolish forced labour and intertribal slavery. The United Kingdom had not supported Ethiopian membership of the League on the grounds that "Ethiopia had not reached a state of civilisation and internal security sufficient to warrant her admission." [95] [94]

The League also succeeded in reducing the death rate of workers constructing the Tanganyika railway from 55 to 4 percent. Records were kept to control slavery, prostitution, and the trafficking of women and children. [96] Partly as a result of pressure brought by the League of Nations, Afghanistan abolished slavery in 1923, Iraq in 1924, Nepal in 1926, Transjordan and Persia in 1929, Bahrain in 1937, and Ethiopia in 1942. [97]

Led by Fridtjof Nansen, the Commission for Refugees was established on 27 June 1921 [98] to look after the interests of refugees, including overseeing their repatriation and, when necessary, resettlement. [99] At the end of the First World War, there were two to three million ex-prisoners of war from various nations dispersed throughout Russia [99] within two years of the commission's foundation, it had helped 425,000 of them return home. [100] It established camps in Turkey in 1922 to aid the country with an ongoing refugee crisis, helping to prevent the spread of cholera, smallpox and dysentery as well as feeding the refugees in the camps. [101] It also established the Nansen passport as a means of identification for stateless people. [102]

The Committee for the Study of the Legal Status of Women sought to inquire into the status of women all over the world. It was formed in 1937, and later became part of the United Nations as the Commission on the Status of Women. [103]

The Covenant of the League said little about economics. Nonetheless, in 1920 the Council of the League called for a financial conference. The First Assembly at Geneva provided for the appointment of an Economic and Financial Advisory Committee to provide information to the conference. In 1923, a permanent economic and financial Organization came into being. [104]

Of the League's 42 founding members, 23 (24 counting Free France) remained members until it was dissolved in 1946. In the founding year, six other states joined, only two of which remained members throughout the League's existence. Under the Weimar Republic, Germany was admitted to the League of Nations through a resolution passed on 8 September 1926. [105]

An additional 15 countries joined later. The largest number of member states was 58, between 28 September 1934 (when Ecuador joined) and 23 February 1935 (when Paraguay withdrew). [106]

On 26 May 1937, Egypt became the last state to join the League. The first member to withdraw permanently from the League was Costa Rica on 22 January 1925 having joined on 16 December 1920, this also makes it the member to have most quickly withdrawn. Brazil was the first founding member to withdraw (14 June 1926), and Haiti the last (April 1942). Iraq, which joined in 1932, was the first member that had previously been a League of Nations mandate. [107]

The Soviet Union became a member on 18 September 1934, [108] and was expelled on 14 December 1939 [108] for invading Finland. In expelling the Soviet Union, the League broke its own rule: only 7 of 15 members of the Council voted for expulsion (United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Bolivia, Egypt, South Africa, and the Dominican Republic), short of the majority required by the Covenant. Three of these members had been made Council members the day before the vote (South Africa, Bolivia, and Egypt). This was one of the League's final acts before it practically ceased functioning due to the Second World War. [109]

At the end of the First World War, the Allied powers were confronted with the question of the disposal of the former German colonies in Africa and the Pacific, and the several Arabic-speaking provinces of the Ottoman Empire. The Peace Conference adopted the principle that these territories should be administered by different governments on behalf of the League – a system of national responsibility subject to international supervision. [110] This plan, defined as the mandate system, was adopted by the "Council of Ten" (the heads of government and foreign ministers of the main Allied powers: Britain, France, the United States, Italy, and Japan) on 30 January 1919 and transmitted to the League of Nations. [111]

League of Nations mandates were established under Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations. [112] The Permanent Mandates Commission supervised League of Nations mandates, [113] and also organised plebiscites in disputed territories so that residents could decide which country they would join. There were three mandate classifications: A, B and C. [114]

The A mandates (applied to parts of the old Ottoman Empire) were "certain communities" that had

. reached a stage of development where their existence as independent nations can be provisionally recognised subject to the rendering of administrative advice and assistance by a Mandatory until such time as they are able to stand alone. The wishes of these communities must be a principal consideration in the selection of the Mandatory. [115]

The B mandates were applied to the former German colonies that the League took responsibility for after the First World War. These were described as "peoples" that the League said were

. at such a stage that the Mandatory must be responsible for the administration of the territory under conditions which will guarantee freedom of conscience and religion, subject only to the maintenance of public order and morals, the prohibition of abuses such as the slave trade, the arms traffic and the liquor traffic, and the prevention of the establishment of fortifications or military and naval bases and of military training of the natives for other than police purposes and the defence of territory, and will also secure equal opportunities for the trade and commerce of other Members of the League. [115]

South West Africa and certain South Pacific Islands were administered by League members under C mandates. These were classified as "territories"

. which, owing to the sparseness of their population, or their small size, or their remoteness from the centres of civilisation, or their geographical contiguity to the territory of the Mandatory, and other circumstances, can be best administered under the laws of the Mandatory as integral portions of its territory, subject to the safeguards above mentioned in the interests of the indigenous population." [115]

Mandatory powers Edit

The territories were governed by mandatory powers, such as the United Kingdom in the case of the Mandate of Palestine, and the Union of South Africa in the case of South-West Africa, until the territories were deemed capable of self-government. Fourteen mandate territories were divided up among seven mandatory powers: the United Kingdom, the Union of South Africa, France, Belgium, New Zealand, Australia and Japan. [116] With the exception of the Kingdom of Iraq, which joined the League on 3 October 1932, [117] these territories did not begin to gain their independence until after the Second World War, in a process that did not end until 1990. Following the demise of the League, most of the remaining mandates became United Nations Trust Territories. [118]

In addition to the mandates, the League itself governed the Territory of the Saar Basin for 15 years, before it was returned to Germany following a plebiscite, and the Free City of Danzig (now Gdańsk, Poland) from 15 November 1920 to 1 September 1939. [119]

The aftermath of the First World War left many issues to be settled, including the exact position of national boundaries and which country particular regions would join. Most of these questions were handled by the victorious Allied powers in bodies such as the Allied Supreme Council. The Allies tended to refer only particularly difficult matters to the League. This meant that, during the early interwar period, the League played little part in resolving the turmoil resulting from the war. The questions the League considered in its early years included those designated by the Paris Peace treaties. [120]

As the League developed, its role expanded, and by the middle of the 1920s it had become the centre of international activity. This change can be seen in the relationship between the League and non-members. The United States and Russia, for example, increasingly worked with the League. During the second half of the 1920s, France, Britain and Germany were all using the League of Nations as the focus of their diplomatic activity, and each of their foreign secretaries attended League meetings at Geneva during this period. They also used the League's machinery to try to improve relations and settle their differences. [121]

Åland Islands Edit

Åland is a collection of around 6,500 islands in the Baltic Sea, midway between Sweden and Finland. The islands are almost exclusively Swedish-speaking, but in 1809, the Åland Islands, along with Finland, were taken by Imperial Russia. In December 1917, during the turmoil of the Russian October Revolution, Finland declared its independence, but most of the Ålanders wished to rejoin Sweden. [122] The Finnish government considered the islands to be a part of their new nation, as the Russians had included Åland in the Grand Duchy of Finland, formed in 1809. By 1920, the dispute had escalated to the point that there was danger of war. The British government referred the problem to the League's Council, but Finland would not let the League intervene, as they considered it an internal matter. The League created a small panel to decide if it should investigate the matter and, with an affirmative response, a neutral commission was created. [122] In June 1921, the League announced its decision: the islands were to remain a part of Finland, but with guaranteed protection of the islanders, including demilitarisation. With Sweden's reluctant agreement, this became the first European international agreement concluded directly through the League. [123]

Upper Silesia Edit

The Allied powers referred the problem of Upper Silesia to the League after they had been unable to resolve the territorial dispute. [124] After the First World War, Poland laid claim to Upper Silesia, which had been part of Prussia. The Treaty of Versailles had recommended a plebiscite in Upper Silesia to determine whether the territory should become part of Germany or Poland. Complaints about the attitude of the German authorities led to rioting and eventually to the first two Silesian Uprisings (1919 and 1920). A plebiscite took place on 20 March 1921, with 59.6 per cent (around 500,000) of the votes cast in favour of joining Germany, but Poland claimed the conditions surrounding it had been unfair. This result led to the Third Silesian Uprising in 1921. [125]

On 12 August 1921, the League was asked to settle the matter the Council created a commission with representatives from Belgium, Brazil, China and Spain to study the situation. [126] The committee recommended that Upper Silesia be divided between Poland and Germany according to the preferences shown in the plebiscite and that the two sides should decide the details of the interaction between the two areas – for example, whether goods should pass freely over the border due to the economic and industrial interdependence of the two areas. [127] In November 1921, a conference was held in Geneva to negotiate a convention between Germany and Poland. A final settlement was reached, after five meetings, in which most of the area was given to Germany, but with the Polish section containing the majority of the region's mineral resources and much of its industry. When this agreement became public in May 1922, bitter resentment was expressed in Germany, but the treaty was still ratified by both countries. The settlement produced peace in the area until the beginning of the Second World War. [126]

Albania Edit

The frontiers of the Principality of Albania had not been set during the Paris Peace Conference in 1919, as they were left for the League to decide they had not yet been determined by September 1921, creating an unstable situation. Greek troops conducted military operations in the south of Albania. Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (Yugoslav) forces became engaged, after clashes with Albanian tribesmen, in the northern part of the country. The League sent a commission of representatives from various powers to the region. In November 1921, the League decided that the frontiers of Albania should be the same as they had been in 1913, with three minor changes that favoured Yugoslavia. Yugoslav forces withdrew a few weeks later, albeit under protest. [128]

The borders of Albania again became the cause of international conflict when Italian General Enrico Tellini and four of his assistants were ambushed and killed on 24 August 1923 while marking out the newly decided border between Greece and Albania. Italian leader Benito Mussolini was incensed and demanded that a commission investigate the incident within five days. Whatever the results of the investigation, Mussolini insisted that the Greek government pay Italy fifty million lire in reparations. The Greeks said they would not pay unless it was proved that the crime was committed by Greeks. [129]

Mussolini sent a warship to shell the Greek island of Corfu, and Italian forces occupied the island on 31 August 1923. This contravened the League's covenant, so Greece appealed to the League to deal with the situation. The Allies agreed (at Mussolini's insistence) that the Conference of Ambassadors should be responsible for resolving the dispute because it was the conference that had appointed General Tellini. The League Council examined the dispute, but then passed on their findings to the Conference of Ambassadors to make the final decision. The conference accepted most of the League's recommendations, forcing Greece to pay fifty million lire to Italy, even though those who committed the crime were never discovered. [130] Italian forces then withdrew from Corfu. [131]

Memel Edit

The port city of Memel (now Klaipėda) and the surrounding area, with a predominantly German population, was under provisional Entente control according to Article 99 of the Treaty of Versailles. The French and Polish governments favoured turning Memel into an international city, while Lithuania wanted to annex the area. By 1923, the fate of the area had still not been decided, prompting Lithuanian forces to invade in January 1923 and seize the port. After the Allies failed to reach an agreement with Lithuania, they referred the matter to the League of Nations. In December 1923, the League Council appointed a Commission of Inquiry. The commission chose to cede Memel to Lithuania and give the area autonomous rights. The Klaipėda Convention was approved by the League Council on 14 March 1924, and then by the Allied powers and Lithuania. [132] In 1939 Germany retook the region following the rise of the Nazis and an ultimatum to Lithuania, demanding the return of the region under threat of war. The League of Nations failed to prevent the secession of the Memel region to Germany.

Hatay Edit

With League oversight, the Sanjak of Alexandretta in the French Mandate of Syria was given autonomy in 1937. Renamed Hatay, its parliament declared independence as the Republic of Hatay in September 1938, after elections the previous month. It was annexed by Turkey with French consent in mid-1939. [133]

Mosul Edit

The League resolved a dispute between the Kingdom of Iraq and the Republic of Turkey over control of the former Ottoman province of Mosul in 1926. According to the British, who had been awarded a League of Nations mandate over Iraq in 1920 and therefore represented Iraq in its foreign affairs, Mosul belonged to Iraq on the other hand, the new Turkish republic claimed the province as part of its historic heartland. A League of Nations Commission of Inquiry, with Belgian, Hungarian and Swedish members, was sent to the region in 1924 it found that the people of Mosul did not want to be part of either Turkey or Iraq, but if they had to choose, they would pick Iraq. [134] In 1925, the commission recommended that the region stay part of Iraq, under the condition that the British hold the mandate over Iraq for another 25 years, to ensure the autonomous rights of the Kurdish population. The League Council adopted the recommendation and decided on 16 December 1925 to award Mosul to Iraq. Although Turkey had accepted the League of Nations' arbitration in the Treaty of Lausanne (1923), it rejected the decision, questioning the Council's authority. The matter was referred to the Permanent Court of International Justice, which ruled that, when the Council made a unanimous decision, it must be accepted. Nonetheless, Britain, Iraq and Turkey ratified a separate treaty on 5 June 1926 that mostly followed the decision of the League Council and also assigned Mosul to Iraq. It was agreed that Iraq could still apply for League membership within 25 years and that the mandate would end upon its admission. [135] [136]

Vilnius Edit

After the First World War, Poland and Lithuania both regained their independence but soon became immersed in territorial disputes. [137] During the Polish–Soviet War, Lithuania signed the Moscow Peace Treaty with the Soviet Union that laid out Lithuania's frontiers. This agreement gave Lithuanians control of the city of Vilnius (Lithuanian: Vilnius, Polish: Wilno), the old Lithuanian capital, but a city with a majority Polish population. [138] This heightened tension between Lithuania and Poland and led to fears that they would resume the Polish–Lithuanian War, and on 7 October 1920, the League negotiated the Suwałki Agreement establishing a cease-fire and a demarcation line between the two nations. [137] On 9 October 1920, General Lucjan Żeligowski, commanding a Polish military force in contravention of the Suwałki Agreement, took the city and established the Republic of Central Lithuania. [137]

After a request for assistance from Lithuania, the League Council called for Poland's withdrawal from the area. The Polish government indicated they would comply, but instead reinforced the city with more Polish troops. [139] This prompted the League to decide that the future of Vilnius should be determined by its residents in a plebiscite and that the Polish forces should withdraw and be replaced by an international force organised by the League. The plan was met with resistance in Poland, Lithuania, and the Soviet Union, which opposed any international force in Lithuania. In March 1921, the League abandoned plans for the plebiscite. [140] After unsuccessful proposals by Paul Hymans to create a federation between Poland and Lithuania, which was intended as a reincarnation of the former union which both Poland and Lithuania had once shared before losing its independence, Vilnius and the surrounding area was formally annexed by Poland in March 1922. After Lithuania took over the Klaipėda Region, the Allied Conference set the frontier between Lithuania and Poland, leaving Vilnius within Poland, on 14 March 1923. [141] Lithuanian authorities refused to accept the decision, and officially remained in a state of war with Poland until 1927. [142] It was not until the 1938 Polish ultimatum that Lithuania restored diplomatic relations with Poland and thus de facto accepted the borders. [143]

Colombia and Peru Edit

There were several border conflicts between Colombia and Peru in the early part of the 20th century, and in 1922, their governments signed the Salomón-Lozano Treaty in an attempt to resolve them. [144] As part of this treaty, the border town of Leticia and its surrounding area was ceded from Peru to Colombia, giving Colombia access to the Amazon River. [145] On 1 September 1932, business leaders from Peruvian rubber and sugar industries who had lost land, as a result, organised an armed takeover of Leticia. [146] At first, the Peruvian government did not recognise the military takeover, but President of Peru Luis Sánchez Cerro decided to resist a Colombian re-occupation. The Peruvian Army occupied Leticia, leading to an armed conflict between the two nations. [147] After months of diplomatic negotiations, the governments accepted mediation by the League of Nations, and their representatives presented their cases before the Council. A provisional peace agreement, signed by both parties in May 1933, provided for the League to assume control of the disputed territory while bilateral negotiations proceeded. [148] In May 1934, a final peace agreement was signed, resulting in the return of Leticia to Colombia, a formal apology from Peru for the 1932 invasion, demilitarisation of the area around Leticia, free navigation on the Amazon and Putumayo Rivers, and a pledge of non-aggression. [149]

Saar Edit

Saar was a province formed from parts of Prussia and the Rhenish Palatinate and placed under League control by the Treaty of Versailles. A plebiscite was to be held after fifteen years of League rule to determine whether the province should belong to Germany or France. When the referendum was held in 1935, 90.3 per cent of voters supported becoming part of Germany, which was quickly approved by the League Council. [150] [151]

In addition to territorial disputes, the League also tried to intervene in other conflicts between and within nations. Among its successes were its fight against the international trade in opium and sexual slavery, and its work to alleviate the plight of refugees, particularly in Turkey in the period up to 1926. One of its innovations in this latter area was the 1922 introduction of the Nansen passport, which was the first internationally recognised identity card for stateless refugees. [152]

Greece and Bulgaria Edit

After an incident involving sentries on the Greek-Bulgarian border in October 1925, fighting began between the two countries. [153] Three days after the initial incident, Greek troops invaded Bulgaria. The Bulgarian government ordered its troops to make only token resistance, and evacuated between ten thousand and fifteen thousand people from the border region, trusting the League to settle the dispute. [154] The League condemned the Greek invasion, and called for both Greek withdrawal and compensation to Bulgaria. [153]

Liberia Edit

Following accusations of forced labour on the large American-owned Firestone rubber plantation and American accusations of slave trading, the Liberian government asked the League to launch an investigation. [155] The resulting commission was jointly appointed by the League, the United States, and Liberia. [156] In 1930, a League report confirmed the presence of slavery and forced labour. The report implicated many government officials in the selling of contract labour and recommended that they be replaced by Europeans or Americans, which generated anger within Liberia and led to the resignation of President Charles D. B. King and his vice-president. The Liberian government outlawed forced labour and slavery and asked for American help in social reforms. [156] [157]

Mukden Incident: Japan attacks China Edit

The Mukden Incident, also known as the "Manchurian Incident" was a decisive setback that weakened The League because its major members refused to tackle Japanese aggression. Japan itself withdrew. [158]

Under the agreed terms of the Twenty-One Demands with China, the Japanese government had the right to station its troops in the area around the South Manchurian Railway, a major trade route between the two countries, in the Chinese region of Manchuria. In September 1931, a section of the railway was lightly damaged by the Japanese Kwantung Army as a pretext for an invasion of Manchuria. [159] [160] The Japanese army claimed that Chinese soldiers had sabotaged the railway and in apparent retaliation (acting contrary to orders from Tokyo, [161] ) occupied all of Manchuria. They renamed the area Manchukuo, and on 9 March 1932 set up a puppet government, with Pu Yi, the former emperor of China, as its executive head. [162] This new entity was recognised only by the governments of Italy, Spain and Nazi Germany the rest of the world still considered Manchuria legally part of China.

The League of Nations sent observers. The Lytton Report appeared a year later (October 1932). It declared Japan to be the aggressor and demanded Manchuria be returned to China. The report passed 42–1 in the Assembly in 1933 (only Japan voting against), but instead of removing its troops from China, Japan withdrew from the League. [163] In the end, as British historian Charles Mowat argued, collective security was dead:

The League and the ideas of collective security and the rule of law were defeated partly because of indifference and of sympathy with the aggressor, but partly because the League powers were unprepared, preoccupied with other matters, and too slow to perceive the scale of Japanese ambitions. [164]

Chaco War Edit

The League failed to prevent the 1932 war between Bolivia and Paraguay over the arid Gran Chaco region. Although the region was sparsely populated, it contained the Paraguay River, which would have given either landlocked country access to the Atlantic Ocean, [165] and there was also speculation, later proved incorrect, that the Chaco would be a rich source of petroleum. [166] Border skirmishes throughout the late 1920s culminated in an all-out war in 1932 when the Bolivian army attacked the Paraguayans at Fort Carlos Antonio López at Lake Pitiantuta. [167] Paraguay appealed to the League of Nations, but the League did not take action when the Pan-American Conference offered to mediate instead. The war was a disaster for both sides, causing 57,000 casualties for Bolivia, whose population was around three million, and 36,000 dead for Paraguay, whose population was approximately one million. [168] It also brought both countries to the brink of economic disaster. By the time a ceasefire was negotiated on 12 June 1935, Paraguay had seized control of most of the region, as was later recognised by the 1938 truce. [169]

Italian invasion of Abyssinia Edit

In October 1935, Italian dictator Benito Mussolini sent 400,000 troops to invade Abyssinia (Ethiopia). [170] Marshal Pietro Badoglio led the campaign from November 1935, ordering bombing, the use of chemical weapons such as mustard gas, and the poisoning of water supplies, against targets which included undefended villages and medical facilities. [170] [171] The modern Italian Army defeated the poorly armed Abyssinians and captured Addis Ababa in May 1936, forcing Emperor of Ethiopia Haile Selassie to flee. [172]

The League of Nations condemned Italy's aggression and imposed economic sanctions in November 1935, but the sanctions were largely ineffective since they did not ban the sale of oil or close the Suez Canal (controlled by Britain). [173] As Stanley Baldwin, the British Prime Minister, later observed, this was ultimately because no one had the military forces on hand to withstand an Italian attack. [174] In October 1935, the US president, Franklin D. Roosevelt, invoked the recently passed Neutrality Acts and placed an embargo on arms and munitions to both sides, but extended a further "moral embargo" to the belligerent Italians, including other trade items. On 5 October and later on 29 February 1936, the United States endeavoured, with limited success, to limit its exports of oil and other materials to normal peacetime levels. [175] The League sanctions were lifted on 4 July 1936, but by that point, Italy had already gained control of the urban areas of Abyssinia. [176]

The Hoare–Laval Pact of December 1935 was an attempt by the British Foreign Secretary Samuel Hoare and the French Prime Minister Pierre Laval to end the conflict in Abyssinia by proposing to partition the country into an Italian sector and an Abyssinian sector. Mussolini was prepared to agree to the pact, but news of the deal leaked out. Both the British and French public vehemently protested against it, describing it as a sell-out of Abyssinia. Hoare and Laval were forced to resign, and the British and French governments dissociated themselves from the two men. [177] In June 1936, although there was no precedent for a head of state addressing the Assembly of the League of Nations in person, Haile Selassie spoke to the Assembly, appealing for its help in protecting his country. [178]

The Abyssinian crisis showed how the League could be influenced by the self-interest of its members [179] one of the reasons why the sanctions were not very harsh was that both Britain and France feared the prospect of driving Mussolini and Adolf Hitler into an alliance. [180]

Spanish Civil War Edit

On 17 July 1936, the Spanish Army launched a coup d'état, leading to a prolonged armed conflict between Spanish Republicans (the elected leftist national government) and the Nationalists (conservative, anti-communist rebels who included most officers of the Spanish Army). [181] Julio Álvarez del Vayo, the Spanish Minister of Foreign Affairs, appealed to the League in September 1936 for arms to defend Spain's territorial integrity and political independence. The League members would not intervene in the Spanish Civil War nor prevent foreign intervention in the conflict. Adolf Hitler and Mussolini continued to aid General Francisco Franco's Nationalists, while the Soviet Union, to a much lesser extent, helped the Spanish Republic. In February 1937, the League did ban foreign volunteers, but this was in practice a symbolic move. [182]

Second Sino-Japanese War Edit

Following a long record of instigating localised conflicts throughout the 1930s, Japan began a full-scale invasion of China on 7 July 1937. On 12 September, the Chinese representative, Wellington Koo, appealed to the League for international intervention. Western countries were sympathetic to the Chinese in their struggle, particularly in their stubborn defence of Shanghai, a city with a substantial number of foreigners. [183] The League was unable to provide any practical measures on 4 October, it turned the case over to the Nine Power Treaty Conference. [184] [185]

Soviet invasion of Finland Edit

The Nazi-Soviet Pact of 23 August 1939, contained secret protocols outlining spheres of interest. Finland and the Baltic states, as well as eastern Poland, fell into the Soviet sphere. After invading Poland on 17 September 1939, on 30 November the Soviets invaded Finland. Then "the League of Nations for the first time expelled a member who had violated the Covenant." [186] The League action of 14 December 1939, stung. "The Soviet Union was the only League member ever to suffer such an indignity." [187] [188]

Article 8 of the Covenant gave the League the task of reducing "armaments to the lowest point consistent with national safety and the enforcement by common action of international obligations". [189] A significant amount of the League's time and energy was devoted to this goal, even though many member governments were uncertain that such extensive disarmament could be achieved or was even desirable. [190] The Allied powers were also under obligation by the Treaty of Versailles to attempt to disarm, and the armament restrictions imposed on the defeated countries had been described as the first step toward worldwide disarmament. [190] The League Covenant assigned the League the task of creating a disarmament plan for each state, but the Council devolved this responsibility to a special commission set up in 1926 to prepare for the 1932–1934 World Disarmament Conference. [191] Members of the League held different views towards the issue. The French were reluctant to reduce their armaments without a guarantee of military help if they were attacked Poland and Czechoslovakia felt vulnerable to attack from the west and wanted the League's response to aggression against its members to be strengthened before they disarmed. [192] Without this guarantee, they would not reduce armaments because they felt the risk of attack from Germany was too great. Fear of attack increased as Germany regained its strength after the First World War, especially after Adolf Hitler gained power and became German Chancellor in 1933. In particular, Germany's attempts to overturn the Treaty of Versailles and the reconstruction of the German military made France increasingly unwilling to disarm. [191]

The World Disarmament Conference was convened by the League of Nations in Geneva in 1932, with representatives from 60 states. It was a failure. [193] A one-year moratorium on the expansion of armaments, later extended by a few months, was proposed at the start of the conference. [194] The Disarmament Commission obtained initial agreement from France, Italy, Spain, Japan, and Britain to limit the size of their navies but no final agreement was reached. Ultimately, the Commission failed to halt the military build-up by Germany, Italy, Spain and Japan during the 1930s.

The League was mostly silent in the face of major events leading to the Second World War, such as Hitler's remilitarisation of the Rhineland, occupation of the Sudetenland and Anschluss of Austria, which had been forbidden by the Treaty of Versailles. In fact, League members themselves re-armed. In 1933, Japan simply withdrew from the League rather than submit to its judgement, [195] as did Germany the same year (using the failure of the World Disarmament Conference to agree to arms parity between France and Germany as a pretext), Italy and Spain in 1937. [196] The final significant act of the League was to expel the Soviet Union in December 1939 after it invaded Finland. [197]

The onset of the Second World War demonstrated that the League had failed in its primary purpose, the prevention of another world war. There were a variety of reasons for this failure, many connected to general weaknesses within the organisation. Additionally, the power of the League was limited by the United States' refusal to join. [198]

Origins and structure Edit

The origins of the League as an organisation created by the Allied powers as part of the peace settlement to end the First World War led to it being viewed as a "League of Victors". [199] [200] The League's neutrality tended to manifest itself as indecision. It required a unanimous vote of nine, later fifteen, Council members to enact a resolution hence, conclusive and effective action was difficult, if not impossible. It was also slow in coming to its decisions, as certain ones required the unanimous consent of the entire Assembly. This problem mainly stemmed from the fact that the primary members of the League of Nations were not willing to accept the possibility of their fate being decided by other countries, and by enforcing unanimous voting had effectively given themselves veto power. [201] [202]

Global representation Edit

Representation at the League was often a problem. Though it was intended to encompass all nations, many never joined, or their period of membership was short. The most conspicuous absentee was the United States. President Woodrow Wilson had been a driving force behind the League's formation and strongly influenced the form it took, but the US Senate voted not to join on 19 November 1919. [203] Ruth Henig has suggested that, had the United States become a member, it would have also provided support to France and Britain, possibly making France feel more secure, and so encouraging France and Britain to co-operate more fully regarding Germany, thus making the rise to power of the Nazi Party less likely. [204] Conversely, Henig acknowledges that if the US had been a member, its reluctance to engage in war with European states or to enact economic sanctions might have hampered the ability of the League to deal with international incidents. [204] The structure of the US federal government might also have made its membership problematic, as its representatives at the League could not have made decisions on behalf of the executive branch without having the prior approval of the legislative branch. [205]

In January 1920, when the League was born, Germany was not permitted to join because it was seen as having been the aggressor in the First World War. Soviet Russia was also initially excluded because Communist regimes were not welcomed and membership would have been initially dubious due to the Russian Civil War in which both sides claimed to be the legitimate government of the country. The League was further weakened when major powers left in the 1930s. Japan began as a permanent member of the Council since the country was an Allied Power in the First World War, but withdrew in 1933 after the League voiced opposition to its occupation of Manchuria. [206] Italy began as a permanent member of the Council but withdrew in 1937 after roughly a year following the end of the Second Italo-Ethiopian War. Spain also began as a permanent member of the Council, but withdrew in 1939 after the Spanish Civil War ended in a victory for the Nationalists. The League had accepted Germany, also as a permanent member of the Council, in 1926, deeming it a "peace-loving country", but Adolf Hitler pulled Germany out when he came to power in 1933. [207]

Collective security Edit

Another important weakness grew from the contradiction between the idea of collective security that formed the basis of the League and international relations between individual states. [208] The League's collective security system required nations to act, if necessary, against states they considered friendly, and in a way that might endanger their national interests, to support states for which they had no normal affinity. [208] This weakness was exposed during the Abyssinia Crisis, when Britain and France had to balance maintaining the security they had attempted to create for themselves in Europe "to defend against the enemies of internal order", [209] in which Italy's support played a pivotal role, with their obligations to Abyssinia as a member of the League. [210]

On 23 June 1936, in the wake of the collapse of League efforts to restrain Italy's war against Abyssinia, the British Prime Minister, Stanley Baldwin, told the House of Commons that collective security had

failed ultimately because of the reluctance of nearly all the nations in Europe to proceed to what I might call military sanctions . The real reason, or the main reason, was that we discovered in the process of weeks that there was no country except the aggressor country which was ready for war . [I]f collective action is to be a reality and not merely a thing to be talked about, it means not only that every country is to be ready for war but must be ready to go to war at once. That is a terrible thing, but it is an essential part of collective security. [174]

Ultimately, Britain and France both abandoned the concept of collective security in favour of appeasement in the face of growing German militarism under Hitler. [211] In this context, the League of Nations was also the institution where the first international debate on terrorism took place following the 1934 assassination of King Alexander I of Yugoslavia in Marseille, France, showing its conspiratorial features, many of which are detectable in the discourse of terrorism among states after 9/11. [212]

American diplomatic historian Samuel Flagg Bemis originally supported the League, but after two decades changed his mind:

The League of Nations has been a disappointing failure. It has been a failure, not because the United States did not join it but because the great powers have been unwilling to apply sanctions except where it suited their individual national interests to do so, and because Democracy, on which the original concepts of the League rested for support, has collapsed over half the world. [213]

Pacifism and disarmament Edit

The League of Nations lacked an armed force of its own and depended on the Great Powers to enforce its resolutions, which they were very unwilling to do. [214] Its two most important members, Britain and France, were reluctant to use sanctions and even more reluctant to resort to military action on behalf of the League. Immediately after the First World War, pacifism became a strong force among both the people and governments of the two countries. The British Conservatives were especially tepid to the League and preferred, when in government, to negotiate treaties without the involvement of that organisation. [215] Moreover, the League's advocacy of disarmament for Britain, France, and its other members, while at the same time advocating collective security, meant that the League was depriving itself of the only forceful means by which it could uphold its authority. [216]

When the British cabinet discussed the concept of the League during the First World War, Maurice Hankey, the Cabinet Secretary, circulated a memorandum on the subject. He started by saying, "Generally it appears to me that any such scheme is dangerous to us because it will create a sense of security which is wholly fictitious". [217] He attacked the British pre-war faith in the sanctity of treaties as delusional and concluded by claiming:

It [a League of Nations] will only result in failure and the longer that failure is postponed the more certain it is that this country will have been lulled to sleep. It will put a very strong lever into the hands of the well-meaning idealists who are to be found in almost every Government, who deprecate expenditure on armaments, and, in the course of time, it will almost certainly result in this country being caught at a disadvantage. [217]

The Foreign Office civil servant Sir Eyre Crowe also wrote a memorandum to the British cabinet claiming that "a solemn league and covenant" would just be "a treaty, like other treaties". "What is there to ensure that it will not, like other treaties, be broken?" Crowe went on to express scepticism of the planned "pledge of common action" against aggressors because he believed the actions of individual states would still be determined by national interests and the balance of power. He also criticised the proposal for League economic sanctions because it would be ineffectual and that "It is all a question of real military preponderance". Universal disarmament was a practical impossibility, Crowe warned. [217]

As the situation in Europe escalated into war, the Assembly transferred enough power to the Secretary General on 30 September 1938 and 14 December 1939 to allow the League to continue to exist legally and carry on reduced operations. [109] The headquarters of the League, the Palace of Nations, remained unoccupied for nearly six years until the Second World War ended. [219]

At the 1943 Tehran Conference, the Allied powers agreed to create a new body to replace the League: the United Nations. Many League bodies, such as the International Labour Organization, continued to function and eventually became affiliated with the UN. [87] The designers of the structures of the United Nations intended to make it more effective than the League. [220]

The final meeting of the League of Nations took place on 18 April 1946 in Geneva. [221] Delegates from 34 nations attended the assembly. [222] This session concerned itself with liquidating the League: it transferred assets worth approximately $22,000,000 (U.S.) in 1946 [223] (including the Palace of Nations and the League's archives) to the UN, returned reserve funds to the nations that had supplied them, and settled the debts of the League. [222] Robert Cecil, addressing the final session, said:

Let us boldly state that aggression wherever it occurs and however it may be defended, is an international crime, that it is the duty of every peace-loving state to resent it and employ whatever force is necessary to crush it, that the machinery of the Charter, no less than the machinery of the Covenant, is sufficient for this purpose if properly used, and that every well-disposed citizen of every state should be ready to undergo any sacrifice in order to maintain peace . I venture to impress upon my hearers that the great work of peace is resting not only on the narrow interests of our own nations, but even more on those great principles of right and wrong which nations, like individuals, depend.

The League is dead. Long live the United Nations. [222]

The Assembly passed a resolution that "With effect from the day following the close of the present session of the Assembly [i.e., April 19], the League of Nations shall cease to exist except for the sole purpose of the liquidation of its affairs as provided in the present resolution." [224] A Board of Liquidation consisting of nine persons from different countries spent the next 15 months overseeing the transfer of the League's assets and functions to the United Nations or specialised bodies, finally dissolving itself on 31 July 1947. [224]

The archive of the League of Nations was transferred to the United Nations Office at Geneva and is now an entry in the UNESCO Memory of the World Register. [225]

In the past few decades, by research using the League Archives at Geneva, historians have reviewed the legacy of the League of Nations as the United Nations has faced similar troubles to those of the interwar period. Current consensus views that, even though the League failed to achieve its ultimate goal of world peace, it did manage to build new roads towards expanding the rule of law across the globe strengthened the concept of collective security, giving a voice to smaller nations helped to raise awareness to problems like epidemics, slavery, child labour, colonial tyranny, refugee crises and general working conditions through its numerous commissions and committees and paved the way for new forms of statehood, as the mandate system put the colonial powers under international observation. [226]

Professor David Kennedy portrays the League as a unique moment when international affairs were "institutionalised", as opposed to the pre–First World War methods of law and politics. [227]

The principal Allies in the Second World War (the UK, the USSR, France, the U.S., and the Republic of China) became permanent members of the United Nations Security Council in 1946 in 1971, the People's Republic of China replaced the Republic of China (then only in control of Taiwan) as a permanent member of the UN Security Council, and in 1991 the Russian Federation assumed the seat of the dissolved USSR.

Decisions of the Security Council are binding on all members of the UN, and unanimous decisions are not required, unlike in the League Council. Only the five permanent members of the Security Council can wield a veto to protect their vital interests. [228]

The League of Nations archives is a collection of the League's records and documents. It consists of approximately 15 million pages of content dating from the inception of the League of Nations in 1919 extending through its dissolution, which commenced in 1946. It is located at the United Nations Office at Geneva. [229]

Total Digital Access to the League of Nations Archives Project (LONTAD) Edit

In 2017, the UN Library & Archives Geneva launched the Total Digital Access to the League of Nations Archives Project (LONTAD), with the intention of preserving, digitizing, and providing online access to the League of Nations archives. It is scheduled for completion in 2022. [230]

Notes Edit

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  256. ^ A.C. Temperley, The Whispering Gallery Of Europe (1938), online
  257. ^Goldblat 2002, p. 24.
  258. ^
  259. Harries, Meirion and Susie (1991). Soldiers of the Sun: The Rise and Fall of the Imperial Japanese Army. p. 163. ISBN978-0-394-56935-2 .
  260. ^Northedge 1986, pp. 47, 133.
  261. ^Northedge 1986, p. 273.
  262. ^Northedge 1986, pp. 276–278.
  263. ^Gorodetsky 1994, p. 26.
  264. ^Raffo 1974, p. 1.
  265. ^
  266. Birn, Donald S (1981). The League of Nations Union. Clarendon Press. pp. 226–227. ISBN978-0-19-822650-5 .
  267. ^Northedge 1986, pp. 279–282, 288–292.
  268. ^Knock 1995, p. 263.
  269. ^ abHenig 1973, p. 175.
  270. ^Henig 1973, p. 176.
  271. ^McDonough 1997, p. 62.
  272. ^McDonough 1997, p. 69.
  273. ^ abNorthedge 1986, p. 253.
  274. ^Northedge 1986, p. 254.
  275. ^Northedge 1986, pp. 253–254.
  276. ^McDonough 1997, p. 74.
  277. ^ Ditrych, Ondrej. 'International Terrorism' as Conspiracy: Debating Terrorism in the League of Nations. Historical Social Research Vol. 38, 1 (2013).
  278. ^ Quoted in Jerald A. Combs, 'American diplomatic history: two centuries of changing interpretations (1983) p 158.
  279. ^McDonough 1997, pp. 54–5.
  280. ^Northedge 1986, pp. 238–240.
  281. ^Northedge 1986, pp. 134–135.
  282. ^ abcBarnett 1972, p. 245.
  283. ^ League of Nations archives, United Nations Office in Geneva. Network visualization and analysis published in
  284. Grandjean, Martin (2014). "La connaissance est un réseau". Les Cahiers du Numérique. 10 (3): 37–54. doi:10.3166/lcn.10.3.37-54. Archived from the original on 27 June 2015 . Retrieved 15 October 2014 .
  285. ^Scott 1973, p. 399.
  286. ^Northedge 1986, pp. 278–280.
  287. ^League of Nations ChronologyArchived 30 December 2004 at the Wayback Machine Philip J. Strollo
  288. ^ abcScott 1973, p. 404.
  289. ^ "League of Nations Ends, Gives Way to New U.N.", Syracuse Herald-American, 20 April 1946, p. 12
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  293. "League of Nations Archives 1919–1946". UNESCO Memory of the World Programme. Archived from the original on 30 September 2008 . Retrieved 7 September 2009 .
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  295. Pedersen, Susan (October 2007). "Back to the League of Nations". The American Historical Review. American Historical Review. 112 (4): 1091–1117. doi:10.1086/ahr.112.4.1091. JSTOR40008445.
  296. ^Kennedy 1987.
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  299. United Nations Library of Geneva (1978). Guide to the Archives of the League of Nations 1919–1946. Geneva, Switzerland: United Nations. p. 19. ISBN92-1-200347-8 .
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  301. "Digitization Programmes: Total Digital Access to the League of Nations Archives (LONTAD) Project". United Nations Geneva . Retrieved 18 December 2019 .

Bibliography Edit

Surveys Edit

  • Brierly, J. L. and P. A. Reynolds. "The League of Nations" The New Cambridge Modern History, Vol. XII, The Shifting Balance of World Forces (2nd ed. 1968) Chapter IX, .
  • Cecil, Lord Robert (1922). "League of Nations" . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica (12th ed.). London & New York: The Encyclopædia Britannica Company.
  • Henig, Ruth B, ed. (1973). The League of Nations. Oliver and Boyd. ISBN978-0-05-002592-5 .
  • Ikonomou, Haakon, Karen Gram-Skjoldager, eds. The League of Nations: Perspectives from the Present (Aarhus University Press, 2019). online review
  • Northedge, F.S (1986). The League of Nations: Its Life and Times, 1920–1946. Holmes & Meier. ISBN978-0-7185-1316-0 .
  • Raffo, P (1974). The League of Nations. The Historical Association.
  • Scott, George (1973). The Rise and Fall of the League of Nations. Hutchinson & Co LTD. ISBN978-0-09-117040-0 .
  • Walters, F. P. (1952). A History of the League of Nations. Oxford University Press. online free

Historiography Edit

  • Pedersen, Susan "Back to the League of Nations." American Historical Review 112.4 (2007): 1091–1117. in JSTOR
  • Aufricht, Hans "Guide to League of Nations Publications" (1951).
  • Juntke, Fritz Sveistrup, Hans: "Das deutsche Schrifttum über den Völkerbund" (1927).
  • Albert Pollard (1918), The League of Nations in history (1st ed.), London: Oxford University Press, WikidataQ105626947

League topics Edit

  • Akami, T. "Imperial polities, intercolonialism and shaping of global governing norms: public health expert networks in Asia and the League of Nations Health Organization, 1908–37," Journal of Global History 12#1 (2017): 4–25.
  • Barros, James. The Corfu incident of 1923: Mussolini and the League of Nations (Princeton UP, 2015).
  • Bendiner, Elmer. A Time of Angels: The Tragi-comic History of the League of Nations (1975).
  • Borowy, Iris. Coming to terms with world health: the League of Nations Health Organisation 1921–1946 (Peter Lang, 2009).
  • Burkman, Thomas W. Japan and the League of Nations: Empire and world order, 1914–1938 (U of Hawaii Press, 2008). . Securing the world economy: the reinvention of the League of Nations, 1920–1946 (Oxford UP, 2013).
  • Caravantes, Peggy (2004). Waging Peace: The story of Jane Addams (1st ed.). Greensboro, North Carolina: Morgan Reynolds. ISBN978-1-931798-40-2 . . Breaking the Heart of the World: Woodrow Wilson and the Fight for the League of Nations (2001) 454pp excerpt and text search
  • Ditrych, Ondrej. "“International terrorism” in the League of Nations and the contemporary terrorism dispositif." Critical Studies on Terrorism 6#2 (2013): 225–240.
  • Dykmann, Klaas. "How International was the Secretariat of the League of Nations?." International History Review 37#4 (2015): 721–744.
  • Egerton, George W (1978). Great Britain and the Creation of the League of Nations: Strategy, Politics, and International Organization, 1914–1919. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN978-0-807-81320-1 .
  • Gill, George (1996). The League of Nations from 1929 to 1946 . Avery Publishing Group. ISBN978-0-89529-637-5 .
  • Ginneken, Anique H.M. van. Historical Dictionary of the League of Nations (2006) excerpt and text search
  • Grandjean, Martin (2018). Les réseaux de la coopération intellectuelle. La Société des Nations comme actrice des échanges scientifiques et culturels dans l'entre-deux-guerres [The Networks of Intellectual Cooperation. The League of Nations as an Actor of the Scientific and Cultural Exchanges in the Inter-War Period] (in French). Lausanne: Université de Lausanne.
  • Edward Grey, 1st Viscount Grey of Fallodon (1918), The League of Nations (1st ed.), London: WHSmith, WikidataQ105700467
  • Götz, Norbert (2005). "On the Origins of 'Parliamentary Diplomacy ' ". Cooperation and Conflict. 40 (3): 263–279. doi:10.1177/0010836705055066. S2CID144380900.
  • Jenne, Erin K. Nested Security: Lessons in Conflict Management from the League of Nations and the European Union (Cornell UP, 2015).
  • Kuehl, Warren F Dunn, Lynne K (1997). Keeping the Covenant: American Internationalists and the League of Nations, 1920–1939.
  • League of Nations (1935). Essential Facts about the League of Nations. Geneva.
  • Lloyd, Lorna. "“(O) n the side of justice and peace”: Canada on the League of Nations Council 1927–1930." Diplomacy & Statecraft 24#2 (2013): 171–191.
  • McCarthy, Helen. The British People and the League of Nations: Democracy, citizenship and internationalism, c. 1918–45 (Oxford UP, 2011). online review
  • Malin, James C (1930). The United States after the World War. pp. 5–82.
  • Marbeau, Michel (2001). La Société des Nations (in French). Presses Universitaires de France. ISBN978-2-13-051635-4 .
  • Ostrower, Gary (1995). The League of Nations from 1919 to 1929 (Partners for Peace. Avery Publishing Group. ISBN978-0895296368 .
  • Shine, Cormac (2018). "Papal Diplomacy by Proxy? Catholic Internationalism at the League of Nations' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation". The Journal of Ecclesiastical History. 69 (4): 785–805. doi:10.1017/S0022046917002731.
  • Swart, William J. "The League of Nations and the Irish Question." Sociological Quarterly 36.3 (1995): 465–481.
  • Walters, F. P. (1952). A History of the League of Nations. Oxford University Press.
  • Yearwood, Peter J. Guarantee of Peace: The League of Nations in British Policy 1914–1925 (Oxford UP, 2009).

Specialised topics Edit

  • Archer, Clive (2001). International Organizations. Routledge. ISBN978-0-415-24690-3 .
  • Baer, George W (1976). Test Case: Italy, Ethiopia, and the League of Nations. Hoover Institution Press. ISBN978-0-8179-6591-4 .
  • Barnett, Correlli (1972). The Collapse of British Power. Eyre Methuen. ISBN978-0-413-27580-6 .
  • Baumslag, Naomi (2005). Murderous Medicine: Nazi Doctors, Human Experimentation, and Typhus . Praeger. ISBN978-0-275-98312-3 .
  • Bell, P.M.H (2007). The Origins of the Second World War in Europe. Pearson Education Limited. ISBN978-1-4058-4028-6 .
  • Bethell, Leslie (1991). The Cambridge History of Latin America: Volume VIII 1930 to the Present. Cambridge University Press. ISBN978-0-521-26652-9 .
  • Bouchet-Saulnier, Françoise Brav, Laura Olivier, Clementine (2007). The Practical Guide to Humanitarian Law . Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN978-0-7425-5496-2 .
  • Churchill, Winston (1986). The Second World War: Volume I The Gathering Storm . Houghton Mifflin Books. ISBN978-0-395-41055-4 .
  • Crampton, Ben (1996). Atlas of Eastern Europe in the Twentieth Century. Routledge. ISBN978-0-415-16461-0 .
  • Everard, Myriam de Haan, Francisca (2016). Rosa Manus (1881-1942): The International Life and Legacy of a Jewish Dutch Feminist. Leiden, The Netherlands: BRILL. ISBN978-90-04-33318-5 .
  • Frowein, Jochen A Rüdiger, Wolfrum (2000). Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. ISBN978-90-411-1403-7 .
  • Goldblat, Jozef (2002). Arms control: the new guide to negotiations and agreements. SAGE Publications Ltd. ISBN978-0-7619-4016-6 .
  • Gorodetsky, Gabriel (1994). Soviet Foreign Policy, 1917–1991: A Retrospective. Routledge. ISBN978-0-7146-4506-3 .
  • Henderson, Arthur (1918). The League of Nations and labour . London: Oxford University Press.
  • Hill, Robert Garvey, Marcus Universal Negro Improvement Association (1995). The Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement Association Papers. University of California Press. ISBN978-0-520-07208-4 .
  • Iriye, Akira (1987). The Origins of the Second World War in Asia and the Pacific. Longman Group UK Limited. ISBN978-0-582-49349-0 .
  • Jacobs, Aletta Henriette (1996). Feinberg, Harriet Wright, Annie (translator) (eds.). Memories: My Life as an International Leader in Health, Suffrage, and Peace. New York, New York: Feminist Press at City of New York. ISBN978-1-55861-138-2 .
  • Kennedy, David (April 1987). "The Move to Institutions" (PDF) . Cardozo Law Review. 8 (5): 841–988 . Retrieved 17 May 2008 .
  • Knock, Thomas J (1995). To End All Wars: Woodrow Wilson and the Quest for a New World Order. Princeton University Press. ISBN978-0-691-00150-0 .
  • Lannon, Frances (2002). The Spanish Civil War, 1936–1939 . Osprey Publishing. ISBN978-1-84176-369-9 .
  • Levinovitz, Agneta Wallin Ringertz, Nils (2001). The Nobel Prize: The First 100 Years. World Scientific. ISBN978-981-02-4665-5 .
  • Levy, Marcela López (2001). Bolivia: Oxfam Country Profiles Series. Oxfam Publishing. ISBN978-0-85598-455-7 .
  • Magliveras, Konstantinos D (1999). Exclusion from Participation in International Organisations: The Law and Practice behind Member States' Expulsion and Suspension of Membership. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. ISBN978-90-411-1239-2 .
  • Marchand, C. Roland (2015). The American Peace Movement and Social Reform, 1889-1918. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN978-1-4008-7025-7 .
  • McAllister, William B (1999). Drug Diplomacy in the Twentieth Century: An International History. Routledge. ISBN978-0-415-17990-4 .
  • McDonough, Frank (1997). The Origins of the First and Second World Wars. Cambridge University Press. ISBN978-0-521-56861-6 .
  • Miers, Suzanne (2003). Slavery in the Twentieth Century: The Evolution of a Global Problem. AltaMira Press. ISBN978-0-7591-0340-5 .
  • Meyer, Mary K. Prügl, Elisabeth, eds. (1999). Gender Politics in Global Governance. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN978-0-8476-9161-6 .
  • Nish, Ian (1977). Japanese foreign policy 1869–1942:Kasumigaseki to Miyakezaka. Routledge & Kegan Paul. ISBN978-0-415-27375-6 .
  • Olivier, Sydney (1918). The League of Nations and primitive peoples (1 ed.). London: Oxford University Press.
  • Osmanczyk, Edmund Jan Mango, Anthony (2002). Encyclopedia of the United Nations and International Agreements. Taylor & Francis. ISBN978-0-415-93924-9 .
  • Pietilä, Hilkka (31 March 1999). Engendering the Global Agenda: A Success Story of Women and the United Nations (PDF) . European Consortium for Political Research Workshop. Mannheim, Baden-Württemberg, Germany: University of Mannheim. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 May 2017 . Retrieved 31 August 2017 .
  • Rapoport, Anatol (1995). The Origins of Violence: Approaches to the Study of Conflict. Transaction Publishers. ISBN978-1-56000-783-8 .
  • Reichard, Martin (2006). The EU-NATO relationship: a legal and political perspective. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. ISBN978-0-7546-4759-1 .
  • Scheina, Robert L (2003). Latin America's Wars:Volume 2 The Age of the Professional Soldier, 1900–2001. Potomac Books Inc. ISBN978-1-57488-452-4 .
  • Skirbekk, Gunnar Gilje, Nils (2001). History of Western Thought: From Ancient Greece to the Twentieth Century. Routledge. ISBN978-0-415-22073-6 .
  • Temperley, A.C. The Whispering Gallery Of Europe (1938), highly influential account of League esp disarmament conference of 1932–34. online
  • Torpey, John (2000). The Invention of the Passport: Surveillance, Citizenship and the State. Cambridge University Press. ISBN978-0-521-63493-9 .
  • Tripp, Charles (2002). A History of Iraq. Cambridge University Press. ISBN978-0-521-52900-6 .
  • Wiltsher, Anne (1985). Most Dangerous Women: Feminist peace campaigners of the Great War (1st ed.). London, England: Pandora Press. ISBN978-0-86358-010-9 .
    , Boston: Old Colony Trust Company, 1919. A collection of charters, speeches, etc. on the topic. , worldatwar.net , University of Oxford-led project Speech made 25 September 1919 from the United Nations Office at Geneva from the United Nations Office at Geneva Dates of each annual assembly, links to list of members of each country's delegation in the 20th Century Press Archives of the ZBW

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Watch the video: Silent Hunter 3 - Patrol #3 October 1939 part 2 - Поход 3 октябрь 1939 часть 2 (May 2022).