History Podcasts

Concord- AM1 - History

Concord- AM1 - History

Concord III
(AM: 1. 140'; b. 26'; dr. 11'; s. 12 k.; cpl. 36; a 1 3")

The third Concord (No. 773) was built in 1898 by Charles Hillman, Philadelphia, PA.; purchased by the Navy 22 September 1917; outfitted by Boston Navy Yard; and commissioned 20 November 1917, Lieutenant (junior grade) E. M. Gracie, USNRF, in command. She wee renamed and reclassified Mendota (YT - 3) on 20 November 1920, and her name was again changed on 30 January 1932 to Muscotah.

Concord sailed from Philadelphia 16 December 1917 for Bermuda where she joined Galatia and Gypsum Queen to tow three French submarine chasers to Ponta Delgada, Azores. She continued to Brest, arriving 22 February 1918 for service as harbor tug until 26 October 1919. She returned to Norfolk 28 November, and the next month reported to Washington Navy Yard where she was placed "in service" and served as a harbor tug. She was placed out of service 4 November 1984 and sold 30 April 1937.


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Unexplained Lymphadenopathy: Evaluation and Differential Diagnosis

Lymphadenopathy is benign and self-limited in most patients. Etiologies include malignancy, infection, and autoimmune disorders, as well as medications and iatrogenic causes. The history and physical examination alone usually identify the cause of lymphadenopathy. When the cause is unknown, lymphadenopathy should be classified as localized or generalized. Patients with localized lymphadenopathy should be evaluated for etiologies typically associated with the region involved according to lymphatic drainage patterns. Generalized lymphadenopathy, defined as two or more involved regions, often indicates underlying systemic disease. Risk factors for malignancy include age older than 40 years, male sex, white race, supraclavicular location of the nodes, and presence of systemic symptoms such as fever, night sweats, and unexplained weight loss. Palpable supraclavicular, popliteal, and iliac nodes are abnormal, as are epitrochlear nodes greater than 5 mm in diameter. The workup may include blood tests, imaging, and biopsy depending on clinical presentation, location of the lymphadenopathy, and underlying risk factors. Biopsy options include fine-needle aspiration, core needle biopsy, or open excisional biopsy. Antibiotics may be used to treat acute unilateral cervical lymphadenitis, especially in children with systemic symptoms. Corticosteroids have limited usefulness in the management of unexplained lymphadenopathy and should not be used without an appropriate diagnosis.

Lymphadenopathy refers to lymph nodes that are abnormal in size (e.g., greater than 1 cm) or consistency. Palpable supraclavicular, popliteal, and iliac nodes, and epitrochlear nodes greater than 5 mm, are considered abnormal. Hard or matted lymph nodes may suggest malignancy or infection. In primary care practice, the annual incidence of unexplained lymphadenopathy is 0.6%.1 Only 1.1% of these cases are related to malignancy, but this percentage increases with advancing age.1 Cancers are identified in 4% of patients 40 years and older who present with unexplained lymphadenopathy vs. 0.4% of those younger than 40 years.1 Etiologies of lymphadenopathy can be remembered with the MIAMI mnemonic: malignancies, infections, autoimmune disorders, miscellaneous and unusual conditions, and iatrogenic causes (Table 1) .2 , 3 In most cases, the history and physical examination alone identify the cause.

SORT: KEY RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRACTICE

Ultrasonography should be used as the initial imaging modality for children up to 14 years presenting with a neck mass with or without fever.

Computed tomography should be used as the initial imaging modality for children older than 14 years and adults presenting with solitary or multiple neck masses.

In children with acute unilateral anterior cervical lymphadenitis and systemic symptoms, empiric antibiotics that target Staphylococcus aureus and group A streptococci may be given.

Corticosteroids should be avoided until a definitive diagnosis of lymphadenopathy is made because they could potentially mask or delay histologic diagnosis of leukemia or lymphoma.

Fine-needle aspiration may be used to differentiate malignant from reactive lymphadenopathy.

A = consistent, good-quality patient-oriented evidence B = inconsistent or limited-quality patient-oriented evidence C = consensus, disease-oriented evidence, usual practice, expert opinion, or case series. For information about the SORT evidence rating system, go to https://www.aafp.org/afpsort .

SORT: KEY RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRACTICE

Ultrasonography should be used as the initial imaging modality for children up to 14 years presenting with a neck mass with or without fever.

Computed tomography should be used as the initial imaging modality for children older than 14 years and adults presenting with solitary or multiple neck masses.

In children with acute unilateral anterior cervical lymphadenitis and systemic symptoms, empiric antibiotics that target Staphylococcus aureus and group A streptococci may be given.

Corticosteroids should be avoided until a definitive diagnosis of lymphadenopathy is made because they could potentially mask or delay histologic diagnosis of leukemia or lymphoma.

Fine-needle aspiration may be used to differentiate malignant from reactive lymphadenopathy.

A = consistent, good-quality patient-oriented evidence B = inconsistent or limited-quality patient-oriented evidence C = consensus, disease-oriented evidence, usual practice, expert opinion, or case series. For information about the SORT evidence rating system, go to https://www.aafp.org/afpsort .

MIAMI Mnemonic for Differential Diagnosis of Lymphadenopathy

Kaposi sarcoma, leukemias, lymphomas, metastases, skin neoplasms

Bacterial: brucellosis, cat-scratch disease ( Bartonella ), chancroid, cutaneous infections (staphylococcal or streptococcal), lymphogranuloma venereum, primary and secondary syphilis, tuberculosis, tularemia, typhoid fever

Granulomatous: berylliosis, coccidioidomycosis, cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, silicosis

Viral: adenovirus, cytomegalovirus, hepatitis, herpes zoster, human immunodeficiency virus, infectious mononucleosis (Epstein-Barr virus), rubella

Other: fungal, helminthic, Lyme disease, rickettsial, scrub typhus, toxoplasmosis

Dermatomyositis, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren syndrome, Still disease, systemic lupus erythematosus

Angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia (Castleman disease), histiocytosis, Kawasaki disease, Kikuchi lymphadenitis, Kimura disease, sarcoidosis


Midnight Confusion

Another source of confusion is the lack of a date designator in the 12-hour system, making it impossible to logically identify a correct moment in time when only a date and 12:00 am (midnight) is provided.

Imagine being asked to pick up a friend at the airport at 12:00 am on April 13. Would you go there at midnight between April 12 and April 13? Or 24 hours later?

One way to overcome this problem is to sacrifice accuracy for clarity. Your friend could ask you to be at the airport at 12:01 am on April 13 or, if the following midnight is meant, at 11:59 pm on April 13. Alternatively, the 24-hour format could be used. Here, 0:00 refers to midnight at the beginning of the day while 24:00 is midnight at the end of the day.

Time Formats

12-hour24-hour
12:00 (midnight)0:00 (beginning of the day)
12:01 am0:01
1:00 am1:00
2:00 am2:00
3:00 am3:00
4:00 am4:00
5:00 am5:00
6:00 am6:00
7:00 am7:00
8:00 am8:00
9:00 am9:00
10:00 am10:00
11:00 am11:00
12:00 (noon)12:00
12:01 pm12:01
1:00 pm13:00
2:00 pm14:00
3:00 pm15:00
4:00 pm16:00
5:00 pm17:00
6:00 pm18:00
7:00 pm19:00
8:00 pm20:00
9:00 pm21:00
10:00 pm22:00
11:00 pm23:00
12:00 (midnight)24:00 (end of the day)

M1 Abrams

Authored By: Staff Writer | Last Edited: 05/10/2021 | Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com | The following text is exclusive to this site.

The M1 Abrams was designed by Chrysler Defense and produced under the General Dynamics brand. The tank was introduced in 1979, entered service in 1980 and is still undergoing production. The system has been featured in the 1991 Gulf War and Bosnia along with the US invasions of Afghanistan in 2001 and Iraq in 2003. Along with the United States, operators of the Abrams include Australia, Egypt, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. As of this writing, roughly 8,800 Abrams have been produced in all its varied forms. In US military operations, the Abrams currently serves with both the US Army and the US Marine Corps.

The origins of the M1 Abrams can be traced back to a failed partnership between the United States and West Germany in producing a new generation main battle tank system with the latest capabilities to combat whatever the Soviets were brewing (this turned out to be the T-72). The US Army was then fielding the M60 Patton series (its own origins lay in the World War 2-era M26 Pershing heavy tank) as their main battle tank and it was largely believed that the T-72 would outclass the Patton as soon as it arrived - likewise for the West Germans and their post-war Leopard 1 main battle tanks. The joint design became known as the MBT-70.

The MBT-70 offered a low profile with a powerful main gun (152mm coupled to an XM-150 autoloader for the American model and an auto-loading 120mm Rheinmetall gun for the German model). The turret was sloped on all sides and set in the middle of the design and housed the entire crew (the remarkably low silhouette - at just over 6 feet tall - necessitated that the driver be placed in the turret with the tank commander and gunner). With the autoloader, operation of the MBT-70 required the use of only three personnel similar to Russian auto-loading MBTs. The hull was sloped towards the front, flat-faced at the rear engine compartment and showcased barely any surface exposure along the sides above the tracks. A 20mm cannon could be used in the air defense role, this springing up from behind the driver's cupola. A 7.62mm co-axial machine gun mount was standard on the MBT-70, and on any tank since World War 2 for that matter. The profile of the MBT-70 was characterized by its medium-sized road wheels with six fitted to a side. The American version of the MBT-70 would have fired a barrel-launched Shillelagh anti-tank missile at long ranges. Suspension was of an advanced hydropneumatic type that was fully adjustable on-the-fly by the driver. Despite it being a heavy 50+ ton tank design, the MBT-70 was reportedly able to reach an unheard of maximum speed of 52 miles-per-hour.

As the budget for the MBT-70 project rose widely out of control - both parties naturally developed different ideas as to the design direction of this new tank - the West Germans eventually dropped out of support for the program and instead poured their resources into producing a follow-up design to their successful Leopard 1 main battle tank, with the new design eventually becoming the equally potent Leopard 2. By 1971, the American Congress saw the ballooning MBT-70 project coming to naught and reinvested those funding dollars towards a program that would ultimately produce the M1 Abrams. The MBT-70 project, despite its revolutionary design implements, proved too ambitious and was effectively killed by the congressional decision.

The XM1 Abrams prototype was designed by Chrysler Defense. General Dynamics Land Systems Division subsequently purchased Chrysler Defense Division in 1979. The XM1 fitted the British Royal Ordnance L7 series rifled main gun of 105mm, a license-production copy built in the United States. The XM1 entered production as the M1 Abrams in 1979 and became operational the following year. The Abrams featured state-of-the-art armor protection for the crew complete with armored compartments for fuel and ammunition stores. Crew accommodations were for four personnel and consisted of the tank commander, gunner, loader and driver. The new tank weighed in at 67.5 short tons making it one of the heaviest such systems in the world.

After a short time in service, it was already becoming apparent that the 105mm rifled British armament would not stay up to the conventional tank standards being fielded in the East. As such, the Abrams was upgunned to incorporate the German-produced Rheinmetall AG 120mm smoothbore cannon known in the US inventory by the designation of M256. The Abrams was now produced under the M1A1 designation and appeared in 1986 with production running through 1992. Additional upgrades included improved armor allocation and the Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) protection system.

The M1A1 was soon followed by the improved M1A2. The A2 featured a revised weapon station for the tank commander incorporating the latest in digital systems, a separate thermal viewer system and improved navigation equipment. The M1A2 SEP (System Enhancement Package) brought the Abrams up to an even higher technological standard, incorporating digital maps, additional processing computers to handle the digital workflow and an improved cooling system. Depleted uranium armor was also part of follow-on upgrades while other subsequent upgrade programs have produced the M1A1 AIM, M1A1D, M1A1HC and the M1A2 SEP. Reactive armor and slat armor became optional and were offered as part of the Tank Urban Survival Kit (TUSK) developed for urban fighting - where conventional ranged tank engagement rules effectively fly out of the window.

Seating in the Abrams in conventional by Western standards with the driver seated at the center front of the hull, just under the main gun base (that is if the turret is facing directly forward). The tank commander, loader and gunner take their stations in the fully 360-degree traversable turret with the gunner seated ahead of the tank commander and the loader to the tank commander's immediate left. The tank commander and the loader are each afforded their own hatch and defensive machine gun weaponry. Design of these hatches is such that the weapons can be fired from within the turret without exposing either crewmember to the enemy. The Abrams sports British-designed Chobham RHA steel-encased depleted uranium mesh plating for its crew and vital systems. Chobham makes use of various alloys made up of kevlar, ceramics, plastic composites and steel to achieve a near-perfect blend of anti-penetration surfaces. Power is derived from a Honeywell AGT1500C multi-fuel turbine engine developing 1,500 horsepower mated to an Allison DDA X-1100-3B transmission. Specifications include a top road speed of 42 miles per hour and a top off-road speed of 30 miles per hour - in this respect, it was not uncommon to hear Abrams tank crews describe their mount as the "Cadillac of tanks". The power-to-weight ratio is listed at 24.5 hp/metric ton while suspension is accomplished through use of a torsion bar assembly. Range is reportedly limited to 289 miles.

Armament for the Abrams series began with the British M68 rifled cannon of 105mm but, as mentioned earlier, this was "upgunned" to the standard M256 smoothbore 120mm system thereafter, with this armament covering the M1A1, M1A2 and the M1A2SEP variants and applicable upgrades. Secondary armament came in the form of a Browning M2HB 12.7mm anti-aircraft heavy machine gun operated by the tank commander through his cupola. Armament was further enhanced by the addition of 2 x 7.62mm self-defense, anti-infantry M240 machine guns, one mounted co-axially in the turret alongside the main gun and another fitted on a pintle mounting at the loaders hatch. The co-axial mount is operated via the main gun controls. The loader's machine gun can be fitted with night vision equipment and extra shielding - the latter obviously for increased protection if the crewmember need to expose his upper body when firing the loader's M240.

As standard, the M1 can fire High-Explosive Anti-Tank (HEAT), HEAT shaped charged, high explosive, shotgun-type anti-personnel and white phosphorous projectile munitions as needed. The XM1111 is a cannon-fired "guided" projectile currently in development and will most likely be used by the Abrams series.

Despite entering service in 1980, the Abrams did not received her combat baptism until the 1991 Gulf War. The Abrams stacked up extremely well against the Soviet-developed T-55, T-62 and the latest T-72 offerings. One of the biggest drawbacks of the Iraqi tanks was their poor or non-existent night vision equipment and equally poor-to-adequate training. Lack of an effective air support did little to help out the Iraqi cause as well. Only 23 Abrams were lost in the ensuing battles. One of the biggest benefits of the Abrams system lay in the range of its main guns which out-shot Iraqi tanks by at least 500 meters. In fact, it seemed that friendly fire incidents were a bigger threat to the Abrams than were the Iraqi main battle tank and anti-tank weapon systems.

The Abrams was not completely done in Iraq, however, for the invasion of 2003 invasion of Iraq - organized under Operation Iraqi Freedom - saw similar tank-versus-tank results in favor of the Abrams. Though 80 or so Abrams tank systems were knocked out of action on the part of Iraqis, the Abrams still enjoyed its superior technological edge coupled with better crew training and well-developed tactics (along with an overly effective air support element). Follow-up fighting saw several Abrams damaged via Soviet-designed RPG-7 rocket propelled grenade weapons fired at the tank tracks, the tank rear and along the turret top - the three most vulnerable ballistic points of any tank, especially in the realm of urban fighting where elevations now play an advantage to the defensive party.

As with any other expensive yet successful armor series, the chassis of the Abrams continues to make up the main component of other battle-worthy systems. These include the M1 Grizzly Combat Mobility Vehicle, the M1 Panther II Remote Controlled Mine Clearing Vehicle, the M104 Wolverine Heavy Assault Bridge, the M1 Panther II Mine Clearing Blade/Roller System, the M1 Assault Breacher Vehicle and the M1 Armored Recovery Vehicle (single prototype). The Abrams tank itself can be converted to operate a mine plow and mine roller for mine-clearing services.

The Abrams is named after former Army Chief of Staff General Creighton Abrams whom served in the Vietnam War from 1968 to 1972 as Commander of US Military Forces. The M1 was designed to replace the venerable M60 Patton series, though the two ended up serving side by side for some 10 years. A single Abrams can carry a price tag of up to $4.35 million USD or more depending on the model and variant.

At any length, the Abrams should see continual frontline service for the United States and its allies for some time to come. Modernization programs obviously have kept the system relevant on today's battlefields. Power, survivability, lethality and technology have all gone a long way into creating the optimal legacy for the M1 Abrams.



Concord- AM1 - History

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4th Annual Cars Under The Stars

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Concord- AM1 - History


The first flight of Concorde 001, F-WTSS, on March 2nd 1969 (Airbus)

The Early History section is based on a 1976, now long out of print book by F.G Clarke who was involved with BAC during the design and building of the aircraft. It charts the period from before the inception of the project to a point immediately before Concorde went into service in 1976.

Also have a look at a pictorial diary of a flight testing day with the British Prototype, 002, at Fairford. Many people have been involved with Concorde over the years, some have gone on to write books, or are just happy to talks about their contribution to the project.

In the Memories section some of these people share their recollections of their place in the Concorde story. A copy of the well published Concorde timeline from 1956 to the present day, split up into decades is available, along with Key Events in the Concorde chronology including including the Rollout and first flights of the aircraft as well special events such as the Jubilee flypast and Pepsi Concorde flights.

A new section on the building of Concorde is underway and presently has pictures that were taken at the UK Final Assembly site of Filton in 1971. The orders/options section details the orders and options that were placed by the world's airlines for Concorde in the 60's and 70's and shows their proposed liveries


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Ahlstrom-Munksjö Oyj (AM1.HE)

Ahlstrom-Munksjö expands its platform of durable building applications by launching FibRoc® Ceiling, a new offering of high performance solutions for ceiling applications.

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Ahlstrom-Munksjö's FluoroFree® and ParaFree® products receive compostability certification

Ahlstrom-Munksjö has expanded its portfolio of biodegradable and renewable fiber-based solutions for food packaging papers, receiving compostability certification from the Biodegradable Products Institute®.

Ahlstrom-Munksjö Launches FiltEV®, its New, Comprehensive Platform of High Performance Filtration Materials for Electric Vehicles

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Spa Holdings 3 Oy -- Moody's assigns first-time B2 CFR to Spa Holdings 3 Oy stable outlook

Rating Action: Moody's assigns first-time B2 CFR to Spa Holdings 3 Oy stable outlookGlobal Credit Research - 01 Mar 2021Frankfurt am Main, March 01, 2021 -- Moody's Investors Service ("Moody's") has today assigned a B2 corporate family rating (CFR) and B2-PD probability of default (PDR) to Spa Holdings 3 Oy, a holding company of the Finnish producer of specialty papers and fiber-based solutions Ahlstrom-Munksjo Oyj (A-M). Moody's has also assigned B2 instrument ratings to the proposed E1,000 million equivalent senior secured first lien term loans and the proposed E325 million senior secured revolving credit facility (RCF) issued by Spa Holdings 3 Oy.


Watch the video: The Wall is Rebuilt. Concord Kids - Concord Church (January 2022).