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Marble calyx-krater with reliefs of maidens and dancing maenads

Marble calyx-krater with reliefs of maidens and dancing maenads


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Art of Europe

The art of Europe, or Western art, encompasses the history of visual art in Europe. European prehistoric art started as mobile Upper Paleolithic rock and cave painting and petroglyph art and was characteristic of the period between the Paleolithic and the Iron Age. [1] Written histories of European art often begin with the art of Ancient Israel and the Ancient Aegean civilizations, dating from the 3rd millennium BC. Parallel with these significant cultures, art of one form or another existed all over Europe, wherever there were people, leaving signs such as carvings, decorated artifacts and huge standing stones. However a consistent pattern of artistic development within Europe becomes clear only with the art of Ancient Greece, adopted and transformed by Rome and carried with the Roman Empire, across much of Europe, North Africa and Western Asia. [2]

The influence of the art of the Classical period waxed and waned throughout the next two thousand years, seeming to slip into a distant memory in parts of the Medieval period, to re-emerge in the Renaissance, suffer a period of what some early art historians viewed as "decay" during the Baroque period, [3] to reappear in a refined form in Neo-Classicism [4] and to be reborn in Post-Modernism. [5]

Before the 1800s, the Christian church was a major influence upon European art, the commissions of the Church, architectural, painterly and sculptural, providing the major source of work for artists. The history of the Church was very much reflected in the history of art, during this period. In the same period of time there was renewed interest in heroes and heroines, tales of mythological gods and goddesses, great wars, and bizarre creatures which were not connected to religion. [6] Most art of the last 200 years has been produced without reference to religion and often with no particular ideology at all, but art has often been influenced by political issues, whether reflecting the concerns of patrons or the artist.

European art is arranged into a number of stylistic periods, which, historically, overlap each other as different styles flourished in different areas. Broadly the periods are, Classical, Byzantine, Medieval, Gothic, Renaissance, Baroque, Rococo, Neoclassical, Modern, Postmodern and New European Painting. [6]


Panel relief: a maenad striding to right, carrying flowers two maidens adorning a candelabrum (‘Nuptiale Festum’)

Drawing, executed in pen and brown ink and brown wash over black chalk, laid to Stirling-Maxwell album sheet of wove paper, 128 × 288 mm.

This drawing of a panel relief showing maidens draping a candelabrum (‘Nuptiale Festum’) was commissioned by Cassiano dal Pozzo (1588-1657) for his ‘Museo Cartaceo’, and later passed through the collections of Pope Clement XI, his nephew Cardinal Alessandro Albani, King George III, and the antiquary Sir William Stirling-Maxwell. In the early sixteenth century, the marble relief was located in the atrium of Old St. Peter’s in Rome after 1617, it was installed with its pendant relief of five female figures dancing (‘Nuptiales Choreae’) above opposite doors in the Salone of the Casino of Cardinal Scipione Borghese, on the Pincian hill. Its fame grew steadily and was assured by its inclusion (again with its pendant) in Perrier’s Icones (1645) and in Bartoli and Bellori’s Admiranda romanarum antiquitatum (1693). In 1807, the relief and its pendant were sold to Napoleon Bonaparte and sent to Paris since 1817, both have been displayed in the Louvre.

The sheet was exhibited in 2001 (I segreti di un collezionista: le straordinarie raccolte di Cassiano dal Pozzo 1588-1657, catalogue of an exhibition held at the Museo del territorio Biellese, Biella, from 16 December 2001-16 March 2002, edited by Francesco Solinas, Roma: Edizioni De Luca, 2001, p.230 no. 140, with reproduction).

Anonymous Roman draughtsman

Panel relief: a maenad striding to right, carrying flowers two maidens adorning a candelabrum (‘Nuptiale Festum’)

Pen and brown ink and brown wash over black chalk, 128 × 288 mm.

Composed of two sheets. Watermark: star in circle. Pasted onto a characteristic Dal Pozzo inlaid mount with double ruled border lines known as ‘Type A’ mount.

Laid to Stirling-Maxwell album sheet of wove paper. Mounted and framed.

provenance
commissioned by Cassiano dal Pozzo (1588-1637) for the ‘Museo Cartaceo’ and kept in the library of his palazzo, via dei Chiavari, Rome — transferred (with the entire Dal Pozzo collection) by fidecommesso to his younger brother Carlo Antonio dal Pozzo (1606-1689) — inherited in turn by Gabriele dal Pozzo (died in 1695), his widow (born Anna Teresa Benzoni, after her remarriage in 1697 the Marchesa Lancellotti de’ Ginnetti died in 1736), and Cosimo Antonio dal Pozzo (died in 1740), who sold the Dal Pozzo library in 1703 to Pope Clement xi for the Vatican library — transferred in January 1714 to the Pope’s nephew, Cardinal Alessandro Albani (1692-1779), and kept in his palazzo ‘alle Quattro Fontane’ in Rome — within the Albani collection of prints and drawings, including the ‘Museo Cartaceo’, sold in 1762 to James Adam as agent for — King George iii , kept in Buckingham House — among sheets of the ‘Museo Cartaceo’ appropriated by the Royal Librarian Richard Dalton (1715-1791) during a reorganisation of the drawings circa 1786-1788 — presumably his deceased sale by Greenwood’s auction house, London, 11-19 May 1791 — the antiquary John MacGowan (died in 1803, Edinburgh), presumably his deceased sale by Thomas Philipe’s auction house, London, 26 January-4 February 1804 — the antiquary Charles Townley (1737-1805) — by descent to John Townley, presumably his sale, Sotheby, Wilkinson and Hodge, London, 10-11 May 1865, indirectly to — Sir William Stirling Maxwell of Pollok (1818-1878) and bound in an album entitled ‘Drawings by Italian Old Masters. Sculpture’ (fol. 26) — by descent within the family — consigned for sale by Phillips, Son & Neale, ‘Old Master Drawings’, London, 12 December 1990, where dispersed as lots 219-374 (this sheet p.86 lot 236) — Private collection, Dublin

exhibited
Biella, Museo del territorio Biellese, 16 December 2001-16 March 2002

literature
I segreti di un collezionista: le straordinarie raccolte di Cassiano dal Pozzo 1588-1657, catalogue of an exhibition held at the Museo del territorio Biellese, Biella, from 16 December 2001-16 March 2002, edited by Francesco Solinas (Roma: Edizioni De Luca, 2001), p.230 no. 140 (reproduced)

Phyllis Pray Bober and Ruth Rubinstein, Renaissance artists & antique sculpture: a handbook of sources, second edition, edited by Elisabeth McGrath (London 2010), p.105 no. 59B (‘17th-century sheet from Pozzo-Stirling Maxwell albums, present location unknown’)

I Borghese e l’antico, catalogue of an exhibition held at the Galleria Borghese, Rome, 7 December 2011-9 April 2012, edited by Anna Coliva (Rome 2011), p.250 (‘Artista del Museo Cartaceo, collezione privata’)

Une histoire en images de la collection Borghèse: les antiques de Scipion dans les albums Topham, edited by Marie-Lou Fabréga-Dubert (Paris: Mare et Martin / Louvre éditions, 2020), pp.346-347 (‘Anonyme Italien’, reproduced ‘Collection particulière’)

This drawing of a panel relief showing maidens draping a candelabrum (‘Nuptiale Festum’) was commissioned by Cassiano dal Pozzo (1588-1657) for his ‘Museo Cartaceo’, and later passed through the collections of Pope Clement xi , his nephew Cardinal Alessandro Albani, King George iii , and the antiquary Sir William Stirling-Maxwell. It came onto the market at the dispersal of the Stirling-Maxwell albums of ‘Drawings by Italian Old Masters. Sculpture’ by Phillips, Son & Neale, in London, 12 December 1990, since when it has been in a private collection in Ireland.

In the early sixteenth century, the marble relief was located in the piazza (or atrium) of Old St. Peter’s in Rome after 1617, it was installed with its pendant relief of five female figures dancing (‘Nuptiales Choreae’) above opposite doors in the Salone of the Casino of Cardinal Scipione Borghese, on the Pincian hill. In 1642, the ancient relief, with its pendant, was cast in bronze in Paris for Louis XIII, on the advice of Poussin. Its fame grew steadily and was assured by its inclusion (again with its pendant) in Perrier’s Icones et segmenta (1645) 1 and in Bartoli and Bellori’s Admiranda (1693). 2 In 1807, the relief and its pendant were sold to Napoleon Bonaparte and sent to Paris since 1817, both have been displayed in the Louvre. 3

The drawing does not record the relief in its present state. 4 The omission of the architectural background of pilasters and other deviations suggest that the artist was not relying on observation, but copying another drawing (or drawings), at present unknown. The maenad striding to right is shown with fruit or flowers in both hands these may be restorations by the artist, to complete the sense of his drawing. In the Escurialensis drawing (single maenad only, before c. 1509), the right hand is empty 5 in Perrier’s etching (1645), it carries ears of corn. Likewise, the base of the candelabrum decorated by the two maidens is carved with satyrs in the Escurialensis drawing, but vaguely sketched by Cassiano’s draughtsman an additional maenad was added by Perrier.

Cassiano set about assembling in the period from about 1620 until his death (1657) a corpus of drawings of the major (and minor) antiquities in Rome, a ‘Museo Cartaceo’. Most of the draughtsmen he employed on the vast project are still anonymous. 6 The hand responsible for our drawing produced others for the ‘Museo Cartaceo’. The most exact comparisons for the style and drawing technique are a sheet copying the relief on the Borghese vase, portraying five maenads and satyrs dancing to music with similar misplacement of the figures (RL 8332) 7 and a drawing of the Achilles and Penthesilea sarcophagus 8 now built into the garden wall of the Casino Rospigliosi in Rome (Franks I, no. 103). 9 The drawing in the ‘Museo Cartaceo’ of the pendant relief of dancing maidens was provided by a different hand (RL 8503). 10


Art History Exam 2 - The Definitive Edition .

"Mantiklos Apollo"
Bronze
Orientalizing
Thebes, Greece
700-680 BCE
8" high
Votive figure of youth dedicated by Mantiklos to Apollo. Resembles Sumerian votive figures.

"Lady of Auxerre"
Limestone
Crete, Greece
650-625 BCE
2' 1.5" high
Resembles snake goddess, Lady of Djoser

"Achilles and Ajax Playing a Dice Game" by Exekias

Athenian Black-figure Amphora
Archaic
540-530 BCE
2' high
Story made up by Exekias using infamous characters from the Iliad

"Suicide of Ajar" by Exekias
Athenian black-figure amphora
Archaic
540-530 BCE
2' high
Instead of common depiction of him already dead, he depicts him preparing his suicide.

"Drunken Procession" (Komos) Athenian red-figure Kylix Athens, Greece Classical 480 BCE 5.5"

Outside: Party, drinking, dancing Inside: throwing up, child assisting--humor Processions of deep philosophical and ethical thought, drinking, dancing, erotic

Transition from masculine to feminine
Softening of classical stoicism to moments of natural human emotions
Stronger S-curves of body (more emotional, expressive)

Geometric (750-725 BCE) Move from figurative Mycenaean art to abstract

Orientalizing (725-650 BCE) Influences from Near East and Egypt (hybrid creatures)
Archaic (700-480 BCE) Developments in Greek politics, economics, international relations, warfare, and culture Architectural boom
Classical (500-400 BCE) Greeks rebel against Persian overlords, two Greek vs. Persian battles follow, Greeks victorious. Persians burn and destroy much of cities. Famous comedies, tragedies. Socrates, Plato, Aristotle.
Late Classical (400-300 BCE) Athens loses series of battles, much of Greece taken over by Macedonians. War, stress Transition from masculine to feminine Softening of classical stoicism to moments of natural human emotions Stronger S-curves of body (more emotional, expressive)
Hellenistic (323-30 BCE) Begins after dead of Alexander the Great (conquered Egypt, Persians, Mesopotamia, present-day Afghanistan) Founded over 70 cities Art is very emotional, heavy action and twisting.


Marble calyx-krater with reliefs of maidens and dancing maenads - History

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    Tivoli : Villa Adriana -Maritime Theatre -The circular Portico -the Canal and the Peristyle

    Italiano : Teatro Marittimo

    E' un edificio circolare a portico su colonne con un canale anulare ,attraversato da ponti mobili ,che circonda un'isoletta : vi sorge un edificio progettato direttamente dall'Imperatore e tra le prime costruzioni della villa - che gli archeologi hanno identificato come una Domus ,sorta di residenza nel cuore del complesso .L'isoletta m.24,5 di diametro ) delizioso luogo di soggiorno ha al centro un peristilio con una fontana ,circondato da portichetto a lati convessi . A nord è un vestibolo curvilineo a colonne con trabeazione ornata da un fregio con thiasos marino e gare di corsa fra Eroti a sud un triclinio o Tablino ( sala di soggiorno ) ,a ovest un bagno comprendente spogliatoio ,frigidarium e calidarium a est ,due vani .

    Superata la tradizionale denominazione di Teatro Marittimo si va da dall'attribuzione di piacevole ritiro a interpretazioni più originali .Un dato reale : il teatro marittimo ha le dimensioni del Pantheon ( 44 m. di diametro ,rifatto proprio da Adriano .Questo è il più celebre e singolare ambiente di Villa Adriana anche per il famoso , ma anche enigmatico progettista ( lo stesso Adriano ) che non ci ha lasciato nessuna traccia al riguardo .

    English : Maritime Theatre

    Maritime Theatre is a circular arcaded building on columns with an anular canal ,crossed by mobile bridges that surrounds an islet : there is a building designed directly by the emperor and among the first building on the villa - that the archeologists have identified as a Domus ,sort of residence in the hearth of the complex .

    The small island ( m.24,5 diameter ) , a delightful place to stay ,has a peristyle with a fountain in the center , surrounded by a convex side portico . In the north there is a curvilinear vestibule with columns with entablature adorned with a frieze with marine thiasos and racing competitions among eroti to the south a triclinium or tablinium ( living room ) , to the west a bathroom comprising dressing room ,frigidarium and calidarium ,two bedrooms to the east ,After passing the name the Maritime Theatre ,we go from the attribution of a pleasant retreat to more original interpretations .A real datum : the Maritime Theatre has the dimensions of the Pantheon .This is the most famous and singular environment of Villa Adriana also for the famous ,but also enigmatic designer ( the same Hadrians ) who has left us no trace in this regard .

    Three actors, two maenads and a character wearing a furry costume, perform a satyr-play.

    During the period of the dynasty of Kadmos and his descendants, religious activities were reinstated, coinciding with the dissemination of the Dionysiac cult in Thebes. It was Semele, daughter of Kadmos and Harmonia, who brought the god Dionysos into the world under truly dramatic conditions. Another of Kadmos’ daughters, Agave, introduced the God’s orgiastic cult and led the women maenads of Thebes in their frenzy to tear the king, her son Pentheus, limb from limb, as he had refused to be initiated into the new religion and its new mysteries.

    Thebes, Archaeological Museum

    Three actors, two maenads and a character wearing a furry costume, perform a satyr-play.

    During the period of the dynasty of Kadmos and his descendants, religious activities were reinstated, coinciding with the dissemination of the Dionysiac cult in Thebes. It was Semele, daughter of Kadmos and Harmonia, who brought the god Dionysos into the world under truly dramatic conditions. Another of Kadmos’ daughters, Agave, introduced the God’s orgiastic cult and led the women maenads of Thebes in their frenzy to tear the king, her son Pentheus, limb from limb, as he had refused to be initiated into the new religion and its new mysteries.

    Thebes, Archaeological Museum

    The Achilles Sarcophagus (2nd century AD) is a beautiful artwork, based on the concluding book of Homer's Iliad. Two different scenes are carved on the front side of the sarcophagus: on the left, Achilles dragging the dead body of Hector behind his chariot, and the chariot filled with treasure, the ransom collected by king Priam, brought inside Greeks’ camp by Trojans on the right, Priam kneeling before Achilles, begging Achilles to return Hector’s body. On the cover two figures in bed on the mattress metopes with marine thiasos scenes.

    The short sides of the chest are decorated with bas-reliefs depicting, to left, a warrior wearing an armature, and, on the right the mourning over the dead Patroklos.

    Roman period - 2nd Century AC

    From Ladochori, Epire, Greece

    Ioannina, Archaeological Museum

    The round hall – height 22 m., diameter of 21 m. - was finished in 1779. The floor was assembled by using two mosaics found in Oricoli and Sacrofano. They are decorated with scenes framed by geometric patterns and depicting the battle between Lapiths and Centaurs, and a marine thiasos. On the walls ten niches framed by pillars. Eight niches host colossal statues while two niches are used as passageway.

    A large porphyry cup having a circumference of 13 m. is located at the center of the hall. Its origin is uncertain. This enormous “labrum” probably comes from Nero's Domus Aurea.

    Inside the niches, from left to right, five colossal statues representing:

    - Hellenistic Prince , head reworked in modern time as Galba

    - the so-called Hera Barberini

    - Ceres, statue with not pertinent head

    Below, from left to right, busts representing:

    - Claudio, portrait reworked from a bust of his nephew Caligula

    Museo Pio-Clementino, "Sala Rotonda" (Round Hall)

    Vase fragment depicting the "sparagmos", or the wild ritual act of dismembering a living animal practiced in Dionysiac context. Dionysos was the god of all wild nature, and his reveling train of ecstatic followers were Satyrs, Silens, Nymphs and Maenads, all celebrating the god's rites with wine and music, song and dance, and sometimes, in their ecstasy, tearing animals to pieces, “sparagmos”, and eating the flesh raw, “omophagia”.

    Here Dionysos is portrayed standing between a maenad and a satyr in his hands he holds a dismembered goat. According to the rite the “sparagmos” was followed by “omophagia”: Dionysos followers, maenads and satyrs, ate the raw flesh of the sacrificed animals. The picture shows the gesture of Dionysus offering to his followers the pieces of goat quartered with his own hands.

    Attic white-ground black-figured fragment

    Attributed to Dokimasia Painter [?]

    Sea-Creature Sarcophagus with clipeus

    The relief on the sarcophagus shows a centralized composition structured around a shield (clipeus), originally designed to contain the name of the deceased, standing on a mask of Oceanus. On each side is a group, symmetrically arranged, consisting of a sea-centaur or a sea-bull carrying Nereids. The compositional structure of the bass-relief draws attention to the central motif. The sea-creatures’ formal relationship with the clipeus gives them the appearance of being directly involved in the solemn commemoration of the deceased.

    The compositional structure of the image, in which the individual motifs are placed next to each other emblematically and the characters are moving in opposite directions, naturally eliminates any idea of a procession. The relationship between the male and female sea-creatures is one of intimacy and affection.

    Two of the four couples are linked to each other through intimate gestures: the sea-centaur on the left has laid his arm round the shoulders of the Nereid with the child, while the mermaid on the right has grasped one of the horns of a sea-bull and is using her other hand to stroke him tenderly on the snout—it appears as if she is allowing her playmate to draw her through the water. The Nereid on the right is even gazing in a mirror, busy with her toilette, while the one on the left holds a lyre. If the accessories carried by the Nereids are allusions to beauty and music, the sea-centaurs are given maritime attributes which are more closely tied to their mythological world: of the two fish-centaurs holding the central shield, one carries an anchor and the other a shell in the shape of a horn, while the sea-centaur on the far left has a ship’s rudder, the upper part of which is lost.

    The hybrid nature of the sea-centaurs is evident not only in their combination of human head and torso with a horse's body and fish’s tail, but also in the serrated fins on their trunks, foreheads, and cheeks and the long unkempt hair over the back of their necks and tufts of hair on their foreheads. They are powerful and good-natured, but at the same time they invoke an animal vitality. Their bestial form did not invite the Roman observer to identify directly himself with them, but allowed for a certain distance.

    It is quite a different matter with the Nereids. There is nothing animal about them. They are unblemished beauties, and it is only the overall context of the imagery that allows them to be identified as some of the mythical daughters of Nereus. Their carefully dressed hair, their daintily lowered heads, and their nonchalant but perfect posture and drapery almost make them into the ideal woman.

    The baby held in the arms of the mermaid on the left, who seems to be standing cross-legged in the waves, brings a strong family note into the picture. It must be the Nereid’s baby—not a cupid—since it already shows rudimentary traces of the long, shaggy hair on the nape of the neck which is typical of adult male sea-creatures. Despite his half-animal father, the baby is of human shape and gives no hint of how it will later develop into the likeness of his father. The child's human form, which is not entirely plausible within the world of sea-monsters, is probably supposed to create a mental bridge and interface with the family situation of the bereaved: it links the fantastic world of the mythical sea-creatures with that of the real Roman family. This creates an atmosphere that is at once solemn and dignified as well as full of family cheer.

    This sea-creature sarcophagus was discovered in 1872 on the premises of the Campo Verano near San Lorenzo Fuori le Mura, along with a large number of Christian inscriptions, some of which dated from the fourth to sixth centuries. The circumstances of the find, and above all the Christian inscription on the sarcophagus (Promote Habeas) with the cross beneath it, show that the sarcophagus was used at least twice, the last time by Christians.

    Height 65 cm length 211 cm

    From S. Lorenzo fuori le mura, Rome

    Rome, Museo Capitolini, Palazzo de' Conservatori, Ripiano III

    According to the Attic tradition the sculpture on the sarcophagus lid must depict the deceased couple on their funeral bed. The upper part of the lid in lost. Only the mattress finely decorated with marine Thiasos scenes framed in metopes, is preserved.

    Roman period - 2nd Century AC

    From Ladochori, Epire, Greece

    Ioannina, Archaeological Museum

    The most famous part of his wanderings in Asia is his expedition to India, which is said to have lasted three, or, according to some, even 52 years. In those distant regions he did not meet with a kindly reception everywhere and had to fight against many peoples. But Dionysus and the host of Pans, Satyrs, and maenads, by whom he was accompanied, conquered his enemies, taught the Indians the cultivation of the vine and of various fruits, and the worship of the god he also founded towns among them, gave them laws, and left behind him pillars and monuments in the happy land which he had thus conquered and civilized, and the inhabitants worshipped him as a god.

    This magnificent sarcophagus reports the Indian triumph of Dionysus. Dionysus appears at the far left end of the composition in his elephant-drawn chariot. The mythological composition owes a debt to imperial ceremony: the god receives from a winged Victory flying before him a laurel crown, identical to the headdress worn by Roman emperors during triumphal processions.

    Several singing and dancing characters march in front of his chariot. The enthusiastic atmosphere of the procession of his worshippers is the favorite theme of Dionysus' iconography. The canonical repertoire includes centaurs, satyrs, maenads, Papposilenus, Pan. The main task of satyrs and maenads was to create the sounds and the rhythms of the exciting Dionysiac atmosphere by using the typical instruments of the thiasos: the maenads strike cymbals and tympana while satyrs and Pan are playing double flutes or syringes. Both are dancing unbridled. The not dancing characters, Sileni and centaurs, play stringed instruments. Several wild animals - lions, panthers, giraffes etc. – were admitted inside the parade during his Indian campaign.

    This is a popular theme in late second-century AD sarcophagi, but here the carved relief is of especially high quality — complex but highly legible at the same time. The-bas relief indicates that the family who commissioned the sarcophagus adhered to a mystery cult of Dionysus that focused on themes of decay and renewal, death and rebirth. The triumph of the deceased over death is the central message overcoming this particular episode in the life of Dionysus himself.

    Vatican City State, Vatican Museums, Museo Gregoriano Profano

    Detail of the left side of a bas-relief depicting one of the many versions of the Dionysiac thiaos passed down by roman sarcophagi. Dionysus is standing on a chariot drawn by two centaurs. The equilibrium of the wine god is unstable, and his right arm hugs the shoulders of a satyr who tries to support him. An upturned kantharos is in his right hand. A "parapetasma" is hanged behind the chariot hiding the background. A winged Erote is standing, probably dancing, on the back of the older centaur playing a lyre held with his left hand with a "plektron". A panther is squatting under his paws. The younger centaur holds a pine branch. To right a musician maenad, "aulistria", playing a flute.

    Rome, Museo Nazionale Romano, Terme di Diocleziano

    The sarcophagi reliefs decorated with marine-thiasos scenes are a continuation of the tradition of the sensual and fantastical images of Hellenistic art - see the bas-relief in Munich Glyptothek.

    As a rule, the workshops did not use coherent patterns. They created their own compositions by putting individual elements together in new ways. This can help to ascertain which motifs and which aspects particularly appealed to them and to their customers. If on the Hellenistic monuments the Nereids sometimes still wore diaphanous robes, now as a rule they were portrayed completely nude. They are as beautiful as Aphrodite, and like Aphrodite they put their beauty on show, take pride in their appearance, have their hair carefully dressed, and sometimes wear bands around their breasts. Following the repertory of types of Hellenistic art, the artists arranged their bodies in a wide variety of often erotically attractive poses they were shown frontally and from behind, sitting upright and half-turned. They are usually riding on their disparate companions, but sometimes they swim alongside them.

    While the Nereids are always shown with perfect bodies, this is not the case with their companions. They are always more or less monstrous creatures whose half-human, half-fish bodies seem to come from some primeval world. These dangerous monsters have lost any attribute that could actually be frightening. It is as if the sculptors simply found particular pleasure in inventing new hybrids by combining different bodies. The favorites were the tritons with long fish-tails and the sea-centaurs with half a horse’s body. But we also find a wealth of other sea-monsters in a wide variety of fish and animal combinations, including creatures with no human element at all: horses, bulls, etc. - all of them with fish-tails of different lengths. All these new combinations remove the image yet further from the real world.

    The fact that the beautiful maidens sometimes behave in a particularly friendly way towards these purely animal hybrids points up the playful and carefree nature of these images. The contrast between the beautiful, smooth bodies of the women and the crude shapes and scaly skin of their companions is often specifically stressed, probably in order to increase the erotic charge.

    Height 55 cm length 180 cm depth 53

    Rome, Museo Capitolini, Palazzo de' Conservatori, Galleria

    This krater with lid, or “Krater-psykter”, is decorated with images of Dionysiac cults.

    On the main body, the wine god is sitting on a stool he wears a himation and a mantel and holds a kantharos with his left hand, and a vine branch with the right. A vine leafs wreath embellishes his hair. Dancing satyrs and maenads surround him.

    In the lower band, Dionysiac parade (thiasos): the god reading a mule and holding a drinking horn moves to right in front and behind him dancing satyrs and maenads.

    Attic black-figured krater-psykter

    Dimensions: H. 36.2 cm Diam. 40.5 cm.

    Antimenes antimene Pittore Painter Dioniso Dionysos Dionysus “Dionysiac Thiasos” ”Tiaso Dionisico” satiri Satyrs Maenads Menadi “black figure” “Figure Nere” Krater cratere attic attica Athens atene greek ceramic pottery vases ceramica greca “vasi greci” Paris Parigi “Musée du Louvre” Louvre

    Dionysus is standing on a chariot drawn by two centaurs. The equilibrium of the wine god is unstable, and his right arm hugs the shoulders of a satyr who tries to support him. An upturned kantharos is in his right hand. A "parapetasma" is hanged behind the chariot hiding the background. A winged Erote is standing on the back of the older centaur playing a lyre held with his left hand with a "plektron". A panther is squatting under his paws. The younger centaur holds a pine branch. Two musician maenads march before Dionysus’ chariot: the first is a "aulistria", the second a "tympanistria". Their light dresses inflated by the wind form wide arches behind their heads. The next character is Silenus lying drunk on a chariot pulled by two mules. The chariot is driven by Pan who looks at his passenger turning his head. The procession is blocked by a mule fallen to the ground, and a satyr tries to raise the animal pulling it by the bit.

    A tree separates this from the last scene depicting Pan dancing. In the foreground, between his goat legs, is carved a cist from which a snake comes. In the far right side a satyr observes the parade turning back his head he holds a hunting stick, "lagobolon", with his lowered right hand and a wreath with the left.

    The relief carved on the lid raise depicts a banquet. At the center Dionysus and Ariadne are lying in symmetrical position: the god holds a cup, Arianna, wearing chiton and cloak, a wreath. On both sides erotes are flying towards the couple. The characters behind Dionysus and Ariadne are Pan and Silenus. In the left corner a servant is busy to fuel the fire burning under a pot.

    Rome, Museo Nazionale Romano, Terme di Diocleziano

    The most famous part of his wanderings in Asia is his expedition to India, which is said to have lasted three, or, according to some, even 52 years. In those distant regions he did not meet with a kindly reception everywhere and had to fight against many peoples. But Dionysus and the host of Pans, Satyrs, and maenads, by whom he was accompanied, conquered his enemies, taught the Indians the cultivation of the vine and of various fruits, and the worship of the god he also founded towns among them, gave them laws, and left behind him pillars and monuments in the happy land which he had thus conquered and civilized, and the inhabitants worshipped him as a god.

    This magnificent sarcophagus reports the Indian triumph of Dionysus. Dionysus appears at the far left end of the composition in his elephant-drawn chariot. The mythological composition owes a debt to imperial ceremony: the god receives from a winged Victory flying before him a laurel crown, identical to the headdress worn by Roman emperors during triumphal processions.

    Several singing and dancing characters march in front of his chariot. The enthusiastic atmosphere of the procession of his worshippers is the favorite theme of Dionysus' iconography. The canonical repertoire includes centaurs, satyrs, maenads, Papposilenus, Pan. The main task of satyrs and maenads was to create the sounds and the rhythms of the exciting Dionysiac atmosphere by using the typical instruments of the thiasos: the maenads strike cymbals and tympana while satyrs and Pan are playing double flutes or syringes. Both are dancing unbridled. The not dancing characters, Sileni and centaurs, play stringed instruments. Several wild animals - lions, panthers, giraffes etc. – were admitted inside the parade during his Indian campaign.

    This is a popular theme in late second-century AD sarcophagi, but here the carved relief is of especially high quality — complex but highly legible at the same time.

    The-bas relief indicates that the family who commissioned the sarcophagus adhered to a mystery cult of Dionysus that focused on themes of decay and renewal, death and rebirth. The triumph of the deceased over death is the central message overcoming this particular episode in the life of Dionysus himself.

    Vatican City State, Vatican Museums, Museo Gregoriano Profano

    The most famous part of his wanderings in Asia is his expedition to India, which is said to have lasted three, or, according to some, even 52 years. In those distant regions he did not meet with a kindly reception everywhere and had to fight against many peoples. But Dionysus and the host of Pans, Satyrs, and maenads, by whom he was accompanied, conquered his enemies, taught the Indians the cultivation of the vine and of various fruits, and the worship of the god he also founded towns among them, gave them laws, and left behind him pillars and monuments in the happy land which he had thus conquered and civilized, and the inhabitants worshipped him as a god.

    This magnificent sarcophagus reports the Indian triumph of Dionysus. Dionysus appears at the far left end of the composition in his elephant-drawn chariot. The mythological composition owes a debt to imperial ceremony: the god receives from a winged Victory flying before him a laurel crown, identical to the headdress worn by Roman emperors during triumphal processions.

    Several singing and dancing characters march in front of his chariot. The enthusiastic atmosphere of the procession of his worshippers is the favorite theme of Dionysus' iconography. The canonical repertoire includes centaurs, satyrs, maenads, Papposilenus, Pan. The main task of satyrs and maenads was to create the sounds and the rhythms of the exciting Dionysiac atmosphere by using the typical instruments of the thiasos: the maenads strike cymbals and tympana while satyrs and Pan are playing double flutes or syringes. Both are dancing unbridled. The not dancing characters, Sileni and centaurs, play stringed instruments. Several wild animals - lions, panthers, giraffes etc. – were admitted inside the parade during his Indian campaign.

    This is a popular theme in late second-century AD sarcophagi, but here the carved relief is of especially high quality — complex but highly legible at the same time.

    The-bas relief indicates that the family who commissioned the sarcophagus adhered to a mystery cult of Dionysus that focused on themes of decay and renewal, death and rebirth. The triumph of the deceased over death is the central message overcoming this particular episode in the life of Dionysus himself.

    Vatican City State, Vatican Museums, Museo Gregoriano Profano

    Regardless of the quality of the workshop where this sarcophagus was carved, its frieze repeats an iconographic scheme very similar to these used for the two sarcophagi housed at the Louvre Museum and at the Capitoline Museums, and both decorated with scenes of marine Thyasos.

    From left, sea-centaur embracing and kissing a Nereid the naked nymph is portrayed from behind. A second Nereid, frontally portrayed, is sitting on the tail of the same centaur, and supports an Erote with her right hand. At the center of the frieze, inside a shell-shaped clypeus, there is the bust of a beardless man. The clypeus is supported by two bearded sea-centaurs, which, turning their heads, are looking back. Under the clypeus two winged Cupids come out from waves. To the right of the clypeus, a scene symmetrical to the previous one is carved: a Nereid is sitting on a centaur' tail, and, in the far right, a pair consisting of a Nereid embraced to a marine centaur. In the lower part of the frieze, cupids and dolphins emerging from waves on the short sides seahorses led by Erotes.

    According to the iconographic features of the portrayed man, this sarcophagus could be located in the last decade of 2nd century AD.

    Arias P.E. et alt., “Camposanto Monumentale di Pisa. Le Antichità”

    Height 65 cm length 181 cm width 60 cm.

    Pisa, Antiquarium, Monumental Cemetery

    Bilingual Nikosthenic amphora attributed to Pamphaios as painter.

    On the neck, black-figured Dionysiac thiasos. Dionysos, crowned by a vine leafs wreath, is standing in front of a dancing maenad the god holds a kantharos in his hand. Vine shoots frame both the characters.

    On the main body, dancing maenad rendered by using red-figure technique.

    Bilingual vases are not vases decorated in special techniques. Their decoration, rather, is divided between the two standard techniques of vase-painting: traditional black-figure and new red-figure. Beazley's eloquent term—bilingual—evokes the equality of the two techniques as they are employed on these vases. Produced only during the last quarter of the sixth century B.C., bilinguals comprise a short lived phenomenon: they went out of fashion as red-figure itself became more and more sophisticated and as white ground became the second technique of choice.

    This amphora dates from the last quarter of the VI century BC, in the middle of the transition period between black and red figure techniques. The vase is attributed to Pamphaios, who worked for a long time in Nikosthes’ workshop, the potter creator of the new neck-amphora type, the so-called Nikosthenic amphora type here reproduced. The concentration of findings in the Italian central and Tyrrhenian areas demonstrates the great appreciation of Etruscans for this kind of artwork, and the existence of a rich export market from Attic to Etruria.

    Bilingual Nikostenic amphora

    Dimensions: heigh 32,1 cm. diam. max. 15,6

    Attributed to Pomphaios as potter

    Rome, Villa Giulia, Museo Nazionale Etrusco

    This krater with lid, or “Krater-psykter”, is decorated with images of Dionysiac cults.

    On the main body, the wine god is sitting on a stool he wears a himation and a mantel and holds a kantharos with his left hand, and a vine branch with the right. A vine leafs wreath embellishes his hair. Dancing satyrs and maenads surround him.

    In the lower band, Dionysiac parade (thiasos): the god reading a mule and holding a drinking horn moves to right in front and behind him dancing satyrs and maenads.

    Attic black-figured krater-psykter

    Dimensions: H. 36.2 cm Diam. 40.5 cm.

    Antimenes antimene Pittore Painter Dioniso Dionysos Dionysus “Dionysiac Thiasos” ”Tiaso Dionisico” satiri Satyrs Maenads Menadi “black figure” “Figure Nere” Krater cratere attic attica Athens atene greek ceramic pottery vases ceramica greca “vasi greci” Paris Parigi “Musée du Louvre” Louvre

    The most famous part of his wanderings in Asia is his expedition to India, which is said to have lasted three, or, according to some, even 52 years. In those distant regions he did not meet with a kindly reception everywhere and had to fight against many peoples. But Dionysus and the host of Pans, Satyrs, and maenads, by whom he was accompanied, conquered his enemies, taught the Indians the cultivation of the vine and of various fruits, and the worship of the god he also founded towns among them, gave them laws, and left behind him pillars and monuments in the happy land which he had thus conquered and civilized, and the inhabitants worshipped him as a god.

    This magnificent sarcophagus reports the Indian triumph of Dionysus. Dionysus appears at the far left end of the composition in his elephant-drawn chariot. The mythological composition owes a debt to imperial ceremony: the god receives from a winged Victory flying before him a laurel crown, identical to the headdress worn by Roman emperors during triumphal processions.

    Several singing and dancing characters march in front of his chariot. The enthusiastic atmosphere of the procession of his worshippers is the favorite theme of Dionysus' iconography. The canonical repertoire includes centaurs, satyrs, maenads, Papposilenus, Pan. The main task of satyrs and maenads was to create the sounds and the rhythms of the exciting Dionysiac atmosphere by using the typical instruments of the thiasos: the maenads strike cymbals and tympana while satyrs and Pan are playing double flutes or syringes. Both are dancing unbridled. The not dancing characters, Sileni and centaurs, play stringed instruments. Several wild animals - lions, panthers, giraffes etc. – were admitted inside the parade during his Indian campaign.

    This is a popular theme in late second-century AD sarcophagi, but here the carved relief is of especially high quality — complex but highly legible at the same time.

    The-bas relief indicates that the family who commissioned the sarcophagus adhered to a mystery cult of Dionysus that focused on themes of decay and renewal, death and rebirth. The triumph of the deceased over death is the central message overcoming this particular episode in the life of Dionysus himself.

    Vatican City State, Vatican Museums, Museo Gregoriano Profano

    Ausgelassener Umzug von Satyrn und Mänaden um das Bild der Verstorbenen (Thiasos) von einem römischen Grabmonument, Marmor, ca. 200 n. Chr.

    Froliccome procession of satyrs and maenads around the Image of the deceased (Thiasus) from a Roman tomb monument, marble, ca. 200 A.D.

    This ecstatic procession depicts two satyrs and a maenad, female follower of Dionysos, god of wine. The satyr and the maenad play pipes and a small drum. The other satyr carries Dionysos' staff, and is accompanied by a panther, recalling the god's oriental origin. A Roman version of a classical Greek mythological theme, the 'thiasos' or retinue of Dionysos.

    Maenadic head of strawberry blonde curls, coryphée Medusa, dances barefoot inside her orchestra of a white-ground kylix pottered by Brygos ca. 500 BC.

    Montage of this Virtual Image

    Photoshop-Montage of the Tondo photographed by Bibi Saint-Pol in the Munich museum inlayed with a facsimile scanned @ 300 dpi (DGS, p131) by oedipusphinx.

    DGS: p131 oben: Mänade mit Schlangen im Haar, Thyrsosstab und Leopard in den Händen. Innenbild einer Schale. Auf der Außenseite Dionysos und Gefolge (θίασος). Attisch-weißgründig um 490 v.Chr. Werk des Brygos-Malers.

    Ton. H. 14,4 cm Dm 28,5 cm. München Antikensammlung. Inv. 2645.

    horizontal parallel (thyrsos // left arm) & vertical parallel (hem of leopard-coat // right arm) make up a parallelogram.

    consideration concerning analogous genetics

    strawberry blonde women have mostly eyes with a green iris, are shyer and smaller built than their blonde sisters just like the melanistic variants of the species leopard, the black panthers, have mostly green eyes, are shyer and smaller built than spotted leopards.

    words relevant for the description of the icon

    chorus, theology, prehellenistic

    ► Der Chor in den Tragödien des Aischylos : Affekt und Reaktion / Markus A. Gruber, Verfasser: Gruber, Markus A.

    Erschienen: Tübingen : Narr, 2009, Umfang: XIII, 570 S.

    Schriftenreihe: Drama N.S., 7, Hochschulschrift: Zugl.: Regensburg, Univ., Diss., 2008. ISBN: 978-3-8233-6484-9*PB. : ca. EUR 78.00 .

    ► Aischylos : Interpretationen zum Verständnis seiner Theologie / Verfasser: Bees, Robert *1992-*

    Erschienen: München : Beck, 2009. Umfang: 320 S.

    Schriftenreihe: Zetemata 133 ISBN: 978-3-406-58804-4*Pb.

    Signatur: 1A724764.2009Bestellnummer: 29165587, 1A724764.2009

    ► Volk und Verfassung im vorhellenistischen Griechenland : Beiträge auf dem Symposium zu Ehren von Karl-Wilhelm Welwei in Bochum, 1. - 2. März 1996 / hrsg. von Walter Eder . Sonst. Personen: Eder, Walter. Körperschaft: Symposium zu Ehren von Karl-Wilhelm Welwei 1996, Bochum. Gefeiert: Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm. Erschienen: Stuttgart : Steiner, 1997, Umfang: XX, 245 S. : Ill. Anmerkung: Literaturangaben, ISBN: 3-515-07088-5.

    Irre- bzw. doch letztendlich vllt. doch zielführende Fehlermeldungen vom 11.Mai 2010

    'Bestellung wegen Baumaßnahmen bis voraussichtlich Ende November nicht möglich!'

    'Im Haus Unter den Linden keine Ausleihe außer Haus möglich.'

    'Signatur formal falsch. Bitte wenden Sie sich an eine der Auskunftsstellen.'

    'Bitte über Gesamtbestand suchen !'

    'Maximale Anzahl Medien ausgeliehen'

    'Bitte bestellen Sie. Eine Aussage über die Verfügbarkeit ist noch nicht möglich'

    'Beispiel Signatur: Zsn683.1985 oder 29PA7486.1976 (Jahr mit Punkt), 29SA1-9 oder Ser.12720-16 (Band mit Bindestrich)'

    11.05.2010 13:29: MESSAGE: Unter den Linden, Musik-Lesesaal Bestellung eingetragen Bereitstellung i.d.R. ab 17 Uhr

    ANTIMESSAGE: Musikabteilung mit Mendelssohn-Archiv Der Musiklesesaal befindet sich im Haus Unter den Linden 8 im 2. Obergeschoss rechts, Aufgang G. bitte beachten Sie, dass aufgrund eines Personalengpasses der Musik-lesesaal im Mai 2010 nur von 9 – 17 Uhr von montags bis freitags ge-öffnet ist.

    maenad: a female follower of Bacchus, traditionally associated with divine possession and frenzied rites [_NODE_]

    coryphée a leading dancer in corps de ballet, from koryphê 'head'. ORIGIN: French via Latin from Greek koryphaios 'leader of a chorus' [_NODE_]

    thespian formal or humorous adjective: of or relating to drama and the theatre. noun: an actor or actress.(--> thespiannet)

    Thespis of Icaria was a singer of dithyrambs (songs about stories from mythology with choric refrains). .. Eventually, on November 23, 534 BC, competitions to find the best tragedy were instituted at the City Dionysia in Athens, and Thespis won the first documented competition. - Ο Θέσπις παρουσίασε για πρώτη φορά τραγωδία στα Μεγάλα Διονύσια κατά την 61η Ολυμπιάδα (μεταξύ 536-532 π.Χ.).

    Μεγάλα Διονύσια Τα Μεγάλα ή εν άστει Διονύσια ήταν αθηναϊκή γιορτή προς τιμήν του Διονύσου του Ελευθερέα. Θεσμοθετήθηκαν από τον Πεισίστρατο. Οι τραγωδίες παρασταίνονταν από την 11η μέχρι και τη 13η ημέρα του Ελαφηβολιώνα (Μάρτιος/Απρίλιος).

    tondo: a Renaissance term for a circular work of art, either a painting or a sculpture. Artists have created tondi since Greek antiquity. The circular paintings in the centre of painted vases of that period are known as tondi, and the inside of the broad low winecup called a kylix also lent itself to circular enframed compositions. The style was revived in in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, particularly in Italy.

    pailette a piece of glittering material used to ornament clothing a spangle. ORIGIN mid 19th cent.: from French, diminutive of paille, from Latin 'straw, chaff'. [_NODE_]

    kylix an ancient greek wine-cup with a shallow bowl and a tall stem [_NODE_]

    Un bijou est un élément de parure corporelle qui peut être porté sur le vêtement, sur le corps ou même dans le corps. Outre ses fonctions décoratives, le bijou est au service de multiples autres fonctions: sociale, magico-religieuse, utilitaire, sentimentale, érotique .

    thyrsus a staff of giant fennel topped with a pine cone, carried by Bacchus and his followers. [_NODE_]

    leopard a large solitary cat that has fawn or brown coat with black spots and usually hunts at night, was once widespread in the forests of Africa and southern Asia. Also called panther. species: panthera pardus (with 9 subspecies and some variants), family felidae. Heraldry: the spotted leopard as a heraldic device also a lion passant guardant as in the arms of England

    subspecies Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis), also known as the Manchurian leopard, is a wild feline predator native to Korea, Northeast China and the Russian Far East. This leopard subspecies is home to the mountainous areas of the taiga as well as other temperate forests. It is one of the rarest felids in the world with an estimated 30 to 45 individuals remaining in the wild. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature has deemed the Amur leopard critically endangered, meaning that it is considered to be facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild. appearanceOf the nine subspecies of leopards, the Amur leopard shows the strongest divergence in coat pattern. The coat is of a pale, cream color (especially in winter) and has widely spaced rosettes with thick, black rings and darkened centers. The length of the coat varies between 2.5 cm (1 in) in summer and 7.5 cm (3 in) in winter. The paler coat and longer fur of the Amur leopard make it distinct from other subspecies. They are also known to have light, blue-green eyes.

    Leopard in freier Wildbahn In Malaysia ist erstmals ein Leopard in freier Wildbahn fotografiert worden. Das beweist, dass es den Leoparden auch in Malaysia gibt", sagte der Leiter der Gesellschaft zur Bewahrung der Wildtiere, Melvin Gumal, der Nachrichtenagentur AFP. Auf den 11.500 Fotos, die Kameras im Endau-Rompin-Nationalpark machten, war das vom Aussterben bedrohte Tier allerdings nur dreimal zu sehen. Insgesamt hatten 70 Kameras zehn Jahre lang das Tierleben in dem Park aufgezeichnet. Das südostasiatische Malaysia ist vor allem für seine schwarzen Panther bekannt. (AFP, 19th April 2010)

    variant black panther The name "panther" is often limited to the black variants of the species, but is also used to refer to those which are normally-colored for the species (tawny or spotted), . Black leopards are smaller and more lightly built than normally-pigmented individuals.

    panther In antiquity, panthers [or leopards] are typical Dionysian steeds, e.g., the Greek mosaic at Pella with Dionysus on the panther, the Hellenistic House of the Muses mosaic from Delos and the British Museum Roman Dionysus mosaic and Dionysus wall-painting fragment. Although the word "leopard" [pardus, male or pardalis, female] does not appear anywhere in Ovid, Panofsky has imported a Greek quotation of Philostratus under the mention of panther, where "panther" [panthera] occurs only once in Ovid: pictarumque iacent fera corpora pantherarum [Met. 3.669] in conjunction with Bacchus. As mentioned, the panther is a perfect animal for Dionysus because its name in Greek means ”all wild” pan + thera. Elsewhere in Ovid, lynxes are identified with the god in two other passages where the chariot of Bacchus is drawn by lynxes: colla lyncum [Met. 4.25], and lynxes were given by conquered India to the god: victa racemifero lyncas dedit India Baccho [Met. 15.413]. As Panofsky and others noted previously, tigers also draw the god's chariot: tigribus adiunctis aurea lora dabat in Ars Amatoria I. 550. Confirming Ovidian use of tigers, or better, perhaps even deriving from the Ars Amatoria passage here in a literary borrowing from Ovid, it is specifically tigers in a Triumph of Dionysus mosaic at Sousse, Tunisia [circa 200 CE], who are shown drawing the chariot of Dionysus, where a panther is drinking [wine?] from a crater and a lion carries a baby satyr.

    Brygos Painter The Brygos Painter was an ancient Greek Attic red-figure vase painter of the Late Archaic period. Together with Onesimos (vase painter), Douris and Makron, he is among the most important bowl painters of his time. He was active in the first third of the fifth century BCE, especially in the 480s and 470s. . The Brygos Painter's conventional name is derived from the potter Brygos who is known from signatures. The Brygos Painter appears to have painted the majority of bowls produced by Brygos. The name Brygos appears on several vases and cups of the late 6th century BCE and early 5th century BCE. It is not known whether the signature refers to the potter or painter or indeed whether the two roles were separate, by convention they are referred to as two distinct individuals.

    He was one of the most productive painters of his generation more than 200 vases have been attributed to him. Apart from bowls, he also paonted other vase shapes, such as skyphoi, kantharoi, rhyta, a kalathos-like vessel with a pouring spout and a number of lekythoi. By far the majority of his works were bowls of the types B and C. The latter were often executed without maeander base lines, the former frequently stood on conical bases. The maeanders around his tondo paintings are rarely continuous, most are interrupted by sets or rows of crosses. Apart from his red-figure work, the Brygos Painter is known to have produced some white-ground vases.

    image-description: A snake is winding through the diadem in her hair.

    The White Ground Technique of vase painting flourished between the late 6th century BCE until the end of the fifth century in Athens and Etruria. The earliest surviving example of the technique is a fragmentary kantharos of ca. 570 BC signed by the potter-painter Nearchos, and found on the Athenian Acropolis. The method consists of a white slip of the local calcareous clay applied to a terracota vase and then painted. In the later development of the technique, a coloured wash was often applied to the clothing or flesh of the figures depicted.

    The earliest incidence of the technique was used to create strobing bands of colour that emphasize the shape of the vase (as on Nearchos, NY Met 1926,26.49), the use of a white ground in conjunction with outline painting did not develop until ca. 520 and is associated with the workshops of Andokides, Nikosthenes and Psiax. By the Classical period white ground can be identified most closely with three principle shapes: lekythoi, cups and kraters.

    The White-ground Technique was developed at the end of the sixth century BC. Unlike the better-known black-figure and red-figure techniques, its coloration was not achieved through the application and firing of slips but through the use of paints and gilding on a surface of white clay. It allowed for a higher level of polychromy than the other techniques, although the vases end up less visually striking. The technique gained great importance during the fifth and fourth centuries, especially in the form of small lekythoi that became typical grave offerings. Important representatives include its inventor, the Achilles Painter, as well as Psiax, the Thanatos Painter and the Pistoxenos Painter which was active in Athens between circa 480 and 460 BC. . probably started his apprenticeship with the Antiphon Painter in the workshop of Euphronios. He specialized in kylikes, which he painted in the red-figure style. Some of his best pieces, however, were produced in the White Ground Technique. The most important motifs of his paintings are horses, warriors and thiasos imagery. He was one of the first painters to employ four-colour polychromy, using slip, paints and gilding.

    examples of white-ground kylikes

    ♥ Apollo in Delphi Tondo of an Attic white-ground kylix attributed to the Pistoxenos Painter (or the Berlin Painter, or Onesimos). Diam. 18 cm (7 in.). From a tomb (probably that of a priest) in Delphi. Archaeological Museum of Delphi, Inv. 8140, room XII.

    ♥ Antikensammlungen J332 © Antikensammlungen, Munich Licence Plate 11 UK 1007 166 (search result for 'maenad' in Classical Art Research Center - Beazley Archive)

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    ►► Munich style wallpaper @ myxer - 19/04/2010

    ►► image planted via flickr-API search-result for egyptian dance @video_world

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    Krater bell with continuous frieze depicting a Dionysian thiasos. Detail: Maenade with krotala dancing between two satyrs: one playing aulos, the other holding two torches and dancing.

    Attic red figured krater bell

    Attributed to The Mykonos Painter

    From Spina Necropolis, Ferrara

    Ferrara, Archaeological Museum

    Identifier: ruinsofpompeiise00dyer

    Click here to view book online to see this illustration in context in a browseable online version of this book.

    Text Appearing Before Image:

    Venus m the House of the Rudder and Trident, called also, from these paintmgs, Casa di Marie e Venere. Ofthe same kind are a remarkable series ofeight small pictures in a bed-room in theHouse of Holconius, representing in squarecompartments the usual personages of theBacchic thiasos. Thus one of the compart-ments shows Bacchus himself, another,Ariadne, others, Bacchantes and Fauns,Paris with his crook and Phrygian cap, &c.The annexed photograph of Bacchus and aFaim will convey an idea of this sort ofpaintmg. The figures, so frequently recur-ring on the walls, of dancmg women are alsocommonly called Bacchantes but accordingto more modern inqiiirers this is a mistake.They are mere human dancers, perhaps,belonging to the lowest classes of society,executmo- some of the mimic dances ofantiquity. Some of the best specimens ofthis sort were fomid at an early period ina house near the Gate of Herculaneum,called, after them, Casa delle Danzatrici.One of these figures is represented in the

    Text Appearing After Image:

    riGVRE IN THE HOUSE OF THE FEMALE DANCERS. accompanymg cut. FRESCO OF BACCHUS AND FAUN.

    Please note that these images are extracted from scanned page images that may have been digitally enhanced for readability - coloration and appearance of these illustrations may not perfectly resemble the original work.

    Upper band, side B: Homecoming of Hephaestus.

    Dionysus is in the middle of the scene the god takes the intoxicated Hephaestus back to Olympus he moves forward while he is turning back toward his companions. Dionysus is depicted, in archaic style, as a barbed man dressing a long-sleeved chiton and a himation leaning on his left shoulder. The god holds in his right hand a kantharos while, with the other hand, he is waving a thyrsos.

    The young Hephaestus, holding an ax with in the right hand and the pincers in the other, is moved on the mule back.

    Around the two gods a Dionysian cortege, or “thiasos”, is depicted: satyrs making music and dancing with maenads playing auloi and timpanum.


    View of the town from the theatre and on the left the conical mass of Alexander's Hill

    The siege by Alexander is thus described by Arrian: "He went and encamped before Sagalassus, which is a strong place, and was well provided with the flower of their forces for its defence for though all the Pisidians are warlike and brave, yet the Sagalassenses are esteemed the stoutest of them all. (..) Having more confidence in their own courage than in their walls, had drawn up their army on a neighbouring hill - a hill in advance of their town and by reason of the advantage they had of the ground, they repulsed the light-armed forces Alexander had sent against them. However, the Agrians (the light-armed forces) made an obstinate resistance, and seemed to be encouraged by the approach of the Macedonian phalanx and the king's presence, whom they beheld before the colours. The soldiers laboured under great difficulties while they forced their way up the hill but as soon as they had got a little firmer footing, they easily dispersed the multitude of mountaineers that were but half armed." Arundell


    L. D. Caskey, J. D. Beazley, Attic Vase Paintings in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

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    94. 10.185 BELL-KRATER from Cumae PLATES XLVII, above, and XLVIII-XLIX

    In the following pages I have repeated some passages from my previous accounts of the vase (JHS. 32 p. 354 VA. pp. 113-14 and especially Panm. pp. 9-11 and 20). See also the first publication, by Hauser, in FR. ii pp. 289-96 Zahn in BPW. 1910 pp. 910-11 Pfuhl pp. 487-8 and especially Jacobsthal Aktaions Tod p. 10.

    The picture on the obverse is the Death of Actaeon. Actaeon was the Theban hunter who incurred the wrath of Artemis, and his hounds took him for a stag and tore him to pieces. The later story, that Artemis hated him because he had seen her naked, familiar to the moderns and already to Callimachus, was unknown to the Pan Painter: the earlier story was that Zeus was angry with Actaeon for wooing Semele, and ordered Artemis to slay him. There are many ancient pictures of Actaeon's death, but this one stands alone. Other artists showed Actaeon attacked, but defending himself — fleeing, or (if falling), struggling or laying about him and Artemis standing solemn by. The Pan Painter has quickened the movement and subtilized the contrast. The design is V-shaped. The two figures burst apart as if from an explosion at the base of the vase. Actaeon is neither fleeing nor struggling: he is collapsing utterly, he is dying. From the waist down he is already lifeless. Artemis turns towards Actaeon as she flies past him, and holds an arrow on her bow. He cries, he flings his arms out, he is dead. 'The feeling for great gesture appears here for the first time. That the motive may tell with its full force, the shanks, which would impair the leading lines of the composition, are almost foreshortened away. The mantle fills the void between left arm and torso, so that the body of Actaeon contracts to a compact mass, a mountain-block hurled to earth by divine power.' So Hauser: he speaks of a rock but there is another image that would be no less apt. This is not the first falling or dying figure in Greek art: but it is the first that brings to mind the Homeric simile: 'He fell as falls an oak, or a white poplar, or a tall pine':

    “ ἤριπε δ᾽ ὡς ὅτε τις δρῦς ἤριπεν ἢ ἀχερωΐς ἠὲ πίτυς βλωθρή
    ” The Pan Painter likes out-of-the-way subjects and the picture on the other side of the vase is unique. The god Pan is almost unknown in Attic art before the Persian wars: he had ground for complaining to Philippides, on the eve of Marathon, that the Athenians neglected him. After the Persian wars Pan became popular at Athens: but not in this context: only here is he seen pursuing a boy. A young goatherd, in country garb — goat-skin, sheepskin cap, stockings, whip — is hotly pursued by the goat-god and at the rock-seat, a third, strange person, the wooden herm-like image of some small Priapos-like deity, views the scene with a round, bewildered eye.

    In the drawing, a blend of late-archaic daintiness and early-classic grandeur the pathos of the early-classic period but not its ēthos swift, nay explosive movement ravishing elegance a darting, fastidious touch piquant contrasts, deliberate and amusing disproportions — small things made larger, large things smaller, than one expects round heads with tiny nose and delicate nostril but big chin and bull neck wasp waist but sturdy thighs powerful arms but tapering fingers the bow very long, the quiver very thin the hounds lilliputian Pan's face small between long beard and long horns. The forms, even more than in most vase-painters, approximated to geometrical shapes, with a special fondness for circle and arc (even the irregularities of the rock are fully patternized) yet packed with expression, and tense with life.

    A. On the story of Actaeon, and the representations, see Eduard Schwartz in Annali 1882 pp. 290-9, Hauser in FR. ii pp. 289-96, Wilamowitz-Moellendorff Hellenistische Dichtung ii, 23, Jacobsthal Aktaions Tod and below, ii pp. 83-6. In our vase, Artemis wears a chiton, with kolpos a himation of 'Ionic' fashion, passing over the right shoulder a fawnskin, which includes the head of the animal and round earrings. A long thin quiver is at her back. Her long hair is parted in the middle and passed through a circlet, then falls over the shoulders, where the ends are packed into a bag. There are half a dozen incised lines on the hair in front of the ear. On the coiffure see Hauser in FR. ii p. 291 and Studniczka in Jb. 26 pp. 182-3, on the circlet Rumpf Tettix (from Symbola Coloniensia) p. 95. The goddess holds an arrow on her bow, and a second arrow in her left hand: it will not be necessary to shoot. 1 The left forefinger is extended, but does not show clearly in the photograph. The head of the spare arrow has disappeared in a fracture, but the contour-stripe shows where it was. The oval cut in the middle of the bow, to fit the hand, is indicated, and the tendril decoration above and below the cut. There are some repainted fractures in the skirt, especially above and below the left ankle, and the outer line of the ankle is missing. The treatment of the folds in the skirt recalls the Thetis side of the bell-krater by the Oreithyia Painter in Palermo (Politi Cinque vasi di premio pll. 7-8 CV. pll. 35-7: ARV. p. 325 no. 5). The beauty of the smooth, rounded forehead, the eye, the nose, the mouth, is coarsened in Reichhold's drawings, and there are a good many inaccuracies of detail. On the other hand the photographs hardly show the delicate nostril and the very thin relief-line, modelling the cheek, at the corner of the mouth. Much of the contour of the figure is without relief-line, and even the face has none except for the lower lip and the lower edge of the nose. The front of the neck, and the part of the jaw to the left of it, were done in thin brown lines, and afterwards lined in with relief. The pelt is washed with brown. Not all the brown lines on the chiton appear in the photographs.

    Actaeon wears a chlamys and sandals (no doubt with stockings). His sword in its sheath hangs from a baldric. The long hair is parted in the middle, with thick locks hanging in front of the ear. Hauser thought there was something ominous in the looseness of the hair (FR. ii p. 292): but what of Apollo's hair on the calyx-krater by the Aegisthus Painter in the Louvre ( Louvre G 164 Mon. 1856 pl. 11 FR. pl. 164 CV. pll. 10-11: ARV. p. 330 no. 1)? The whisker is in brown. A repainted crack passes through belly and locks, and part of the navel is missing. The contour of the figure, including the face, is in relief-lines, except for the right forearm and hand, the chlamys, the left forearm and most of the hand. The navel is in black, but the navel-pubes line is brown, not black as in Reichhold's drawing. The brown lines on the body do not all come out in the photograph, and the fine relief-lines of the nostril and the corner of the mouth are not very clear. The upper part of the cornea is withdrawn beneath the upper lid: this is traditional in Greek art for persons who have received a deadly hurt. According to Reichhold the tongue is indicated by a relief-line: but this is not so. Reichhold has again coarsened the face. The sword-hilt is washed with brown. All four hounds wear collars. The hound biting the throat has the head frontal. Reichhold has darkened the marks on its face. The eye, muzzle, and tail of the uppermost hound have suffered.

    We have another picture of the Death of Actaeon by the Pan Painter on a fragmentary volute-krater, earlier than our vase, in Athens, from the Acropolis ( Athens, Acr. 760 : Jacobsthal Aktaions Tod p. 7 Panm. pl. 12, 2 Langlotz pl. 65: ARV. p. 362 no. 16). The treatment is different, and less unusual, though very individual. Actaeon, attacked by his hounds, rushes away from us, looking round at Artemis, his arms extended, helpless, the right arm in entreaty: as on the Boston vase, he neither struggles nor tries to defend himself. The goddess fronts us, like a column, her head turned towards Actaeon: her right arm is stretched out horizontally, urging the hounds on the horizontal is emphasized by the bow held in the other hand, the perpendicular of her body by the pattern-band from the waist down and the perpendicular quiver at her back. Actaeon is dressed, as nowhere else, in a deerskin fitting close to his trunk, thighs, and arms, with the head (not merely the scalp) forming a sort of cap: the painter has had Herakles' lionskin in his mind, but still more Dolon's wolfskin coat: see the cup by the Panaitios Painter in the Cabinet des Médailles (WV. 5 pl. 5, 1, whence Hoppin Rf. i p. 395: ARV. p. 215 no. 27) and the cup by the Dokimasia Painter in Leningrad (Annali 1875 pl. Q, 1-2 and pl. R, 1: ARV. p. 271 no. 12), where the attitude of the Dolon in one of the two pictures recalls our Actaeon. By giving Actaeon this strange costume the Pan Painter is explaining how the hounds came to take their master for a stag. This is not the same notion as in Stesichorus, but it is akin: Στησίχορος δὲ ὁ Ἱμεραῖος ἔγραψεν ἐλάφου περιβαλεῖν δέρμα Ἀκταίωνι τὴν θεόν ( Paus. 9.2.3 : see Jacobsthal Akt. p. 4). The hounds are small, as in the Boston vase and again one of them is at Actaeon's throat.

    B. On the various early representations of Pan see Hartwig in RM. pp. 89-101, Hauser in FR. ii pp. 294-5, Brommer Satyroi pp. 10-19 and 49-51 and in Anz. 1938 pp. 375-82, Crome in A.M. 64 pp. 120-4, Herbig Pan. Here he has goat's head, neck, and horns, goat's hooves, and a small goat's tail, is otherwise human. The body is perfectly formed and proportioned, and the animal head has nobility: there is no other Pan in which the god shows so clearly through the goat.

    In the goatherd, relief-lines contour the forehead and chin, the right thumb, the lower line of the right upper arm, the right shoulder, the lower line of the right thigh in Pan, forehead and nose, parts of the hands, the penis, the back and buttocks, the right thigh and the front line of the left. Brown inner markings.

    The goatherd wears a chitoniskos, a goatskin, a sheepskin hat, shoes and stockings. The chiton is ἔξωμος , leaves the right shoulder bare. It is twisted up into the girdle in front: Hauser conjectures that the boy has his supper in this part of his chiton (FR. ii p. 290), but it is improbable that Apollo has his supper in his chiton on the Siphnian frieze, although it is twisted up in much the same manner. The boy's left hand is under the goatskin and draws it tight lest Pan should catch him by the flying end. Once more Reichhold has not got the face quite right.

    A goatskin and a hat of the same type as this are worn, with or without a chiton, on a good many vases of this period. Here are some examples:

    • 1. New York 38.11.2 , hoof-vase, related to the Brygos Painter. Bull. Metr. 33 p. 225 AJA 1939 p. 6 part, Richter A.R.V.S. fig. 80.
    • 2. Louvre G 536 , small pelike by the Geras Painter (ARV. p. 174 no. 9). Annali 1862 pl. 4 A, Pottier pl. 155 CV. d pl. 45, 5, 7, and 11.
    • 3. Louvre G 216 , Nolan amphora by the Providence Painter (ARV. p. 432 no. 32). CV. pl. 41, 1-3 and pl. 40, 9.
    • 4. Berlin 4052 , Nolan amphora, near the Oionokles Painter (ARV. p. 439, below). Annali 1845 pl. C and pl. D, 3 A, Licht iii p. 96, 2.
    • 5. Rouen, Bellon, 609 , neck-amphora, by the Oionokles Painter (ARV. p. 439 no. 30). Gargiulo Recueil (1845) ii pl. 40 Fröhner Coll. Lecuyer 2 pl. F, 5 Coll. Camille Lecuyer pp. 61-2.
    • 6. Berlin inv. 3359 , cup by the Briseis Painter (ARV. p. 267 no. 11).
    • 7. New York market (Joseph Brummer ex Parrish), Nolan amphora by the Alkimachos Painter (ARV. p. 356 no. 2). The Lapith on B.
    • 8. Goluchow, Prince Czartoryski, 53 , Nolan amphora by the Alkimachos Painter (ARV. p. 356 no. 5). V. Pol. pl. 18 CV. pl. 30, 1.
    • 9. London E 286 , small neck-amphora by the Alkimachos Painter (ARV. p. 357 no. 21). CV. pl. 47, 1.
    • 10. Formerly in the Pizzati collection, Nolan amphora by the Ethiop Painter (ARV. p. 464 no. 12). On A, a youth (chitoniskos, left arm extended in a pelt, fur or skin cap) moves to right, attacking with a spear another youth (chitoniskos, kidaris, shield) who turns and defends himself.
    • 11. Cambridge, Mr. Charles Seltman, small lekythos. A youth throwing a stone.
    • 12. Lost, cup by the Painter of Louvre G 456 (ARV. p. 547 no. 7). One of the youths on A wears chitoniskos, pelt, fur or skin hat, has spear and shield.
    • 13. London D 7 , white cup by the Sotades Painter (ARV. p. 450 no. 3). Murray WAV. pl. 18, b Pfuhl fig. 528. A goatskin, but no hat, is worn by a hunter on another vase by the Sotades Painter, the rhyton London E 789 (CV. pl. 37, 4 and pl. 39, 2: ARV. p. 451 no. 8).

    Some of the youths and men in this attire are light-armed warriors, others hunters, herds, or countrymen: that our youth is a goatherd is made likely by the whip in his hand: the goatherd on the black-figured kyathos signed by Theozotos in the Louvre holds a whip ( Louvre F 69 : WV. 1888 pl. 1, 9-10, whence Hoppin Bf. 353). The hat is nowhere so plainly of sheepskin as here it usually seems to be of goatskin the neatherd on the New York hoof-vase wears a goatskin hat with the same bold black markings as the skin cloak on the cup by the Briseis Painter (no. 6).

    The rock is stylized in the same manner as all the painter's rocks (JHS. 32 p. 368). Outside his work, a very similar stylization occurs on a column-krater, in the manner of Myson (ARV. p. 172 no. 10), in the Guthmann collection at Mittelschreiberhau (Neugebauer Antiken in deutschem Privatbesitz pl. 69): much of the rock there is repainted, but enough remains to show the treatment. It will be remembered that the Pan Painter was a pupil of Myson.

    Hauser calls the god Priapos: this would be far the earliest trace of him in Attica, except that Priapos is the name of an Attic potter who worked in the third quarter of the sixth century (BSA. 29 pp. 202-4 JHS. 52 pp. 201 and 203). Herter more plausibly takes him for one of those indigenous godlets who were afterwards confused or identified with Priapos (De dis Atticis Priapi similibus pp. 16-19) so also Miss Goldman (AJA. 1942 p. 60). Ludwig Curtius, and Lullies (Die Typen der antiken Herme p. 63), think it is Hermes: and this seems to me an equally probable explanation: there must have been many artless wooden herms in the Attic country, some earlier than the Hipparchean marble ones, some later: 2 these quaint objects would naturally take the Pan Painter's fancy, and he has given his own more subtle version of them.

    The images most like ours are on a red-figured lekythos, not much later, in Athens ( Athens 12119 : Eph. 1908 p. 153 and pl. 8), already adduced by Hauser, where a hunter has plucked a sprig and is offering it to the god: on a Boeotian black-figured skyphos of the Cabirion class in Athens (Wolters and Bruns Kabirenheiligtum pl. 33, 2 and pl. 51, 4) and on the red-figured skyphos Tübingen F 2 (Watzinger pl. 41, whence Lullies Typen pl. 8, 2 and Nilsson Geschichte der griechischen Religion i pl. 33, 1): this, though often called Boeotian, is Attic work of about 425 B.C.: a skyphos, from Tithorea, in Oxford, Oxford 1934.339 , resembles it in style. Nilsson follows Watzinger in naming the Tübingen idol Priapos it and the Athens figure are more probably either a 'pre-Priapos' or quite possibly Hermes. Such figures recall Horace's (S. 1, 8, 1):

    Another vase that the Boston picture brings to mind is a small pelike in Compiègne ( Compiègne 970 : Micali St. pl. 96, 3 CV. pl. 17, 1-2): Pan, holding a club, stands in front of a herm set on a rock: if my memory serves me the herm is of very rude cut. A much later picture that recalls ours in a more general way is on the Lloyd vase, an Italiote calyx-krater of the fourth century in Oxford ( Oxford 1937.283 : JHS. 63 pl. 1, 1 and pll. 2-3, with p. 93): young satyrs attack a pair of maenads, while Pan — or a statue of Pan ? — looks on.

    We have spoken of a goatherd, without attempting to name him yet, as Curtius has recently pointed out (Jh. 38 p. 14) it is not very likely that this is just any goatherd: it should be a particular one. Hauser suggested (in FR. ii p. 294) that it might be Daphnis, who figured in a poem by one of the Stesichoroi but did not insist. Eduard Fraenkel reminds me that Daphnis, Pan, Priapos occur together in Theocritus (Epigr. 3 : 'in picturam aut anaglyphum', Wilamowitz), and in circumstances that recall our vase:

    There are two varieties of bell-krater. The less common variety, to which our vase belongs, has solid lugs instead of handles. This variety perhaps began before the other: at least the four bell-kraters decorated by the Berlin Painter between 490 and 480 (ARV. p. 137 nos. 95-8) are the earliest Attic bell-kraters extant. There may have been earlier bell-kraters: a very early red-figured fragment by the Hischylos Painter in the Villa Giulia (ARV. p. 57 no. 5), of about 530-525, and a fragment by the Dikaios Painter in the Cabinet des Médailles ( Paris, Cab. Méd. 387 : Archiv für die Geschichte der Medizin, 3, 1909, p. 38, fig. 5), seem from the curve to be parts of bell-kraters, whether handled or lugged. The lugged bell-krater differs from the handled in other respects as well: the mouth has a simpler form and as to the foot, when it acquires one (the earliest have none), H. R. W. Smith rightly speaks of 'a dogged attempt, down to the end of the fifth century, to keep the lugged krater distinct' in this respect 'from its upstart competitor' (CV. San Francisco p. 45). There is a certain amount of hybridization: as early as 460, a lugged krater by the Painter of the Yale Oinochoe, in Leningrad, borrows mouth and foot from the other variety ( Leningrad 777 : ARV. p. 329 no. 11). On the origin of the two varieties, see, most recently, H. R. W. Smith, loc. cit.

    The Pan Painter has left another lugged bell-krater, Palermo 778 (Politi Cinque vasi di premio pll. 2-3, whence Hartwig p. 471 Panm. pll. 31-2 and pl. 27, 2 CV. pl. 34: ARV. p. 361 no. 2): later, and fine, but not comparable to the Boston vase. The foot is different: it is of double-ogee form, and has a base-fillet (the retouched photographs in the Corpus are misleading). Louvre G 368 , by the Painter of the Yale Oinochoe, has a similar foot (CV. d pl. 8, 2-3 and pl. 11, 2: phot. Alinari 23683: ARV. p. 329 no. 10). The Boston foot is more like that of a vase in the De Young Museum, San Francisco (CV. pl. 22, 1).

    Several vases by the Pan Painter have been published or republished since the list in ARV. pp. 361-8 and 959: A of no. 11 bis in Trendall and Stuart Handbook to the Nicholson Museum 2 p. 295 no. 27 in Bloesch Antike Kunst in der Schweiz, pll. 30-1, pl. 1, 2 and p. 63 no. 35 in CV. Madrid pl. 20, 2 and pl. 24, 3 no. 44 ibid. pl. 9, 3 no. 53 bis in CV. San Francisco pl. 15, 2 and pl. 16, 2 (Gargiulo Cenni sulla maniera di rinvenire i vasi fittili italo-greci pl. 7, 19 is perhaps an inaccurate reproduction of this vase) no. 58 in Classical Studies presented to Edward Capps p. 244 fig. 2 no. 60 in Feytmans Les Vases grecs de la Bibliothèque Royale de Belgique pll. 23-4 no. 74 in CV. Munich pl. 86, 9-10 and pl. 92, 6 no. 81 in JHS. 68 p. 27 fig. 2 no. 89 in CV. Vienna University pl. 10, 18 (from Orvieto). Add two fragments (of a volute-krater or a stamnos?) in the Louvre (on one, head and breast of a youth facing left on the other, head and breast of a youth to right) a lekythos in Providence, RISD 35.708 (Cl. St. Capps p. 242 fig. 1), a fragment, from Athens, in Athens (BCH. 1940-1 pl. 10, 4), a fragment in the Louvre (middle of Triptolemos, arm of Demeter), and another also in the Louvre (Dionysos with kantharos and ivy, satyr dancing). No. 26, as Dietrich von Bothmer tells me, is not in the Louvre but in the Museum of Laon. No. 38, I learn from H. R. W. Smith, is now in the Museum at Houston, Texas ( Houston 37.10 ). No. 36, the Nolan amphora in Palermo, should be removed from the list: it is by the Alkimachos Painter, as I had already suggested in Att. V. p. 105. No. 59 bis should be placed among the vases in the manner of the painter (ARV. p. 369): no. 1 in that list, which resembles it, is lent to the Los Angeles Museum by Mr. Victor Merlo (A, Merlo The Gallery of Classical Art: the Victor Merlo Collection. Los Angeles Museum mcmxxxii p. 15). It is not so close to the painter as I had thought. No. 4 in the 'manner' list should be withdrawn. No. 5 is now published by Curtius in Jh. 38 pp. 1-2.

    AJA 17 (1913), p. 285 M. A. Banks, AJA 30 (1926), pp. 66, 68, pl. 3, fig. 48 G. M. A. Richter, AJA 36 (1932), pp. 376-377 G. Schneider, BABesch 10, no. 1 (1935), p. 17 C. M. Bowra, 1936, Greek Lyric Poetry from Alcman to Simonides, Oxford, Clarendon Press, p. 427 Curtius 1938, pp. 238, 241, fig. 419 MIT 1950, p. 80, fig. 21 Richter 1950, p. 97 L. Byvanck-Quarles van Ufford, BABesch 24-26 (1949-1951), p. 23 Metzger 1951, p. 133 C. Clairmont, AJA 57 (1953), p. 85, note 6 Stella 1956, pp. 183 (illus.), 385 (illus.) Levi & Stenico 1956, p. 98, fig. 93 G. Vallet, 1958, Rhégion et Zancle, Paris, E. de Boccard, p. 330, note 2 EAA, I, p. 693, fig. 889 (P. E. Arias) EAA, I, p. 890 (G. Cressedi) Robertson 1959, pp. 118-119 (2 color illus.), 120-121 H. Diepolder, MüJB 9-10 (1958-59), pp. 10 (fig. 6), 11-13 (note 9) Brommer 1960, p. 336, no. B 3 Cook 1960, fig. 44 Karouzos 1961, p. 80 E. Simon, AntK 5 (1962), p. 44 Palmer 1962, p. 68, fig. 54 K. Schauenburg, RM 69 (1962), p. 41 Chase & Vermeule 1963, pp. 92, 96, 110, fig. 90 ARV2, pp. 550 (no. 1), 1659 C. Clairmont, AntK 6 (1963), p. 26 R. Brilliant, 1963, Gesture and Rank in Roman Art, New Haven, The Academy, pp. 11 (note 5), 12, fig. 1.1 L. Ghali-Kahil, 1963, Neue Ausgrabungen in Griechenland, Olten, Urs Graf-Verlag, pp. 14 (under no. 27), 22 (under no. 46) EAA, V, p. 921 (H. Sichtermann) EAA, V, p. 923 (E. Paribeni) Hull 1964, p. 214, pl. 4 R. Blatter, AntK 7 (1964), p. 48 Herbert 1964, p. 68 Antike Plastik, III, p. 23, note 101 (H. G. Niemeyer) Noble 1965, p. 98, note 6 Hale 1965, p. 82, illus. Metzger 1965, p. 78, no. 3 O. J. Brendel, JdI 81 (1966), p. 220, note 22 Beazley & Ashmole 1966, p. 42, fig. 81 Boardman 1967, pp. 265-266, figs. 138-139 (J. Dörig) Antike Plastik, VII, p. 80, note 41 (G. Despinis) A.-B. 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B 3 Schmaltz 1974, p. 10 HHW 1974, pp. 108-109, color illus. (N. D. Papachadzis) A. Herrmann, AntK 18 (1975), p. 85, note 4 C. Sourvinou-Inwood, JHS 95 (1975), pp. 107-121 Ziomecki 1975, pp. 14-15, note 4, no. 26 Drougou 1975, pp. 72, 115, note 194 M. Robertson 1975, pp. 253, 660, note 168, pl. 86b Boardman 1975, pp. 180-181, 187 (fig. 335, 1-2), 209, 221, 226, 247 Greek and Roman Antiquities in the Hermitage, 1975, Leningrad, Aurora Art, p. 7, and under no. 31 Holloway 1975, p. 21, note 24 Folsom 1976, pp. 127-128, pl. 31 M. Robertson, MüJB 27 (1976), pp. 30-31 (pl. 3), 34, 45 (notes 4, 20) J. Boardman, AntK 19 (1976), p. 13 E. Simon, ibid., p. 20 M. G. Marzi Costagli, ArchCl 28 (1976), p. 46, note 28 H. S. Robinson, Bulletin of the Cleveland Museum of Art, Sept. 1977, pp. 236 (figs. 13-14), 238, 241 (notes 17, 19) A. Pasquier, BCH, Suppl. IV (1977), p. 374, note 18 R. Lambrechts, 1978, Les miroirs étrusques et prénestins des musées royaux d'art et d'histoire à Bruxelles, Musées royaux d'art et d'histoire, p. 180, under no. 28 E. B. Dusenbery, Hesperia 47 (1978), p. 236, note 88 A. Balomenou, ArchDelt 33 (1978), p. 338, note 4 Dover 1978, pp. 93, 219, no. R693 Kossatz-Deissmann 1978, p. 162 K. Schefold, AntK 22 (1979), p. 116, note 20 Brommer 1979a, p. 18 P. J. Connor, AA 1979, pp. 285 (note 13), 289 (note 37) L. Giuliani, 1979, Die Archaischen Metopen von Selinunt, Mainz am Rhein, P. von Zabern, p. 74 D. A. Amyx, Arch News (Tallahassee) 8 (1979), pp. 101, 113, note 21 Kaempf-Dimitriadou 1979, pp. 13-14, 80, no. 47 Houser 1979, pp. 103-105, MFA, no. 11, illus. (M. Anderson) Johnston 1979, pp. 17-18, 23, 26, 36-37, 52, 62, 64, 120 (Type 7D, no. 29), 206-207 C. Kerényi, 1979, The Gods of the Greeks, New York, Thames and Hudson, p. 147, illus. Himmelmann 1980, pp. 66-67, text fig. 2 C. Vogelpohl, JdI 95 (1980), p. 207 H. Hoffmann, Gnomon 52 (1980), p. 750 C. C. Vermeule, BMFA 78 (1980), p. 30 Fischer-Graf 1980, p. 25, note 265 Brize 1980, p. 115, note 168 Schefold 1981, pp. 138-139 (fig. 182), 148, 300-301 (fig. 436), 329, 332, 367, 375 Simon & Hirmer 1981, pp. 20, 22, 122-124, 133, pls. 170-171 LIMC, I, 1, pp. 456 (no. 15), 467, I, 2, pl. 348, illus. (L. Guimond) T. Seki, AA 1981, p. 49, note 8 M. Vickers, AA 1981, p. 547 F. Canciani, ArchCl 33 (1981), p. 377 M. Robertson 1981, pp. 79-80, fig. 119 Beazley Addenda 1, p. 125 Faison 1982, p. 157 J. H. Oakley, AJA 86 (1982), p. 114, note 16 Vermeule 1982, pp. 120, 143-144, 225, 459, fig. 204 Vermeule & Karageorghis 1982, p. 52 S. Drougou, ArchEph 1982, pp. 87-88, note 2 J. Perfahl, 1983, Wiedersehen mit Argos und andere Nachrichten über Hunde in der Antike, Mainz am Rhein, P. von Zabern, pp. 64-65, color illus. Clairmont 1983, p. 152 Bayer 1983, p. 81 Wehgartner 1983, p. 200, note 49 C. C. Schlam, ClAnt 3 (1984), pp. 89-90, pl. 2 LIMC, II, 1, p. 731, no. 1396 (L. Kahil and N. Icard) Metzger and Sicre 1984, pp. 62, 200-203, 2 color illus. A. Papaioannou, ArchEph 1984, p. 210, no. 1 F. Lissarrague, DialArch, 3rd series, vol. 3, no. 1 (1985), p. 84, fig. 4 Keuls 1985, pp. 387, 389, fig. 331 L. Burn, AntK 28 (1985), p. 99 Kilinski 1985, p. 82, under no. 25 (D. A. Amyx) Boulter 1985, pp. 74-75 (E. Simon) Grimal 1985, p. 11, illus. M. Robertson, in Greek Vases in the J. Paul Getty Museum 3 (1986), pp. 78 (note 33), 89 Wrede 1985, p. 40 A. Griffiths, JHS 106 (1986), pp. 62 (note 21), 68 Enthousiasmos 1986, p. 138, note 23 (L. Byvanck-Quarles van Ufford) Hornbostel 1986, p. 98, under no. 46 LIMC, III, 1, pp. 349-350 (no. 1), 352, III, 2, pl. 260, illus. (G. Berger-Doer) Houser 1987, pp. 240, 260 Images 1987, p. 119, note 24 (F. Lissarrague) Schwarz 1987, p. 92, note 46 L. Byvanck-Quarles van Ufford, BABesch 63 (1988), p. 187, note 19 Schefold & Jung 1988, p. 150 P. Borgeaud, 1988, The Cult of Pan in Ancient Greece (trans. by K. Atlass and J. Redfield), Chicago, University of Chicago Press, pp. 55, 74-75, 134, 179, 212 (notes 103, 106), 242-243 (note 66), pl. 4 Padgett 1989, pp. 90-92 Schefold & Jung 1989, p. 242 Beazley Addenda 2, pp. 256-257 LIMC, V, 1, pp. 305 (no. 165), 376 (G. Siebert) A. Griffiths, BICS 37 (1990), pp. 132-133 A. Lebessi, BCH 115 (1991), p. 118 .

    1 On the bow, arrows, and draw see Lorimer Homer and the Monuments p. 304: According to Miss Lorimer 'the elegant but ineffectual hold of Artemis is possibly a tribute to her sex': but Artemis, as was said above, is threatening rather than drawing.

    2 See also Lullies 'Hermenfragen' in Würzburger Jahrbücher 4 (1949-50) pp. 126-39.

    3 P. 49: Epicharmus fr. 131 Kaibel should have been quoted before Horace.

    4 P. 50: Andrew Gow writes: 'Daphnis is not a goat-herd but par excellence ὁ βουκόλος . Would he have a whip therefore? Cattle seem to be directed by missiles — sticks or stones: see Hom. Il. 23.845 , Aratus 112, and Gow on Thuc. 4.49 .'


    Art of the Vatican Collections

    1) Baron Gros, Napoleon at the Plague House of Jaffa, 1804, oil on canvas, Museé du Louvre, 532 x 720 cm.

    2) Leon Cogniet, Portrait of Champollion. 1831, oil on canvas, Museé du Louvre, Paris, measurements not known.

    3) Rosetta stone, British museum.

    4) Unknown artists, engraving of G.B. Belzoni, early nineteenth-century adventurer and circus strongman.

    5) Diorite Statue of the Pharaoh Khafra, Egyptian Museum, Cairo.

    6) Khafre's Pyramid (Chephren Pyramid, 215.5 m (706 ft), height of 136.4 metres (448 ft)) and the Great Sphinx (21 m high, 75 m long), Giza.

    7) J. L. Gerome, Napoleon before the Sphinx, 1867-68, oil on canvas, Hearst Castle, measurements unknown

    8) Scenes of everyday life inc An Egyptian craftsman at work on a golden sphinx, wall painting from a tomb in Thebes, about 1400 B.C., London, British Museum.

    9) Torso of the pharaoh Nectanebo I, Dynasty XXX, (380-342 B.C.), reign of Nectonebo I, (380- 362 B.C.), Nepi (?), township of Latium, black granite, height 31 ½ inches (80 cm), Museo Gregoriano Egizio, Vatican. Provenance: Not known donated by township of Latium to Pope Gregory XVI in 1838, one year before the Vatican’s Egyptian museum opened. Condition: damaged on right side limbs and head lost. Modelling “strong, carefully executed, and lively.” Traditionally, Egyptian craftsmen rendered the torso in partition, focusing on pectoral and lower abdominal regions, while glossing over the rib cage area in between. Here, the modelling is tripartite: pectoral region, ribcage, and lower abdomen clearly defined by merging planes. This tripartite method is more common in the XXVIth Dynasty so the craftsmen were using art of that period as models. (Sturtewagen and Bianchi). Context.

    10) Sphinx of Nectanebo I at the entrance of the Luxor temple. Nectanabo (or more properly Nekhtnebef) was a pharaoh of the Thirtieth dynasty of Egypt. In 380 BC, Nectanebo deposed and killed Nefaarud II, starting the last dynasty of Egyptian kings. He seems to have spent much of his reign defending his kingdom from Persian reconquest with the occasional help of troops from Athens or Sparta.. He is also known as a great builder who erected many monuments and temples throughout his long and stable 18-year reign. Nectanebo I restored numerous dilapidated temples throughout Egypt and erected a small kiosk on the sacred island of Philae which would become one of the most important religious sites in Ancient Egypt.[1] This was the first phase of the temple of Isis at Philae he also built at Elkab, Memphis and the Delta sites of Saft el-Hinna and Tanis.[2] He also significantly erected a stela before a pylon of Ramesses II at Hermopolis.[3] He also built the first pylon in the temple of Karnak. From about 365 BC, Nectanebo was a co-regent with his son Teos, who succeeded him. When he died in 362 BC, Teos succeeded his father on the throne for two short years.

    11) Egyptian Lion, Dynasty XXX, (380-342 BC), grey granite with red veining, height, 73 cm, Museo Egizio. For the Egyptians the lion symbolised the power of the country, as well as a symbol for warding off evil. The Vatican lions were probably erected before gateway to a temple at El-Baqliya in honour of Nectanebo I , a pharaoh of the 30th dynasty of Egypt. It’s assumed that both lions were transported to Rome under the orders of Augustus. They were later placed in front of the Pantheon, where they were discovered in the 12th century. Combine naturalistic design with abstraction- each lion’s pose have a “C” shaped curve. They are matching pair and mirror images of each other. The inscriptions celebrate Horus and other Egyptian deities. Inscribed to Nectanebo,

    12) Anthropomorphic representation of the Apis bull, late Dynastic Period, (656- 332 B.C.), Early Ptolmaic Period (332-250 B.C.), from the collection of Francesco Piranesi, dark granite with red veining, height 29 15/16 inches (76 cm), Museo Gregoriano Egizio, Vatican. Provenance: statue acquired in 1779 by Francesco Piranesi, who later sold it to the Vatican museums. Context: The ancient Egyptians interred bovines in their cemeteries, very often alongside human corpses. By the Late Dynastic period the cult of Apis had eclipsed all other cults of the bull. This would spread throughout the Hellenistic and Roman periods. Attraction to the Apis Bull rooted in the generative and fecund powers of the animal, which when transferred to the deceased, would help to ensure their re-birth in the afterworld. From the Ramses period the Apis bull was associated with the god Ptah of Memphis and came to be seen as his earthly manifestation. Apis was also associated with Osiris, the supreme god of the dead. In this legend the goddess Isis was assisted by Apis in gathering the remains of her dismembered husband Osiris. The bulls were buried in Memphis in the Serapeum, a vast network of catacombs. Immediately after the death of the Apis Bull a committee of priests were tasked to search Egypt for a successor. This had to have 29 characteristics including a rich black coat with white splashes and a triangular blaze on the forehead. Condition: Statue is a composite figure- bull’s head joined to a human male torso. Between the horns is a sun disk, the top of which is chipped. Deiety wears a broad collar, a kilt, and holds a straight staff, a was spectre surmounted by the head of an animal symbolizing the concepts of dominion and lordship. Dating: Problematic because so few statues for comparison. Most statues tend to show Apis as a striding bull rather than an anthropomorphic standing figure. Polished surface, proportions of the head to the body, and modelling of the torso conform to the Late Dynastic period, particularly the style of the XXXth period.

    13) View of the Serapeum, Memphis, Egypt.

    14) Double herm of the goddess isis and the Apis bull, Hadrianic period,(A.D. 117-38), from Hadrian’s Villa near Tivoli, black marble with white veining, and white marble (horns), height, 19 11/16 (50 cm), Museo Gregoriano Egizio, Vatican. Greel invention that made use of surrounding space by forcing the spectator to walk around the sculpture. Has no inscription represents a female figure and a bovine. Belongs stylistically to the late Imperial period. Roman sculptors had access to Egyptian models- cold expression, eyelids, broad planes of the face. Headdress non-Egyptian. Head of the bull is rendered more naturalistically. By the time of Nectanebo I, the Egyptians had built a shrine to isis at saqquara. The cult of isis was very popular with the Romans. Discovered by the Jesuits during Gregory xiv’s papacy ay at Hadrian’s villa.

    16) Antinous, the favourite of the Roman Emperor Hadrian, Hadrianic period, 117-38 A.D., from Hadrian’s Villa near Tivoli, Parian marble, height 94 7/8 (241 cm), Museo Egizio. Antinous was the handsome favourite of the emperor Hadrian. On a trip to Egypt an oracle predicted that Hadrian would suffer a heavy loss. To avert that, Antinous fulfilled the prophecy by drowning himself in the Nile. The suicide probably occurred 170 miles south of Cairo. The statue’s pose is based on that of 5th century Greek athletes who placed the weight on the right foot. This doesn’t quite work because of the forward thrust of the chest. The statue shows Antinous in an Egyptian kilt and pharaonic headdress without the royal cobra. He carries rolled pieces of linen, also seen in Egyptian statuary. Parian marble is a fine grained semi-translucent marble quarried from the Greek island of Paros.

    17) Jacques Louis David, Pope Pius VII, 1805, oil on panel, 86 x 71 cm, Museé du Louvre, Paris.

    18) Jacques Louis David, Consecration of the Emperor Napoleon I and Coronation of the Empress Josephine, 1805-07, Oil on canvas, 629 x 979 cm, Musée du Louvre, Paris.

    19) Detail: Pope Pius VII and various.

    20) Unknown Artist, Pius VII Gives Etruscan Vases to the Papal Library, 1818.


    Bibliography

    [ Anon .]. ‘Royal Academy’. Athenaeum 2019 (May 5, 1866): 602–3.

    [ Anon .]. ‘The Royal Academy’. Art Journal n.s. vol. V (June 1, 1866): 161–72.

    [ Anon .]. ‘Alma Tadema’s “Vintage”’. Art Journal n.s. vol. X (May 1, 1871): 166.

    [ Anon .]. ‘Note on Alma-Tadema’s Bacchante’. Academy vol. 13 (Feb. 9, 1878): 131.

    Atkinson , J. B. ‘Contemporary Art—poetic and positive: Rossetti and Tadema—Linnell and Lawson’. Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine 133 (March 1883): 392–411.

    Barringer , Tim, & Elizabeth Prettejohn , eds. Frederic Leighton: Antiquity, Renaissance, Modernity. New Haven & London: Yale UP, 1999.

    Barrington , Russell. The Life, Letters and Work of Frederic Leighton. London: G. Allen, 1906.

    Barrow , Rosemary J. Lawrence Alma-Tadema. London: Phaidon, 2001.

    Becker , Edwin, Morris Edward , Elizabeth Prettejohn , & Julian Treuherz , eds. Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema. Exhibition catalogue, Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam, & Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, 1996.

    Bullen , Barrie. The Pre-Raphaelite Body: Fear and Desire in Painting, Poetry, and Criticism. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998.

    Ebers , Georg. Lorenz Alma-Tadema: His Life and Works. Trans. Mary J. Safford. New York: William S. Gottsbergen, 1886.

    Forbes , Christopher. Victorians in Togas: Paintings by Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema from the Collection of Allen Funt. New York: Metropolitan museum of art, 1973.

    Inman , B. A. Walter Pater and His Reading: A Bibliography of His Library Borrowings and Literary References 1858–73. New York London: Garland, 1981.

    ———. Walter Pater and His Reading 1878–94, with a Bibliography of His Borrowings. New York London: Garland, 1990.

    Leighton , Frederic. Addresses to the Students of the Royal Academy. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co., 1896.

    Lippincott , Louise. Alma-Tadema: ‘Spring’. Malibu: California, Getty Museum Studies on Art, 1990.

    Louis , Margot K. ‘Gods and Mysteries: The Revival of Paganism and the Remaking of Mythography through the Nineteenth Century Author’. Victorian Studies 3, vol. 47 (Spring 2005): 329–361.

    Ormond , Leonée & Richard. Lord Leighton. New Haven: Yale UP, Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art, 1975.

    Pater , Walter. Greek Studies: A Series of Essays. London, MacMillan, 1910.

    ———. The Renaissance: Studies in Art and Poetry. 1877. Ed. D. Hill . Berkeley: U of California P, 1980.

    Prettejohn , Elizabeth. Art for Art’s Sake: Aestheticism in Victorian Painting. New Haven: Yale UP, 2007.

    Rhys , Ernest. Sir Frederic Leighton: An Illustrated Chronicle with Prefatory Essay by F. G. Stephens. London: George Bell & Sons, 1895.

    Scott , W. B. ‘Alma-Tadema’s Vintage: Ancient Rome’. Academy (May 1, 1871): 237.

    Standing , Percy Cross. Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema. London: Cassell, 1905.

    Swanson , Vern Grosvenor. The Biography and Catalogue Raisonné of the Paintings of Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema. London: Garton, Scolar Press, 1990.

    Wood , Christopher. Olympian Dreamers: Victorian Classical Painters, 1860–1914. London: Constable, 1983.

    Zimmern , Helen. Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema. London: George Bell & Sons, Bell’s Miniature Series of Painters, 1901.


    Physical Description

    This is a Greek funerary vase decorated with two female figures, a small statue and a bust. The origins of the vase can be attributed to Canosan pottery, dating back to the fourth century in southeastern Italy. It is an oinochoe or pitcher, used as funerary vase. The vase takes the form of a woman with her hair pulled back from her face, kept in place with a diadem. On top of the lady’s head is a smaller, upright figure of a woman wearing a flowing garment called a chiton. The smaller figurine is supported by the pitcher’s long, curved handle. This vase is made of a reddish clay and covered with semi-transparent white glaze or slip, and also includes polychrome painted features, which have become worn and faded with time.

    The woman’s face is that of a generic young female. Her eyes are slightly asymmetrical, and she has a long nose and small but full lips. The sculpture does not show her ears but rather puts emphasis on her hair style and the diadem, which is decorated with triangular petals that emulate the rays of the sun. The neck of the figure forms the base of the vase. The smaller statuette at the top of the vase displays less detail in its face and hair. The head of this figure turns to the side while the larger female head looks straight ahead. The figure appears to be holding her hand on her waist. The smaller figure stands in a contrapposto pose, with one hand on its hip and a knee bent in a relaxed posture. The identity and significance of the figures are unclear.


    Marble calyx-krater with reliefs of maidens and dancing maenads - History

    Mylonas Shear Ione. Maidens in Greek Architecture : The Origin of the « Caryatids ». In: Bulletin de correspondance hellénique. Volume 123, livraison 1, 1999. pp. 65-85.

    Maidens in Greek Architecture : The Origin of the « Caryatids»*

    Caryatids of the Greek and Roman periods, in modern parlance, are usually defined as female figures wearing elaborately draped garments used in place of columns. This nomenclature immediately calls to mind the graceful, fifth-century Porch of the Maidens of the Erechtheion on the Athenian Akropolis, the Archaic, earlier maidens from Delphi, and a host of later examples spanning the Classical, Hellenistic, and Roman periods. Scholarly discussions of caryatids usually focus on a definition of the term caryatid1 or on the evolution of the different types and their permutations2. When the origin of the type is discussed, it is vaguely associated with the earlier architecture of the Near East and Ionia3 or with the ancient references to caryatids and

    * I wish to express my thanks to J.-F. Bommelaer, F. Croissant, and G. Touchais for their generous and thoughtful assistance in the preparation of this article and to the École française d'Athènes, Ôsterreichishes archàologisches Institut, Deutsches archàologisches Institut, and The American School of Classical Studies in Athens for the use of their illustrations. Abbreviations : Berve and Gruben = H. BERVE, G. Gruben, Griechische Tern- pel und Heiligtumer (1961). Daux and Hansen = G. Daux, E. Hansen, Le Trésor de Siph- nos, FD II (1987). GD Musée = Guide de Delphes. Le musée, SitMon 6 (1991). GD Site = J.-F. Bommelaer, Guide de Delphes. Le Site, SitMon 7 (1991). Gruben = G. Gruben, «Das archaische Didymaion», Jdl 78 (1963), p. 78-162. La Coste-Messeuère and Marcadé = P. de la Coste-Messeuère, J. Marcadé, «Cores delphiques», BCH 77 (1953), p. 346- 373. Mardadé and Croissant = J. Marcadé, F. Croissant in GD Musée. Marmaria = J.-F. Bommelaer (dir.), Marmaria: Le sanctuaire d'Athéna à Delphes, SitMon 16 (1996). Shoe = L. T. Shoe, Profiles of Greek Mouldings (1936). 1 See for example M. Vickers, « Persepolis, Vitruvius and the Erechtheum Caryatids : The Iconography of Medism and Servitude», RA 1985, p. 3-28, who emphasized the name and its origin as defined by Vitruvius and more recently R. F. Rhodes, Architecture and Meaning on the Athenian Acropolis (1995), p. 35-36, 135-136, n. 5 on p. 189. Vickers' emphasis of the Vitruvius passage and the chronological problems of Vickers' approach were discussed by P. Amandry, « À propos de monuments de Delphes : Questions de chronologie », BCH 112 (1988), p. 591-610. See also W. H. Plommer, «Vitruvius and the Origin of the Caryatids», JHS 99 (1979), p. 97-102, and A. Scholl, «ΧΟΗΦΟΡΟΙ: Zur Deutung der Korenhalle des Erechtheion», Jdl 110 (1995), p. 179-212, who likewise disagreed with Vitruvius'definition of the term caryatid. 2 A. Schmidt-Colinet, Antike Stutzfiguren. Untersuchungen zu Typus und Bedeutung der menschengestaltigen Architeck- turstutze in der griechischen und rômischen Kunst (1977) E. Schmidt, Geschichte der Karyatide. Funktion und Bedeutung der menschlichen Tràger- und Stutzfigur in der Baukunst (1982) E. G. Raftopoulou, «Neue Zeugnisse archaistischer Plastik im Athener Nationalmuseum » MDAI(A) 100 (1985), p. 355-365. 3 E. Schmidt, op. cit., p. 27-29 A. Schmidt-Colinet, op. cit, p. 100-110 R. F. RHODES, op. cit. (supra, n. 1), n. 16 on p. 201. Derivation of the caryatids from Bronze Age religion and Ephesus has also been suggested, see E. Schmidt, op. ciL,


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