History Podcasts

El AlEl Al - History

El AlEl Al - History

From its humble beginnings in 1948 EL AL, Israel?s national airline continues to adhere to the same objectives as the day it was chartered ? assisting those in need, reuniting thousands of families and providing Jewish immigrants from hostile countries with a chance for a new life in Israel.Ê Most importantly, EL AL secures and maintains a regular air link with Israel at all times.

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EL AL’s initial dream was to bring Israel’s first president, Chaim Weizman, from Geneva home to Israel in 1948.Ê Since that historic first flight, EL AL passengers have included new settlers, families on pilgrimages, international celebrities, and massive airlifts of Jews from oppressed nations.Ê When the Jewish population in Yemen was in grave danger, “Operation Magic Carpet “ began in 1950.Ê Planes flew around the clock airlifting 47,000 Yemenite Jews to safety in Israel.Ê

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In May of 1991, EL AL assisted in airlifting more than 14,000 Ethiopian Jews as part of “Operation Solomon,” one of the most dramatic rescue missions in the history of Israel’s national airline.Ê One specially configured EL AL 747 Boeing aircraft carried 1,087 Ethiopians (almost 2-1/2 times the normal number of passengers)—setting an international aviation record.

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As part of “Operation Exodus,” EL AL carried hundreds of thousands of Soviet immigrants to Israel.Ê On board their flights to Israel, the new immigrants were welcomed in a special video in Russian, which was produced by EL AL to help them adjust with ease into their new lives in Israel.

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Continuing with its tradition of helping those in need, EL AL has made a pledge to the government of Israel that at any time of the day or night EL AL will organize and operate a flight to carry immigrants to Israel from anyplace within 12 hours.

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Although EL AL takes pride in its many humanitarian missions, it is primarily a commercial airline that continues to expand.Ê In May of 1961, EL AL launched its first Boeing 707 flight between Tel Aviv and New York.Ê A month later, EL AL set the world record for its first nonstop Boeing 707 flight between New York and Tel Aviv.Ê The record was for the longest commercial flight, covering 5760 statute miles in nine hours and 33 minutes.Ê In June of 1971, EL AL inaugurated its 747 service between Tel Aviv and New York.Ê In June of 1995, EL AL was the first airline to operate nonstop flights from Los Angeles to Tel Aviv, in a record time of 12 hours and 32 minutes -- the shortest flight for this route in history.

When EL AL faced increased costs for labor, fuel and operations in 1982, former EL AL President Rafi Harlev fused eight labor unions into one, initiated new routes, and transformed EL AL into one of the leading cargo carriers in the world.Ê

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Today, EL AL maintains cargo routes from Tel Aviv to more than 50 destinations worldwide and is the only airline with 747-freight service between the United States and Israel.Ê EL AL’s cargo fleet consists of two 747-200F and two 747-200 combination planes, which can be converted into passenger aircraft during the summer season.

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EL AL’s management team is committed to increasing EL AL’s market share and profitability by continuing to improve passenger service and modernizing the airline’s fleet, already one of the youngest in the industry.Ê In 1999, EL AL added six new aircraft, including the fourth 747-400, and received three new Boeing 777 aircraft in 2001 and the fourth in the spring of 2002.

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EL AL is the only airline operating Boeing 747-400's on the United States-Israel route.Ê The 747-400s offer the latest technology available in aviation and a personal TV monitor in every seat, in all classes of service.

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In June of 2000, EL AL announced 1999’s net profits of $16 million.Ê This occurred despite the increasingly high cost of fuel, a devaluation of the Israeli shekel that took place during 1999, and the fact that EL AL only flies 82% of the time due to the observance of the Jewish Sabbath.

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In 2001 with the outbreak of the second intifada tourism to Israel plummetted and El Al was forced to cut back service. In 2003 EL shares were sold on the Tel Aviv stock exchange for the first time. Thus for the first time in its history EL Al is not a government company. By the end of 2003 EL Al returned to profitability.


The Battle of El Alamein begins

In June, the British had succeeded in driving Rommel into a defensive position in Libya. But Rommel repelled repeated air and tank attacks, delivering heavy losses to the armored strength of the British, and finally, using his panzer divisions, managed to force a British retreat𠅊 retreat so rapid that a huge quantity of supplies was left behind. In fact, Rommel managed to push the British into Egypt using mostly captured vehicles.

Rommel’s Afrika Korps was now in Egypt, in El Alamein, only 60 miles west of the British naval base in Alexandria. The Axis powers smelled blood. The Italian troops that had preceded Rommel’s German forces in North Africa, only to be beaten back by the British, then saved from complete defeat by the arrival of Rommel, were now back on the winning side, their dwindled numbers having fought alongside the Afrika Korps. Naturally, Benito Mussolini saw this as his opportunity to partake of the victors’ spoils. And Hitler anticipated adding Egypt to his empire.

But the Allies were not finished. Reinforced by American supplies, and reorganized and reinvigorated by British Generalꂾrnard Montgomery, British, Indian, South African and New Zealand troops battled Rommel, and his by now exhausted men, to a standstill in Egypt. Montgomeryꃞnied the Axis Egypt. Rommel was back on the defensive𠅊 definite turning point in the war in North Africa.


Capone Meets Johnny Torrio

Torrio was running a numbers and gambling operation near Capone’s home when Capone began running small errands for him. Although Torrio left Brooklyn for Chicago in 1909, the two remained close. Early on, Capone stuck to legitimate employment, working in a munitions factory and as a paper cutter. He did spend some time among the street gangs in Brooklyn, but aside from occasional scrapes, his gang activities were mostly uneventful.

In 1917, Torrio introduced Capone to the gangster Frankie Yale, who employed Capone as bartender and bouncer at the Harvard Inn in Coney Island. It was there that Capone earned his nickname “Scarface.” One night, he made an indecent remark to a woman at the bar. Her brother punched Capone, then slashed him across the face, leaving three indelible scars that inspired his enduring nickname.


This day in Jewish history / A suicide attack strikes an Istanbul synagogue

Experts: El Al security probably would have foiled U.S. attacks

IAF jets scrambled to escort El Al plane wrongly thought to have been hijacked

This Day in Jewish History / 58 dead after El Al plane shot down over Bulgaria

Flight 426, a Boeing 707, had originally been scheduled to depart Rome on the afternoon of July 22. Engine problems with the aircraft, however, required a replacement plane, and that only arrived at Leonardo da Vinci airport from Tel Aviv in the late evening. By the time the return flight to Tel Aviv took off, it was already after midnight, and there were only 38 passengers on board – seven of them El Al employees or their family members – in addition to a crew of 10. Four of them were in the cockpit: chief pilot Oded Abarbanell, flight engineer Yonah Lichtman, training pilot Avner Slapak and first officer Maoz Poraz.

Shortly after takeoff, as the plane flew along the western coast of Italy, and was passing Naples, two men burst into the cockpit with guns. They began to assault Poraz. According to Abarbanell, who began posting his fascinating, detailed recollections of the experience online earlier this year, the training pilot immediately disconnected the plane’s auto-pilot, and began climbing precipitously, apparently with the intention of shaking up and disorienting the hijackers. Abarbanell, convinced that the clearly nervous skyjackers would respond by firing their guns, or even detonating a hand grenade, ordered Slapak to return the aircraft to the automatic mode, and tried speaking with the hijackers instead.

The three hijackers on Flight 426 were members of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, the Marxist terror organization founded a year earlier by George Habash. This was the first of the PFLP’s actions against an airline, though in the years that immediately followed, it carried out numerous armed attacks on El Al and other international carriers.

The hijackers on board the plane had instructions to redirect it to Dar El-Beida Airport, in Algiers, which is where it indeed landed two hours later. There, Flight 426 was handed over to the captivity of Algerian officials.

In his blog, Abarbanell describes how the crew members were ordered to alight from the plane before the passengers. When he saw how disheveled his colleagues were as they began to descend the stairs, writes the pilot, he “ordered all of them to return back to the airplane, comb their hair, put some make-up on, and put their uniforms on exactly as dictated by the company’s directives,” so that they would not “give the impression of war-beaten civilians.”

That was the beginning of a more than month-long ordeal, in which the pilot, as commanding officer, required his crew and passengers to behave as if they were prisoners of the war (Israel was in fact in a formal state of war with Algeria), and established a regimen of behavior that elicited civil and proper treatment from their captors while maintaining the proper distance from them.

Within 24 hours, all of the non-Israeli passengers, 23 people, were flown back to Rome and released. On July 27, the 10 remaining females – Israeli passengers, crew, and the three children who had also been on board – were released, meaning that only 12 Israeli men (seven crew and five passengers, two of them airline employees), remained as prisoners of the Algerian government.

After two weeks (during which they received a brief visit from a man Abarbanell recognized as George Habash), the Israelis were transferred to a private villa with much better conditions – including a tennis court and equipment. With access to both newspapers and a radio, they understood that a variety of international efforts – by the UN, Italy and the International Federation of Airline Pilots’ Associations were underway to secure their release. The Algerians were demanding the release of all Palestinian prisoners held by Israel.

At the same time, Abarbanell later learned, Israel began planning a military operation to free the hostages. Under the orders of Defense Minister Moshe Dayan, and the direction of Chief of Staff Haim Bar-Lev and Air Force Commander Mordechai Hod, a rescue plan was designed. According to Abarbanell, so that the Algerians would be “taught a lesson,” the Israeli raiders intended to use the opportunity to destroy all the Air Algerie aircraft parked at the airport.


El Al

The Israeli government approved an assistance package of nearly NIS 750 million to aid the country's ailing aviation industry following the coronavirus crisis.

It’s always “Mission Possible” at JNF-USA’s High School in Israel

Staff and Students Express Elation Over Return to JNF-USA’s High School in Israel.

El Al offers flight tickets to family members of Mt. Meron tragedy victims

Free flight tickets will be available until Tuesday.

Leila Khaled event planned at SFSU, disappears online

As of the time of publication, the Zoom registration link for the event, hosted by the Arab and Muslim Ethnicities and Diasporas Studies Program (AMED) at SFSU, is still active.

El Al announces new flights to multiple countries

The list of cities to which El-Al provides flights will be updated at the end of June.

As international travel returns, El Al offers flight discounts

Flight tickets can be purchased on EL AL's website or through travel agents. Passengers are reminded to stay updated for possible changes due to the situation, the company said.

El-Al opens direct flights from Israel to Georgia

Israelis who have been vaccinated may enter Georgia with an English certificate proving their vaccination, since the country accepts Israel's green passport.

El Al reaches bailout agreement with Finance Ministry

The announcement follows months of negotiations after El Al's plan to arrange a state-guaranteed loan from the banks was stymied by the Finance Ministry.


Contents

El Alamein war museum Edit

El Alamein has a war museum with artifacts from North African battles. [ citation needed ]

Military cemeteries Edit

Germany Edit

Visitors can also go to the Italian and German military cemeteries on Tel el-Eisa Hill outside the town. The German cemetery is an ossuary, built in the style of a medieval fortress. [1]

Italy Edit

The Italian cemetery is a mausoleum containing 5,200 tombs. Many tombs bear the soldier's name with others simply marked IGNOTO, i.e. unknown. [ citation needed ]

Greek Edit

There is a separate Greek cemetery at El Alamein.

Commonwealth of Nations Edit

There is also a Commonwealth war cemetery, built and maintained by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission, with graves of soldiers from various countries who fought on the Allied side. Buried here are 6,425 identified Commonwealth service personnel, 815 unidentified ones, and 102 of other nationalities [2] These include four Victoria Cross recipients: [3]

  • Private Percival Gratwick, Australian Imperial Force
  • Private Arthur Stan Gurney, Australian Imperial Force
  • Sergeant William Bill Kibby, Australian Imperial Force
  • Private Adam Wakenshaw, Durham Light Infantry

Others buried here include

This has monuments commemorating Greek, New Zealand, Australian, South African, Indian and Canadian forces. The cemetery entrance is through the Alamein Memorial and there is also a separate Alamein Cremation Memorial to 603 Commonwealth service personnel who died in Egypt and Libya and were cremated in line with their religion. [6]

The names of 213 Canadian airmen appear on the Alamein Memorial in Egypt. [7]

El Alamein has a hot desert climate, Köppen climate classification BWh, common with most of the Middle East and north Africa. However, like the rest of the northern coast of Egypt, its climate is slightly less hot, compared to the rest of Egypt, because of the prevailing Mediterranean Sea winds.


Relief

Relief in El Salvador is dominated by the central highlands, consisting largely of a west-east line of volcanoes (some of which are still active) crossing the centre of the country. This volcanic range includes 20 cones, from the westernmost Izalco Volcano (6,447 feet [1,965 metres]), through those of San Salvador (6,430 feet [1,960 metres]) and San Miguel (6,988 feet [2,130 metres]), to that of Conchagua (4,078 feet [1,243 metres]) in the extreme east. These volcanoes are separated by a series of basins (commonly referred to as El Salvador’s central plain), lying at elevations of between 3,500 and 5,000 feet (1,000 and 1,500 metres), whose fertile soils, derived from volcanic ash, lava, and alluvium, have for centuries supported the cultivation of crops. To the south, where the central highlands give way to the Pacific coast, is a narrow coastal plain with average elevations of between 100 and 500 feet (30 and 150 metres).

North of the central highlands, and parallel to them, a broad interior plain drained by the Lempa River is situated at elevations between 1,300 and 2,000 feet (400 and 610 metres). Intermittently broken by ancient dormant volcanic structures and adversely affected by poor drainage and high soil acidities, this interior plain has provided a less-attractive environment for human habitation.

Extending along the entire northern border region are a range of highlands, with average elevations of 5,000 to 6,000 feet (1,500 to 1,800 metres), formed by ancient and heavily eroded volcanic structures. The steepness of slope, excessive forest clearance, and overuse of soils have led to serious deterioration of the environment of this northern region. In the extreme northwestern part of the country, there are limited outcrops of limestone rock associated with the older nonvolcanic structures of Honduras.


Contents

The name Minya may also have originated from the city's name in Sahidic Coptic Tmoone and in Bohairic Thmonē, meaning "the residence", in reference to an early monastery formerly in the area. It is the city where the Codex Tchacos was discovered.

Minya is dubbed by the locals "Bride of Upper Egypt", in reference to its strategic location in Middle Egypt as a vital link between the north and the south of Egypt. Minya has one of the highest concentration of Coptic Christians in Egypt (approximately 50% of total population). [2] It is the home city of the Minya University, Suzanne Mubarak Center for Arts, the new Minya Museum, and the regional North of Upper Egypt Radio and Television.

Earliest history Edit

During the Predynastic Period (before 3100 BC), the area encompassing modern day Minya and its surrounding lands formed the 16th nome (district). It remained an autonomous city-state until the ruler Menes unified Egypt around 3100 BC. At the time of its unification, Egypt was divided into 42 nomes. The 16th nome was also called the Oryx nome, probably due to the prevalence of the Oryx, one of the antelope species that inhabited the area.

Ancient Egyptian Edit

After the unification of Egypt, the provincial capital of the 16th nome emerged as an important center of trade. It was opposite a trade route to the Red Sea along which the Levantine traders carrying their goods from Sinai and Canaan travelled. [3] During later times of the Old Kingdom, the name of the city was changed to Men'at Khufu, linking it to the Pharaoh Khufu or Cheops (reigning around 2550 BC) founder of the Great Pyramid at Giza as it was believed that he was born there. The city of Men'at Khufu has not been located but it is thought to be located on the west bank of the Nile in the vicinity of the modern day Minya.

Following the collapse of the Old Kingdom, and during the First Intermediate Period, rulers of Men'at Khufu became wealthy and powerful and enjoyed a certain degree of autonomy in relation to the central power of Pharaohs. The princes of the Oryx nome initially remained neutral during the long struggle that dominated the First Intermediate Period between the Herakleopolitan and Theban kingdoms, but eventually during the reign of Baqet III they formed an alliance with the Thebans in the time of Mentuhotep II. This pro-Theban policy worked to their advantage in that power over the Oryx nome continued to be wielded by the same family after the Theban conquest. The power of the rulers of Men'at Khufu reached its height during the 11th Dynasty. [4]

Like Pharaohs, rulers of the Oryx nome were deeply concerned with their lives after death. Because the pyramid building age was over or maybe because they could not afford to construct their own pyramids, the rulers of Mena'at Khufu chose the limestone cliffs of the eastern desert overlooking a gentle curve in the Nile as an ideal spot on which to carve their tombs. These chapel-tombs at Beni Hasan are the only remnant of the era when Minya rulers wielded power and wealth. Today these thirty nine rock-cut tombs can be visited in the limestone cliffs above the modern day village of Beni Hasan. Though not as great and magnificent as other monuments of ancient Egypt, the Beni Hasan tombs are extremely important as their walls reveal more information about life in Egypt 4,000 years ago more than any other monument in Egypt. In fact these tombs provide more insight about daily life in Egypt than about the rulers who constructed them.

With the rise of the 12th Dynasty, the powers of Minya rulers were forcibly reduced by the Pharaoh Amenemhat II (1929–1895 BC). By the end of the 12th Dynasty, the role and the power of the rulers of Minya were functionally eliminated.

During the Second Intermediate Period, Minya with the rest of Lower and Middle Egypt fell under the control of the Hyksos. It appears that Minya's rulers actually supported the Hyksos 15th Dynasty rulers against the native Egyptian pharaohs of the 16th and 17th dynasties. Towards the end of the Second Intermediate Period when the Theban Pharaohs started their struggle to expel the Hyksos out of Egypt, Minya was the site where the first major battle of this conflict took place. In 1552 BC, Kamose, the last Pharaoh of the 17th dynasty marched his Medjay troops north to Nefrusy few miles to the south of Minya and there he defeated the army of a man called Teti son of Pepi, who is said to have transformed Minya into a "nest of the Asiatics". This was the first major defeat for the Hyksos which later would encourage Ahmose I, the younger brother of Kamose, to march north and expel the Hyksos out of Egypt for good around 1540 BC. [5]

As for the Beni Hasan tombs, most of them were later ravaged. Some were defaced by rulers that followed. Mutilation of the tomb chamber was the fate of many monuments during the centuries following the demise of Pharaonic Egypt. Tombs were converted into dwellings, quarried as a ready source of stone, or deliberately damaged by early Christians and Muslims. [6]

Greco-Roman History Edit

During the Ptolemaic Era Middle Egypt was settled extensively by Greek settlers and hosted settlements with populations of 20,000 to 40,000 inhabitants. [7] Following the Roman conquest of Egypt Minya became a hub of Egyptian cotton trade and was inhabited by Greek and Roman cotton barons and traders. [8]

El Ashmunein (Hermopolis Magna) was the capital of the region during this period. It was the main center of worship of the god Thoth. Today, the ruins of a Greek temple, similar to the Parthenon, can be still found.

The tomb and chapel of Petosiris are found near the modern village of Tuna el-Gebel. Antinoöpolis was built in 130 A.D. by the Roman emperor Hadrian in memory of his eromenos Antinous, who drowned on the banks of the Nile river and was considered a God following Egyptian tradition. The new city was built on a long-established site and Hadrian repopulated it with Greeks from other parts of Egypt. [9]

Byzantine History Edit

The Monastery of the Virgin Mary at Gebel el-Teir is an important Christian site near the city of Samalut. Its church was built by Empress Helena, mother of Constantine the Great, in 328, on one of the sites where the Holy Family is believed to have stayed during its Flight into Egypt.

Oxyrhynchus was an important administrative center during the Hellenistic Period, and remains an important archaeological source for papyri from the Byzantine Egypt.

Arab History Edit

During the rule of the Abbasids, Minya's name became attached to Ibn Khasib, the appointed benevolent and almost legendary ruler of Egypt in the early 9th century. Ibn Khasib loved Minya so much that when was asked by the Caliph to name a reward for his good deeds, he chose Minya where he would retire and die few years later. Ibn Khasib is credited for expanding Minya and transferring it from a large village to a robust Medieval city. Since Ibn Khasib years, Minya has been referred to as Munyat ibn Khasib (Ibn Khasib's Minya). During the rule of the Fatimid Caliphate in the 10th and 11th centuries, Minya continued to expand and it included large mosques, schools, a bazar, and public baths. It was during this period that two landmarks of Minya, the EL-Lamaty and EL-Amrawy mosques, were built. In 1326, Ibn Battuta, the famous medieval travellar, visited Minya and was impressed by what he saw there. Minya was noted and regarded with high praise in Ibn Battuta's account of his travels called The Rihla because of the school it used to have when he visited the city. Ibn Battuta's described Minya as a town that "excels all the other towns of Upper Egypt." [10]

Modern history Edit

During Muhammad Ali's rule, Minya gained importance due to its fertile lands and its large agricultural production. The importance of the City increased during the reign of Ismail who owned large cotton and sugar cane plantations around Minya. Ismail constructed a royal residence in Minya and beginning with 1870 he started modernizing the city and constructed its first residential extensions. In the year 1873, the Ibrahimiya Canal was built to provide perennial irrigation to Ismail's vast lands. The canal led to a noticeable development in the urban growth especially in the western areas of the city. Improvement of the transportation network, particularly the introduction of the building of bridges across the Ibrahimiya, permitted developments of housing to grow haphazardly on private agricultural lands of the west suburban banks of the canal.

With the break of the American Civil War in 1861, Egyptian cotton became an expensive commodity that was in high demand. Minya, which produced large quantities of high quality cotton benefitted from this high demand for its cottons. The influx of wealth created a new wealthy upper class that consisted of native land lords, senior officials and merchants. Confident about their status, the wealthy families took residence at what would become known later as the Colonial part of the City (the area roughly bounded by Abd el Al el Garhy Street in the south and Port Said Street in the north). There they built palaces and high-end houses that were designed by Italian architects who borrowed decorative features from Classical and Rococo architecture in addition to western-type apartment houses. [11]

Around the start of the 20th Century, land speculations and a general building boom marked the beginning of Minya's dramatic 20th-Century expansion. In the beginning of the century, the establishment of the railway to join Cairo began. Later, the city extended east and west on the railway sides, which penetrated the current city. By that time, Great Britain established a consulate in Minya mainly to promote cotton trade. In 1907, the Ottoman Bank opened a branch in the city in recognition of its increasing economic importance. Utilities, serving mainly the new developments, were introduced under long-term franchises granted to foreign enterprises: a courthouse in 1927, the fire department in 1931, the city council and the administration building in 1937. The wide paved streets of the modern city diverted commercial activity away from the old city, hastening its deterioration. [12]

Following the revolution of 1952, the Suez Crisis of 1956 and the subsequent nationalization of many industries from 1957, the vast majority of Greek and Armenian communities of Minya left Egypt. This led to the beginning of the decline for the colonial district. During this period, the internal population movements further accentuated disparities between the two parts of the city: the old city with its legacy of obsolescence and poverty, and the colonial district with its modern buildings and services. Densities continued to increase in the old city, where there were inadequate community facilities. The resultant overcrowding accelerated deterioration of both infrastructure and the standing housing stock.

In the 1960s, Ard AL-Mowled was developed as a public housing scheme to accommodate the exploding population growth of lower income residents of the old city. Around the beginning of the 1970s, the modern district of Ard Sultan began to be established according to land subdivision and zoning laws. Because of the high land price in the area, it attracted upper and middle-income groups who left the deteriorating colonial city. Ard Sultan was carved in by a number of new urban corridor streets, which were complemented by a system of perpendicular and circular roads. These main new axes are parallel to the Nile River and bordered by freestanding buildings with heights of up to 30 metres. The north-south access of Taha Hussein Street formed a new linear central area that was intended to represent modern Minya.

Archaeology Edit

In February 2019, fifty mummy collections wrapped in linen, stone coffins or wooden sarcophagi dated back to the Ptolemaic Kingdom were discovered by Egyptian archaeologists in the Tuna El-Gebel site. 12 of the graves in four burial chambers 9m (30ft) deep, belonged to children. One of the remains was the partly uncovered skull enclosed in linen. [13] [14] Egypt’s Minister of Tourism and Antiquities announced the discovery of the collective graves of senior officials and high clergies of the god Djehuty (Thoth) in Tuna el-Gebel in January, 2020. An archaeological mission headed by Mustafa Waziri reported that 20 sarcophagi and coffins of various shapes and sizes, including five sarcophagi made of limestone and carved with hieroglyphic texts, as well as 16 tombs and five well-preserved wooden coffins were unearthed by their team. [15] [16]

In May 2020, Egyptian-Spanish archaeological mission head by Esther Ponce uncovered a unique cemetery dating to the 26th Dynasty (so-called the El-Sawi era) at the site of ancient Oxyrhynchus. Archaeologists found tombstones, bronze coins, small crosses, and clay seals inside eight Roman-era tombs with domed and unmarked roofs. [17] [18]

The public sector predominates in industry, controlling most of the production of capital and intermediate goods. Among the state-run industries are cement, chemicals, mining, fertilizers and agricultural industries. The private sector is active in manufacturing of consumer goods, particularly in small enterprises in and around the city. The principal private industries are food products, furniture, and metal and woodworking. Although rich in history, tourism plays a trivial role in the economy of Minya.

Köppen-Geiger climate classification system classifies its climate as hot desert (BWh). Luxor, Minya, Sohag, Qena and Asyut have the widest difference of temperatures between days and nights of any city in Egypt, with almost 16 °C (29 °F) difference. The city of Minya is located tightly between two ranges of about 500 m (1,600 ft)-mountains on both western and eastern sides, and falls away from the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. Hence, these conditions give the city, nearby towns and villages similar properties of continental climate. Meaning that the city has harsh and chilly cold winter weather, and very hot but non-humid summers. During summertime, temperatures could reach 40 °C (104 °F), while winter in Minya sees temperatures drop to below 0 °C (32 °F) levels at night. While hail or snow are extremely rare due to Minya's low precipitation averages, frost will occasionally form on cold winter nights. The average annual rainfall in Minya is 5.3 mm (0.21 in). [19]


El AlEl Al - History

The Twa/Khoisan of Akabalan, Are the oldest people on the planet. They are the Ancients and were the FIRST people to migrate to all of the continents from Akabalon (Africa), including Australia, Europe, Asia, and the Americas- as well as islands of Planet Earth to establish Civilizations! The Twa/Khoisan Ancient Ancestors were the first inhabitants of Europe. Later, the Caucasians appeared and began the establishments of war cults against Indigo people, and the destruction of the natural ecosystems and the environment.

Many Indigo communities left Europe, following the Earth's Energy vortexes, while the Caucasian subsisted, from the ruins of what the KMT societies left behind.



After thousands of years of decline of the Caucasians, the Moors later migrated to Europe, and discovered these Caucasians, dying out from their own offensive sanitation and un-hygienic practices. The Moors found their existence, appalling as they were consumed with plagues, and madness, with no water purification or proper sewage systems. The Moors taught these people how to use soap to bathe themselves and helped them build water purification and proper garbage and sewage systems. The Moors brought the Caucasians out of the Black death and the Dark Ages of illiteracy to the Renascence of humanity, civilization and understanding of Ancient Arts and Sciences.

The Moors ignored the warning signs from the Bes, the Twa/Khoisan Ancient Ancestors to stay away from these Yacub/Yurugu. Mixed up with the calcified consciousness of Aryan Arab ideas and belief systems, the Moors felt compelled to have pity on the Caucasoid's self-imposed plight, to bring them aid, and to release these Caucasians from Bes' spell of the Flat Earth. Now, these Caucasians have been running rampant, on a terrorist reign of destruction not only on the Indigo Peoples, but on the environment of Planet Earth for more than 2012 years!

It was the knowledge of the Moors that brought the Europeans out of the dark ages. KMT of Akabalon and Moors(blacks) were the ship-builders and map makers yet no one remembers that the Black Moors ruled all of Europe and Latin America, including Spain, for almost 1000 years! No one remembers the names of the Moors who were the Captains of the Nina, Pinta or Santa Maria. These Ship-men had the astronomical, nautical knowledge, protractors, compasses and maps, to be sponsored by Queen Isabella. Columbus was just a contracted explorer. These Moor Captains already knew where they were going! They just went home to the Americas. They already knew that the earth was not a disc, but indeed a sphere!

So Moors were already established in the Americas.


We know that there is NO "race."
Race was manufactured as a political construct for social control and class/economic status. Our society would fair better to completely remove race as a narrative, into our future. ALL HUMAN (Hue+Ma+N) beings (people with natural melanin,) come from Afrika. Yes, Afrikan people, in their multiple varieties, are our oldest known Ancestry on the planet. The "Eve Gene is found in the DNA of every Black Melanin woman.

Yet, Caucasians are the exception. They are "Mankind," possessing a hybrid form of RH- blood that possess fragments of RNA, that tie them to Neanderthals and Rhesus Apes. The Original Indigo Hunter-Gatherers were NOT Neanderthals. Caucasians were crossbred as Mankind and only made their appearance on the planet 10,000 years ago. A rare few possess, what is know as O Negative blood. They rarely survive childbirth, because the blood of their fetus attacks them. The Caucasians are essentially Identity Thieves. Everything that Aryan Caucasians claim, own, or represent was stolen from Indigo people. The Moors, who conquered and governed Europe for almost 1000 years. broke the spell of Bes, the Curse of the Dark Ages, and the Flat Earth, which was able to contain the caucasoids into a small area in the north, for Aeons, where they were afraid to cross. During their government, the Moors brought Wealth and Health, through East and West African Knowledge of Science, Technology, Engineering, Fine and Industrial Arts, Agriculture, Mathematics, Hygiene, Philosophy and the Enlightenment of the Geo Planet terrestrial movement, using electromagnetics and the Stars for Nautical movement.

http://amen-parankh.blogspot.com/2015/11/american-leaders-and-first-founders-of.html


MER Ka Ba, Ta MER ri, Maroon, MER, Ma-Ry, MER-RE, MURRAY, MU’UR, MOOR, MORENO, Maurice, Morris, etc. MOORS ARE PEOPLE OF THE LAND OF MER, HENCE TA-MER-RI, male name “MERER.”

(c) All rights reserved. No part of this Blog may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the author Nuta Beqsu Adenike AmenRa


Watch the video: ALUT ALEH EL AL (January 2022).