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Lyndon B. Johnson

Lyndon B. Johnson

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On January 20, 1965, Lyndon B. In his inaugural address, Johnson calls for the nation to unite toward a common goal.


On July 30, 1965, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed into law the bill that led to the Medicare and Medicaid. The original Medicare program included Part A (Hospital Insurance) and Part B (Medical Insurance). Today these 2 parts are called “Original Medicare.” Over the years, Congress has made changes to Medicare:

For example, in 1972, Medicare was expanded to cover the disabled, people with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring dialysis or kidney transplant, and people 65 or older that select Medicare coverage.

At first, Medicaid gave medical insurance to people getting cash assistance. Today, a much larger group is covered:

  • Low-income families
  • Pregnant women
  • People of all ages with disabilities
  • People who need long-term care

States can tailor their Medicaid programs to best serve the people in their state, so there’s a wide variation in the services offered.

Medicare Part D Prescription Drug benefit

The Medicare Prescription Drug Improvement and Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA) made the biggest changes to the Medicare in the program in 38 years. Under the MMA, private health plans approved by Medicare became known as Medicare Advantage Plans. These plans are sometimes called "Part C" or "MA Plans.”

The MMA also expanded Medicare to include an optional prescription drug benefit, “Part D,” which went into effect in 2006.

Children’s Health Insurance Program

The Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) was created in 1997 to give health insurance and preventive care to nearly 11 million, or 1 in 7, uninsured American children. Many of these children came from uninsured working families that earned too much to be eligible for Medicaid. All 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the territories have CHIP plans.

Affordable Care Act

The 2010 Affordable Care Act (ACA) brought the Health Insurance Marketplace, a single place where consumers can apply for and enroll in private health insurance plans. It also made new ways for us to design and test how to pay for and deliver health care. Medicare and Medicaid have also been better coordinated to make sure people who have Medicare and Medicaid can get quality services.

50th Anniversary - Medicare & Medicaid Event: 50 Years, Millions Of Healthier Lives

Medicare & Medicaid: keeping us healthy for 50 years

On July 30, 1965, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed into law legislation that established the Medicare and Medicaid programs. For 50 years, these programs have been protecting the health and well-being of millions of American families, saving lives, and improving the economic security of our nation.

Though Medicare and Medicaid started as basic insurance programs for Americans who didn’t have health insurance, they’ve changed over the years to provide more and more Americans with access to the quality and affordable health care they need.

We marked the anniversary of these programs by recognizing the ways in which these programs have transformed the nation’s health care system over the past 5 decades. We continue to look to the future and explore ways to keep Medicare and Medicaid strong for the next 50 years, by building a smarter and healthier system so that these programs will continue as the standard bearers for coverage, quality and innovation in American health care.

More Comments:

Jeffery Ewener - 9/27/2004

A "great leader in domestic affairs" is a strange way to describe the man who imposed racial segregation on the federal civil service. Who sponsored the Palmer Raids. Who locked up Debs for speaking the truth.

Wilson had great intellectual gifts and imagination as well. What he lacked was character. He was bigoted, intolerant of others' opinions, resentful of criticism, and willing to resort to savagery against those whose opposition had provoked his contempt. Above all, he was a classic hypocrite -- always convinced that his goals were better than those of anyone else, merely because they were his.


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Lyndon B. Johnson - HISTORY

President Lyndon B Johnson Biography

President Lyndon B Johnson (LBJ) providing interesting, fun facts and info about the life biography of Lyndon B Johnson , President of the United States of America. Gain a fast overview of his life! Short biography with key dates containing his bio, information & trivia about his career, family, illnesses, major achievements and accomplishments. Perfect study guide for students, children and kids who want to learn about this famous American President. When was he born? What was his background? Who did he marry? How many children did he have? What did he look like – his physical description? When was Lyndon B Johnson inaugurated as President? What were the major events, achievements and accomplishments of the Lyndon B Johnson presidency? When did he die and what was the cause of his death? Our biography and video on Lyndon B Johnson answer the initial question – Who is Lyndon B Johnson, or who was Lyndon B Johnson?

Lyndon B. Johnson

“A Great Society” for the American people and their fellow men elsewhere was the vision of Lyndon B. Johnson. In his first years of office he obtained passage of one of the most extensive legislative programs in the Nation’s history. Maintaining collective security, he carried on the rapidly growing struggle to restrain Communist encroachment in Viet Nam.

Johnson was born on August 27, 1908, in central Texas, not far from Johnson City, which his family had helped settle. He felt the pinch of rural poverty as he grew up, working his way through Southwest Texas State Teachers College (now known as Texas State University-San Marcos) he learned compassion for the poverty of others when he taught students of Mexican descent.

In 1937 he campaigned successfully for the House of Representatives on a New Deal platform, effectively aided by his wife, the former Claudia “Lady Bird” Taylor, whom he had married in 1934.

During World War II he served briefly in the Navy as a lieutenant commander, winning a Silver Star in the South Pacific. After six terms in the House, Johnson was elected to the Senate in 1948. In 1953, he became the youngest Minority Leader in Senate history, and the following year, when the Democrats won control, Majority Leader. With rare skill he obtained passage of a number of key Eisenhower measures.

In the 1960 campaign, Johnson, as John F. Kennedy’s running mate, was elected Vice President. On November 22, 1963, when Kennedy was assassinated, Johnson was sworn in as President.

First he obtained enactment of the measures President Kennedy had been urging at the time of his death–a new civil rights bill and a tax cut. Next he urged the Nation “to build a great society, a place where the meaning of man’s life matches the marvels of man’s labor.” In 1964, Johnson won the Presidency with 61 percent of the vote and had the widest popular margin in American history–more than 15,000,000 votes.

The Great Society program became Johnson’s agenda for Congress in January 1965: aid to education, attack on disease, Medicare, urban renewal, beautification, conservation, development of depressed regions, a wide-scale fight against poverty, control and prevention of crime and delinquency, removal of obstacles to the right to vote. Congress, at times augmenting or amending, rapidly enacted Johnson’s recommendations. Millions of elderly people found succor through the 1965 Medicare amendment to the Social Security Act.

Under Johnson, the country made spectacular explorations of space in a program he had championed since its start. When three astronauts successfully orbited the moon in December 1968, Johnson congratulated them: “You’ve taken … all of us, all over the world, into a new era. . . . ”

Nevertheless, two overriding crises had been gaining momentum since 1965. Despite the beginning of new antipoverty and anti-discrimination programs, unrest and rioting in black ghettos troubled the Nation. President Johnson steadily exerted his influence against segregation and on behalf of law and order, but there was no early solution.

The other crisis arose from Viet Nam. Despite Johnson’s efforts to end Communist aggression and achieve a settlement, fighting continued. Controversy over the war had become acute by the end of March 1968, when he limited the bombing of North Viet Nam in order to initiate negotiations. At the same time, he startled the world by withdrawing as a candidate for re-election so that he might devote his full efforts, unimpeded by politics, to the quest for peace.

When he left office, peace talks were under way he did not live to see them successful, but died suddenly of a heart attack at his Texas ranch on January 22, 1973.

The Presidential biographies on WhiteHouse.gov are from “The Presidents of the United States of America,” by Frank Freidel and Hugh Sidey. Copyright 2006 by the White House Historical Association.

For more information about President Johnson, please visit: Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum

Oral histories available for download

The files are provided in Adobe Acrobat format. In order to read these files you should download a free copy of the Adobe Acrobat Reader for your computer. Oral History transcripts are also available from the Library through the mail.

ABELL, BESS. Assistant to Mrs. Johnson, Vice Presidential period, 1961-1963 Mrs. Johnson's Social Secretary, 1963-1969.

ABRAM, MORRIS. Co-Chairman, Planning Session, White House Conference "To Fulfill These Rights," 1965 U.S. Representative, U.N. Commission on Human Rights, 1965-1968 Member, National Advisory Council on Economic Opportunity, 1967-68 President, Field Foundation, 1965-82 President, Brandeis University, 1968-1970 Chairman, United Negro College Fund, 1970-79.

AIKEN, GEORGE D. U.S. Senator, Vermont, 1941-1975.

ALBERT, CARL B. U.S. Congressman, Oklahoma, 1947-1977 House Majority Whip, 1955-1962 House Majority Leader, 1962-1971 Speaker of the House, 1971-1977.

ALBRIGHT, JACK. United States Army Commanding Officer, White House Communications Agency, 1965-1969.

ALSOP, STEWART. Columnist Washington, D.C. Editor, Saturday Evening Post, 1962-1968 Columnist, Newsweek, 1968-1974.

BALL, GEORGE W. Undersecretary of State, 1961-1966.

BAYH, BIRCH. U.S. Senator from Indiana. 1963-81.

BENTSEN, LLOYD M. U.S. Congressman, Texas, 1948-1955 Texas businessman, 1955-1971 U.S. Senate, Texas, 1971-1993 Democratic candidate for Vice President of the United States, 1988 Secretary of the Treasury, 1993-1994.

BOGGS,HALE. U.S. Congressman, Louisiana, 1941-1942, 1947-1972 Majority Whip, U.S. House of Representatives, 1962-1971 Vice Chairman, Democratic National Committee, 1956-72 Member, President's Commission on the Assassination of President John F. Kennedy, 1963-1964.

BRAESTRUP, PETER. Journalist Time magazine 1953-1957 New York Herald-Tribune, 1957-1959 Nieman Fellow at Harvard University 1959-1960 New York Times, 1960-1968 Saigon bureau chief, Washington Post, 1968-1973 Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, 1973-1989 founded the Wilson Quarterly, 1976 Senior Editor and Director of Communications, Library of Congress, 1989-1997.

BUNDY, McGEORGE. Special Assistant for National Security Affairs, 1961-1966.

BUNKER, ELLSWORTH. Ambassador to the Organization of American States, 1964-1966 Ambassador-at-Large, 1964-1967 Ambassador to South Vietnam, 1967-1973.

BUSBY, HORACE. Staff, Lyndon B. Johnson's House and Senate Offices, 1948-1950 Staff, U.S. Senate Armed Services Preparedness Subcommittee, 1950-1953 Consultant, U.S. Senate Armed Services Preparedness Subcommittee, 1957-58 Advisor to the Vice President, 1961-1963 Special Assistant to the President and Secretary of the Cabinet, 1963-1965.

CAIN, JAMES C. President Johnson's personal physician, 1946-1973 head of section, gastroenterology and internal medicine, Mayo Clinic, 1966-1970.

CATER, S. DOUGLASS. Educator, author and editor Special Assistant to the President, 1964-1968.

CARPENTER, ELIZABETH Journalist, 1945-1960 Lyndon Johnson's Vice Presidential campaign staff, 1961 Administrative Assistant to Vice President Johnson, acting as speech writer and media adviser, 1961-1963 Press Secretary and Staff director to First Lady Lady Bird Johnson, 1963-1969 founder of the National Women's Political Caucus, 1970 co-chair of ERAmerica, 1975 Assistant Secretary of Education for Public Affairs under Jimmy Carter, 1979-1980.

CHANCELLOR, JOHN. Television news journalist Host, NBC's Today Show, 1961-1962 NBC's Chief White House Correspondent, 1964-1965 Director, Voice of America, 1965-1967 Anchorman, NBC Nightly News, 1970-1982.

CHIARODO, MARIE FEHMER. Secretary to Vice President Johnson, 1962-1963 Secretary to the President, 1963-1969.

CHUDARS, JAMES E. Pilot of Sikorsky helicopter during Lyndon Johnson's 1948 campaign.

CLARK, RAMSEY. U.S. Assistant Attorney General, 1961-1965 U.S. Deputy Attorney General, 1965-1966 U.S. Acting Attorney General, 1966-1967 U.S. Attorney General, 1967-1969.

CLARK, TOM. U.S. Attorney General, 1945-1949 Associate Justice, U.S. Supreme Court, 1949-1967.

CLEMENTS, EARLE C. U.S. Senator, Kentucky, 1945-1948, 1950-1957 Governor, Kentucky 1948-November 1950 Democratic Senate Whip 1953-1957 Director, United States Senate Democratic Campaign Committee 1957-1959

CLIFFORD, CLARK M. Special Counsel to the President, 1946-1950 Senior Partner, Clifford & Miller, 1950-1968 President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, member, 1961-1968, Chairman, 1963-1968 Secretary of Defense, March 1968-January 1969 Senior Partner, Clifford & Warnke, 1969-1991.

COLBY, WILLIAM E. First Secretary, American Embassy, Saigon, South Vietnam, 1959- 1962 Chief, Far East Division, CIA, 1962-1967 Director, Civil Operations and Revolutionary Development Support, South Vietnam, 1968-1971 Executive Director, CIA, 1971-1972 Deputy Director of Operations, CIA 1973 Director of Central Intelligence, 1973-1976.

CONNALLY, JOHN. Secretary to LBJ, 1939-1941 President, General Manager and attorney for KVET radio station in Austin, 1946 Administrative Assistant to LBJ 1949 Secretary of the Navy, 1961 Governor of Texas, 1963-1968.

DAVIS, GEORGE R. Minister, Christian Church Pastor, National City Christian Church, Washington, D.C. personal friend of President Johnson.

DeLOACH, CARTHA D."DEKE." Assistant to the Director, FBI, 1965-1970.

DIRKSEN, EVERETT McKINLEY. Senator, Illinois, 1951-1969 Senate Minority Leader, 1959-1969.

EASTLAND, JAMES O. U.S. Senator, Mississippi, 1943-1979 Chairman, Senate Committee on the Judiciary, 1955-1979.

EVERS, CHARLES. Field Secretary, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), 1963-1969 Mayor, Fayette, Mississippi, 1969-1981, 1985-1989.

FARMER, JAMES. A founder and first National Chairman, Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), 1942 National Chairman, CORE, 1942-1944, 1950, National Director, 1961-1966 Program Director, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), 1959-1961 President, Center for Community Action Education, 1965- Assistant Secretary of Administration, U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 1969-1970.

FISHER, ADRIAN. Deputy Director, U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, 1961-1969.

FORTAS, ABE. Associate Justice, U.S. Supreme Court, 1965-1969 long-time friend and adviser to LBJ.

FOSTER, JOHN S., JR. Physicist Director, Defense Research and Engineering, Department of Defense, 1965-1969.

FRANCIS, SHARON. Special Assistant to the Secretary of the Interior, 1961-1965 Staff Assistant for Beautification, Mrs. Johnson's staff, 1965-1969.

FRANTZ, JOE B. History Professor, University of Texas at Austin, 1949-1986 Director, LBJ Oral History Project, 1967-1974 History Professor, Corpus Christi State University, 1986-1993.

FREEMAN, ORVILLE. Governor of Minnesota, 1955-1961 Secretary of Agriculture, 1961-1969.

GILPATRIC, ROSWELL L. Deputy Secretary of Defense, 1961-1964 Chairman, Task Force on Nuclear Proliferation, 1964.

GOLDBERG, ARTHUR J. Secretary of Labor, 1961-1962 Associate Justice, U.S. Supreme Court, 1962-1965 U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations, 1965-1968.

GORDON, LINCOLN. U.S Ambassador to Brazil, 1961-1966 Assistant Secretary of State for Inter-American Affairs, 1966-1967 President, Johns Hopkins University, 1967-1971.

GRAHAM, BILLY. Evangelist ordained to ministry, Southern Baptist Convention personal friend of President Johnson.

HEBERT, F. EDWARD. U.S. Congressman, Louisiana, 1941-1977. Member, House Naval Affairs Committee, 1943-1946 Member, House Armed Services Committee, 1947-1977.

HENRY, AARON E. President, Mississippi Conference of Branches of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), 1960-1993 President, Council of Federated Organizations, Mississippi, 1962-1965 Chairman, Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) delegation to the 1964 Democratic National Convention which challenged the seating of the regular Mississippi delegation Member, Mississippi House of Representatives, 1980-1995.

HIGGINBOTHAM, A. LEON, JR. Commissioner, Federal Trade Commission, 1962-1964 Judge, U.S. District Court, Eastern District, Pennsylvania, 1964-1977 Vice Chairman, National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence, 1968-1969 Judge, U.S. District Court, Virgin Islands, 1969 Judge, U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals, 3rd Circuit, 1977-1993.

HORNIG, DONALD F. Director, Office of Science and Technology, Executive Office of the President, 1964-1969.

HUGHES, SARAH T. Judge, U.S. District Court, North District, Texas, 1961-1985 administered oath of office as President to Lyndon Baines Johnson on November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas.

HUMPHREY, HUBERT H., JR. U.S. Senator, Minnesota, 1949-65, 1971-1978 Vice President of the United States, 1965-1969.

IKARD, FRANK. U.S. Congressman, Texas, 1951-1961 American Petroleum Institute, Vice President, 1961-1963, President, 1963-1979.

JOHNSON, CLAUDIA "LADY BIRD". 2/22/1912-7/11/2007 wife of Lyndon B. Johnson 1934-1973 owner, KTBC radio and television stations 1943-1973 member of the Senate Ladies Club wife of Vice President Lyndon Baines Johnson 1961-1963 First Lady of the United States 1963-1969 honorary chairman, Head Start 1965-1969 advocate for beautification and environmental issues University of Texas System Board of Regents 1971-1977 Medal of Freedom 1977 Congressional Gold Medal 1988 founder, Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center author.

JORDAN, BARBARA. First female black senator elected to the Texas State Senate State Senator, Texas Senate, 1966-1972 U.S. Congresswoman, Texas, 1973-1978.

KATZENBACH, NICHOLAS deB. Assistant Attorney General, 1961-1962 Deputy Attorney General, 1962-1964 Acting and later U.S. Attorney General, 1964-1966 Under Secretary of State, 1966-1969.

KRIM, ARTHUR B. Chairman, United Artists Corporation, 1951-1978 Founder and Chairman, Orion Pictures, 1978-1994 Chairman, President's Club, 1962-1968 Finance Chairman, Democratic National Finance Committee, 1966-1968 Board Member, Lyndon Baines Johnson Foundation, 1969-1994.

KUCHEL, THOMAS H. U.S. Senator, California, 1953-1969 Senate Republican Whip 1959-1969.

LEVINSON, LAWRENCE E. Attorney Counsel in the Offices of Secretary of the Air Force, 1957-1963 Special Assignments, Office of the Secretary of Defense, 1963-1965 Deputy Special Counsel to the President, 1965-1968.

LEINSDORF, ERICH. Orchestra conductor Music Director, Boston Symphony Orchestra, 1962-1969 Austrian refugee aided by Lyndon Johnson in 1938.

MALECHEK SCOTT, JEWELL. Long time friend of the Johnsons Secretary to LBJ, 1969-1973.

MANN, THOMAS C. U.S. Ambassador to Mexico, 1961-1963 Assistant Secretary of State for Inter-American Affairs, 1963-1965 Undersecretary of State for Economic Affairs, 1965- 1966.

MARSHALL, BURKE. U.S. Assistant Attorney General, Civil Rights Division, Department of Justice, 1961-1965 Chairman, National Advisory Commission on Selective Service, 1966-1967.

MARSHALL, THURGOOD. Special Counsel, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), 1938-1950 Director and Counsel, Legal Defense and Educational Fund, NAACP, 1940-1961 U.S. Circuit Judge for 2d Judicial Circuit, 1961-1965 U.S. Solicitor General, 1965-1967 Justice, U.S. Supreme Court, 1967-1991.

MARTIN, LOUIS. Newspaper executive Deputy Chairman, Democratic National Committee, 1961-1969.

MASHMAN, JOE E. Pilot of Bell helicopter in Lyndon Johnson's 1948 campaign long-time friend of President Johnson.

McNAMARA, ROBERT S. Secretary of Defense, 1961-1968 President, World Bank, 1968-1981.

McPHERSON, HARRY C., JR. Assistant General Counsel, Senate Democratic Policy Committee, 1956-1959 Associate Counsel, 1959-1961 General Counsel, 1961-1963 Deputy Under Secretary of the Army for International Affairs, 1963-1964 Assistant Secretary of State for Educational and Cultural Affairs, 1964-1965 Special Assistant and Counsel to the President, 1965-1966 Special Counsel to the President, 1966-1969.

MILLS, WILBUR D. U.S. Congressman, Arkansas, 1939-1977 Chairman, House Ways and Means Committee, 1958-1974.

MITCHELL, CLARENCE M., JR. Director, Washington Bureau, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), 1950-1978.

O'BRIEN, LAWRENCE F. Director, John F. Kennedy for President Campaign, 1959-1960 Special Assistant to the President for Congressional Relations, 1961-1965 Postmaster General, 1965-1968 Chairman, Democratic National Committee, 1968, 1970-72 Commissioner, National Basketball Association, 1975-1984.

PEARSON, DREW. Newspaper correspondent and columnist author of the nationally syndicated newspaper column, "The Washington Merry-Go-Round," 1932-1969.

RANDOLPH, A. PHILIP. Organizer, Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, 1925 President, Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, 1929-1968

READ, BENJAMIN H. Legislative Assistant to U.S. Senator Joseph Clark of Pennsylvania, 1958-1963 Special Assistant to the Secretary of State and Executive Secretary of the Department of State, 1963-1969.

REEDY, GEORGE. Staff consultant, Armed Services Preparedness Subcommittee, U.S. Senate, 1951-1952 Staff Director, Minority Policy Committee, 1953-1954 Staff Director, Majority Policy Committee, 1955-1960 Special Assistant Vice President Johnson, 1961-1963 Press Secretary for President Johnson, 1964-1966 White House Aide, 1968.

ROSENBLATT, PETER. Attorney Deputy Assistant General Counsel, Agency for International Development, 1966 White House staff, 1966-1968 U.S. Post Office Department, 1968-1969.

ROSTOW, WALT W. Chariman, State Department Policy Planning Council, December 1961-April 1966 Special Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, April 1966-January 1969.

RUSK, DEAN. Secretary of State, 1961-1969.

SCHNEIDER, WUNIBALD W. Roman Catholic priest Pastor, St. Francis Xavier Catholic Church, Stonewall, Texas personal friend of President Johnson.

SMITH, BROMLEY. Executive Secretary, National Security Council, 1961-69.

TERRITO, DOROTHY. Library of Congress employee White House Staff Assistant to President Johnson, 1963-1969 White House Special Projects, 1968 Special Assistant to the Director, LBJ Library and Museum, 1970-1976 LBJ Foundation consultant, 1976-1990

THOMAS, HELEN. Journalist White House Press reporter, 1961-present first woman to be White House Bureau Chief for a news wire service.

THOMAS, MRS. ALBERT (LERA). U.S. Congresswoman, Texas, March 26, 1966 to January 3, 1967 elected to Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of her husband, Albert Thomas, who served from 1937 to 1966.

TOWER, JOHN G. U.S. Senator, Texas 1961-1985.

UDALL, STEWART L. U.S. Congressman, Arizona, 1955-1960 Secretary of the Interior, 1961-1969.

VANCE, CYRUS R. Special Counsel to the Preparedness Investigating Subcommittee, Senate Armed Services Committee, 1957-1960 General Counsel, Department of Defense, 1961-1962 Secretary of the Army, 1962-1963 Deputy Secretary of Defense, 1964-1967 President Johnson's representative in Detroit, Michigan, during the Detroit Riots, 1967 Special Representative of the President to Cyprus, 1967, to Korea, 1968 U.S. Negotiator, Paris Peace Talks on Vietnam, 1968-1969.

WARREN, EARL. Chief Justice of the United States, 1953-1969 Chairman, President's Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy (Warren Commission), 1963-1964.

WASSERMAN, LEW. President of MCA/Universal Studios 1946-1995 Universal Studios Chairman Emeritus, 1995-1998 Universal Studios Consultant, 1995-2002.

WEBB, JAMES E. Administrator, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1961-1968.

WHITE, WILLIAM S. Reporter, New York Times, 1945-1958 nationally syndicated columnist, 1958-73 awarded Pulitzer Prize in 1955 for The Taft Story, a biography of Robert Taft author of Citadel: The Story of the U.S. Senate, 1956 author of The Professional: Lyndon B. Johnson, 1964.

WILKINS, ROY. Executive Secretary, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), 1955-1964 Executive Director, NAACP, 1965-1977.

Family, Early Life and Education

Born in Stonewall, Texas, on August 27, 1908, Lyndon Baines Johnson was the oldest child of Samuel Ealy Johnson Jr. and Rebekah Baines Johnson&aposs five children. The Johnson family, known for farming and ranching, had settled in Texas before the Civil War, founding the nearby town of Johnson City in its aftermath. Johnson&aposs father, a Texas congressman, proved better at politics than ranching, encountering financial difficulties before losing the family farm when Johnson was in his early teens.

Johnson struggled in school but managed to graduate from Johnson City High School in 1924. He enrolled at Southwest Texas State Teachers College (now Texas State University) and participated in debates and campus politics. After graduating in 1930, he briefly taught, but his political ambitions had already taken shape. In 1931, Johnson won an appointment as legislative secretary to Texas Democratic Congressman Richard M. Kleberg and relocated to Washington, D.C. He quickly built a network of congressmen, newspapermen, lobbyists and friends, including aides to President Franklin D. Roosevelt.

In 1934, Johnson met Claudia Alta Taylor, known to her friends as "Lady Bird." Taylor soon became Johnson&aposs top aide. She used a modest inheritance to bankroll his 1937 run for Congress and ran his office for several years. She later bought a radio station and then a television station, which made the Johnsons wealthy. The couple had two daughters, Lynda Bird Johnson Robb and Luci Baines Johnson Turpin.

Lyndon B. Johnson: Impact and Legacy

Lyndon Johnson's presidency began and ended with tragedy. He came into office after the death of a popular young President and provided needed continuity and stability. He advanced the Kennedy legacy, obtaining far more than Kennedy would likely have gotten out of Congress, and then won a huge landslide victory for himself and his party.

Johnson's administration passed an unprecedented amount of legislation, with much of it designed to protect the nation's land, air, water, wilderness, and quality of life—to keep Americans safer and the United States from becoming uglier and dirtier. President Johnson's administration also extended the New Deal of Franklin Roosevelt, including aid to education, Headstart, Medicare, and Medicaid—programs that are still significant today and that command bipartisan support for their effectiveness. But many of his initiatives for the arts, for the environment, for poverty, for racial justice, and for workplace safety angered many economic and social conservatives and became the targets of alienated white voters and tax revolters. The reaction to his Great Society and to broader trends helped spawn a dramatic political polarization in the United States that some historians have labeled a conservative counterrevolution.

Further clouding Johnson's legacy was the devastating outcome of the Vietnam War. While his programs kept untold numbers of Americans out of poverty, gave others basic health care, and ensured the fundamental rights of citizenship for minorities, in Southeast Asia, millions of Vietnamese lost their lives and homes, more than 58,000 American military personnel lost their lives, and hundreds of thousands more would have their lives permanently altered. At a time when Americans were reshaping the locus of power at home, events in Vietnam were raising serious questions about how America should use its clout abroad. The legacies of death, renewal, and opportunity attached to the Johnson administration are ironic, confusing, and uncertain. They will likely remain that way.

Lyndon Johnson

Lyndon Baines Johnson has been credited with being one of the most important figures in the civil rights movement. Johnson does have some distracters who believe that he was merely an unprincipled politician who used the civil rights issue when he realised the worth of the “Black Vote”. However Johnson himself claimed to be an idealist who dreamed of making America a “Great Society”. It was Johnson who put the presidential signature to the 1964 Civil Rights Act and the 1965 Voting Rights Act.

Lydon Baines Johnson with John F Kennedy

Lyndon Johnson’s work for minorities began in 1928 when he obtained his first job as an elementary school teacher it was, of course, at this time a segregated school attended by only Mexican Americans. Johnson had 28 pupils who he recalled were “mired in the slums”, “lashed by prejudice” and “buried half- alive in illiteracy”. Johnson believed that their only way out was by education and he bribed, bullied, cajoled and encouraged his pupils, and they adored him.

During the Great Depression, Johnson worked for one of Roosevelt’s New Deal Agencies, the National Youth Administration. Johnson was ordered by Washington to have a black leader as a close advisor, Johnson feared he would be “run out of Texas”, feeling implementation had to be slow as so to not upset deep- rooted customs. Despite this Johnson made great efforts to alleviate black unemployment 50% by 1932. Despite privately referring to African Americans as “niggers”, he sometimes stayed at black colleges and the African American community found him unusually helpful. Johnson however did little to help other minorities such as Hispanics because, there was little political pressure from Washington and Johnson stood to politically gain little from helping them.

When Johnson became a Congressman, he wanted to gain the minority vote and so he considered employing a Mexican or Spanish-American to show his “appreciation” of his Mexican supporters cynical Texans called his behaviour a publicity stunt. Many felt that any Texan who wanted to represent the segregated state had to appear to be a segregationist and his gesture didn’t. It was however beneficial to Johnson as it won him the minority vote and made him, a politician with national ambitions, look free from sectional prejudices.

Johnson however, due to political expediency, was forced to vote with his fellow Southern Democrats in Congress, against civil rights measures such as banning lynching, eliminating poll taxes and denying federal funding to segregated schools, measures which later would make up ground breaking legislation. As a senator, Johnson’s opposition to Truman’s civil rights programme disgusted Texas blacks. His explanations were clearly within the contemporary Southern political context he claimed the bills would never have passed anyway. Johnson also claimed he would be more helpful in another place and position, showing his political ambition and recognising he could only go so far in Texas. He also trotted out the standard Southern excuse for not helping African Americans, that he was “not against blacks rights but for states rights”.

Johnson, like Eisenhower, thought civil rights legislation would try to force people to change and lead to violence. Despite this politically correct (in Southern eyes) action, Johnson was behind the scenes working to get black farmers and schoolchildren equal treatment in his congressional district, believing small, but real developments would be better than ground- breaking legislation. In 1938 Johnson secured federal funding for housing in Austin, Texas to benefit Mexican, African American and White slum dwellers. Johnson softened this for racist southerners by stating “This country won’t have to worry about isms [communism and fascism] when it gives its people a decent, clean place to live and a job. They’ll believe in the government.” This behaviour may make Lyndon Johnson seem a Jekyll and Hyde character on race relations, his African American servants were treated well by Johnson in private until other racists visited Johnson and he put on a show for them to gain their support for his political ambitions.

By the mid-1950’s, Senator Johnson was clearly altering his stance on civil rights issues, being one of few Southern politicians who supported the 1954 BROWN decision by the Supreme Court. He did so because he felt it important to uphold the American Constitution and the Supreme Court’s place in that. Johnson felt that the debate of BROWN was merely weakening the Democrats and the whole country. Johnson wanted the South to accept it in order for the South to make economic advances, knowing racial tensions made the area unattractive to investors. By this time Johnson’s presidential aspirations meant he couldn’t appear too narrowly Southern and he was one of only three Southern politicians who refused to sign the Southern Manifesto in protest of BROWN. Johnson’s motivation over this stance was subject to debate some thinking it was an act of “political valour” and others thinking he used it for political gain.

Johnson continued to remain careful and appeased the Southern racists, such as in 1956 when he killed a civil rights bill in Congress. Again, in keeping with his Jekyll and Hyde stance he changed his opinion in 1957. Whilst assuring Texans that there was “no foundation” to rumours he was promoting a civil rights bill, and stating he was “strongly and irrevocably opposed to forced integration of the races” he orchestrated, though diluted parts which would be offensive to southerners, the 1957 Civil Rights Act.

This dilution made fellow Southerner President Eisenhower’s bill into a largely unenforceable voting rights law. The part of the bill, which allowed federal government to promote integration in schools, was lost, due to the hostility BROWN and BROWN II had received in the South. Despite Johnson’s dilution of the act to make it merely a token gesture, the bill symbolised greater federal interest in civil rights and their enforcing it also paved the way for more civil rights legislation. Johnson was also important in the passage of Eisenhower’s second Civil Rights Act in 1960.

During his period as John F. Kennedy’s Vice- President, racism became an increasingly important political issue. Vice- President Johnson knew something had to be done “The Negro fought in the war [World War Two], and….he’s not gonna keep taking the shit we’re dishing out. We’re in a race with time. If we don’t act, we’re gonna have blood in the streets.” As Vice- President Johnson’s greatest challenge was chairing Kennedy’s Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity (CEEO).

Johnson didn’t want the job and Kennedy knew it was a ‘hot potato’. Johnson told Kennedy that the CEEO lacked the money and power to be effective, but Kennedy insisted and did his best. He did so because he considered discrimination as ‘un-American’ and damaging to America’s reputation, especially in the Cold War world. James Farmer of CORE, believed Johnson’s motivation to be real and both he and Roy Wilkins of the NAACP rated Johnson higher than President Kennedy on civil rights issues. The CEEO failed to win many plaudits and shortly before Kennedy was assassinated, Johnson urged him to make a ‘moral commitment’ to civil rights.

Johnson became President of the USA, in November 1963 after the assassination of Kennedy. It was then that Lyndon Johnson announced his vision of a “Great Society” for America, with “an end to poverty and racial injustice”. Johnson felt he and Congress owed it to the late president to see his civil rights bill passed. However Johnson was warned by other Southerners that he was staking his political career on passing this bill into law. Johnson was convinced that discrimination was morally wrong and wanted change to lead to economic, political and spiritual reintegration of the South within the nation.

The bill didn’t pass unhindered. There were doubters in Congress and it also had to overcome the longest obstruction in Senate history. Its final passing owed much to Kennedy, who had won over the Republican minority before his death. Johnson was sure the bill would have passed if Kennedy were still alive but that it would have been diluted like Eisenhower’s bills. Johnson must also receive credit as he devoted a staggering amount of his time, energy and political capital to ensure the passage of the bill in it original state. He used Kennedy’s Kennedy’s death, appeals to Southerner’s self- interest and his Southern background to get what has been described as the most important piece of civil rights legislation passed.

The Act has been described by Irving Bernstein as “a rare and glittering moment in the history of American democracy”. However everything wasn’t content in America, there were signs of a northern working-class backlash, shown by the increase in popularity for racist presidential hopefuls, in the presidential primaries. Blacks were also dissatisfied saying it hadn’t gone far enough. The result was riots in black ghettos in East Coast cities. The blacks Johnson thought he was helping, repaid him by embarrassing him and the Democrat Party. Despite this, Johnson bravely planned more civil rights legislation.

Johnson hoped his Elementary and Secondary Education Act in 1965 would help children to get out of the ghettos. The poorer states like Mississippi benefited greatly from the federal funding and by the end of the 1960’s the percentage of African Americans obtaining a high school diploma rose from 40% to 60%. However, a combination of ghetto peer pressure and traditions and reluctant officials limited the Act’s effectiveness. Johnson’s 1965 Higher Education Act was more successful as it gave significant aid to poor black colleges it led the number of African American college students to quadruple within a decade. Lyndon Johnson’s introduction of Medicare and Medicaid helped to address the issue of poor health in the minorities, African American infant mortality halved within a decade.

It soon became clear to Johnson that there were still gaps that had been left by the 1964 Civil Rights Act, but Johnson feared attempts to close them would be hindered by uncooperative Southern Congressmen. After Martin Luther King’s campaign in Selma, Alabama to get African Americans to register to vote Johnson felt he could act, reminding Americans that one individual’s disenfranchisement “undermines the freedom of every citizen”.

The 1965 Voting Rights Act had a dramatic effect on the South, changing the political complexion of the area, to make it more racially integrated. Lyndon Johnson’s own Democratic Party achieved political gain as a result of the act, the enlarged black vote helped to counteract the loss of Southern whites for the Democratic Party. After this legislation it became increasingly difficult to obtain reforming acts, the 1968 Civil Rights Act doing little more to help the African American community.

Many believe that Johnson was able to pass the 1964 and 1965 Acts because of an exceptional set of circumstances. During his 24 years in Congress Johnson had gained unprecedented experience in getting legislation through Congress. He also had an unusual two- thirds of Congress in his favour and Congressmen felt particularly after Kennedy’s assassination that they should be righting national wrongs. Johnson was himself exceptionally persuasive and determined and had a lifelong commitment to helping the poor.

Lyndon Johnson followed Kennedy’s example in using his executive authority to help the African Americans. 1965-6 Johnson worked to help African Americans through manipulation of federal funding, such as offering federal subsidies to southern states, which co-operated in school desegregation (despite it being 11 years after the BROWN decision!) so he was using the immense power of the federal purse. Johnson was also seen to be pro-African Americans in other ways, by appointing an African American Supreme Court judge, Thurgood Marshall. Johnson also had African American advisors, hoping this would counteract the images of lawless African American rioters.

Johnson’s positive discrimination, which later became known as ‘affirmative action’ was met with the expected attacks from white bigots, who felt Johnson had done more than enough for African Americans. His attempts were also hampered by the riots in Watts, Los Angeles in August 1965. These were caused by de facto segregation and discrimination, which was unspoken and therefore almost impossible to legislate against. The result of the riots was a white backlash as the purchasing of guns by suburban whites in California soared and many whites turned against Johnson’s reform programme. He himself couldn’t understand how the African Americans could be so politically naïve, failing to realise that their action had undermined his efforts.

After the events in Watts, Johnson kept a lower profile on the civil rights legislation. Johnson was also stopped from doing more by an increasingly awkward Congress which rejected an administration civil rights bill, one aim of which was to prohibit housing discrimination, the basis of the 1968 Civil Rights Act. Johnson’s attempts to integrate housing were hampered by the Watts riots and Stokely Carmichael’s call for “Black Power“. Local and State authorities also showed their reluctance to co-operate with Johnson’s programmes, meaning that whilst Acts passed into law, they were still not implemented.

The summer of 1966 saw riots in 38 major American cities. This harmed the image Johnson was trying to mould of the African American community. He tried to excuse them by stating the cause of the riots were poverty and despair, what he had been trying to combat. Another major distraction to Johnson was the Vietnam War, which goes much of the way in explaining why like Kennedy and his distraction of the Cuban Missile Crisis, Johnson was unable to devote more time to America’s domestic affairs. Johnson was also aware that he wasn’t a miracle worker and that the situation was “too critical to our future for any one man or any one administration to ever resolve.”

Johnson didn’t stand for re-election in 1968 and ironically his last public appearance was at a civil rights symposium. When he died a few weeks later, 60% of the people who filed passed his coffin to pay their respects were African Americans.

What had Johnson actually achieved? He played an important role in ending de jure segregation. His 1965 Voting Rights Act transformed Southern politics and gave African Americans the chance to vote without fear it also saw more African Americans enter politics. Johnson’s Education Acts sped up the process of school desegregation, which had lagged after the initial BROWN decision and also helped African American colleges. Johnson had not only passed the 1964 Civil Rights Act but had also been instrumental in the 1957 and 1960 Acts, all three had given African Americans more political and economic opportunities. Black unemployment had decreased by 34% and in that way he had contributed to his dream of a “Great Society”.

However, Lyndon Johnson did not solve all as most African Americans continued to live in poor housing and suffer above average unemployment. His Great Society programmes soon became unpopular with local politicians, who resented federal intervention and ordinary Americans who disliked the redistribution of resources needed to combat poverty. De facto segregation continued especially in the South and the 1968 Civil Rights Act has been attacked as an ‘empty gesture’ and critics say Johnson’s ‘Great Society’ created a welfare dependent culture.

Some African Americans were dissatisfied with Johnson’s achievements, leading to the riots at Watts in 1965 and during the summer of 1966, which displayed their desire for faster progress. However it is argued that without Johnson’s actions, Black Power would have a larger following. Above all, it must be remembered that Johnson was a politician and therefore always looking out for votes and being cautious not to antagonise too many people. The advances made during Johnson’s presidency can naturally be attributed to his passing of legislation but it must also be remembered that events such as the assassinations of President Kennedy and Martin Luther King also acted as a catalyst for change.

Johnson like Eisenhower and Truman before him was a Southerner and whether or not he accepted it his roots were inherently racist. Many would look at him and Kennedy and predict that Irish American Kennedy, whose own family had been discriminated against, would be a champion of the civil rights movement. However that was not the case and like his Southern counterparts, it was Johnson who passed the major civil rights legislation.

Many have asked why did Johnson take civil rights so seriously and what was his motivation? Lyndon Johnson was motivated by memories of his own poverty ridden childhood and also his strong belief that helping minorities would be of spiritual and economic benefit to all Americans. Johnson also believed that racial discrimination was ironically damaging the economy of his beloved South and that the area would have to abandon its racist attitudes to gain economic prosperity. Despite Johnson’s ambitions he was also a caring and compassionate man.

Naturally as a politician Johnson was constantly aware of the need to be popular to secure support, that is why he diluted the 1957 Civil Rights Act in order to win support to run instead of John F Kennedy as the Democrat presidential candidate. Lyndon Johnson however didn’t want to be seen as a conservative Southerner and so to prove his ability to rise above his roots, he felt it would be advantageous to promote civil rights legislation. He hoped to stem the flow of African American voters switching to the Republicans. Johnson also acknowledged that in the late 1950’s against the backdrop of BROWN and the Montgomery Bus Boycott the time was right for change. Many genuinely believe and the legislation proves that Johnson did really want to improve life for minorities and build a “Great Society”.

Alternate Timeline of Lyndon B. Johnson's Presidency

November 22: At 12:30 PM Central Time on November 22, John F. Kennedy is assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald, who he also killed J.D Tippit.

November 23: Lyndon B. Johnson is sworn in as the 36th President of the United States.

December 12: Lyndon B. Johnson makes the Voting Rights Act which allows citizens of color to vote.

January 9: Gallup polls show L.B.J at an approval rating of around 81%. Higher than what Kennedy had right before his assassination.

February 14: Lyndon B. Johnson orders the withdrawal of 25% of the mobilized forces sent in Vietnam.

March 2: Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act which gives free people of color civil rights.

April 23: Republicans nominate Barry Goldwater for the presidency.

August 14: L.B.J has the election in the bag, with 79% approval rating, L.B.J is leading in the polls by 32%. L.B.J Chooses Hubert H. Humphrey as his running mate.

August 27: Lyndon B. Johnson orders the withdrawal of troops from Vietnam. Thus ending the Vietnam war.

September 1: Lyndon B. Johnson's approval rating rises to a staggering 89% according to gallup polls. Increasing his already huge lead even more up to 36%.

November 3: The election results come in. L.B.J receives 62.6% while Goldwater receives 37.4%. L.B.J receives 503 electoral votes while Goldwater just 35 electoral votes. The alternate electoral map is there to the right --------->

January 22: Lyndon B. Johnson begins his new term with a very high approval rating of 84%. A very high approval rating.

February 2: Lyndon B. Johnson makes Robert F. Kennedy the Secretary of State.

February 14: Lyndon B. Johnson's new gallup poll has him at 77% approval rating.

February 17: L.B.J gives his state of the union address, in which it has an audience 150,000. The crowd is fired up.

March 12: L.B.J decides to decrease taxes on the middle class. His approval rating is at 81%.

May 1: L.B.J strengthens relations with South Korea, Taiwan and Japan in the treaty of Kyoto.

May 22: Lyndon B. Johnson begins protecting black rights even more, as he notices that southern states are trying to remove civil rights laws.

May 29: Lyndon B. Johnson makes the 24th Amendment to the constitution in which prohibits due to the non-payment of a poll tax or any other tax.

April 2: L.B.J orders the removal of poll tax and any other black voting tax that prevented them to have the right to vote.

July 19: George Wallace is found guilty and is sentenced to prison for 1 year because of fraud for black voters that voted for L.B.J, switching them to Goldwater, around 600 votes. Poll workers immediately go and fix the fraud votes.

July 29: Lyndon B. Johnson orders the release of Black Civil Rights Activist Martin Luther King Jr.

November 6: Lyndon B. Johnson signs the 25th Amendment that allows Vice-Presidents to immediately succeed the President that died in office, or left it.

December 23: Lyndon B. Johnson gives the right for blacks to run for President, Congress and for the governorship of states.

January 3: L.B.J starts the year with a staggering 80% approval rating according to gallup polls.

July 19: George Wallace is released from prison 1 year later.

August 2: Lyndon B. Johnson expands U.S relations with it's allies. Especially in NATO and also Saudi Arabia, Israel and the Kingdom of Iran. Increasing its foreign influence within the Middle East which really bothers the Soviet Union.

August 24: Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Affordable Care Act (Johnson Care) Which makes Healthcare free for all Americans. Yes, even for African Americans.

September 3: The Affordable Care Act is successful at making Healthcare free in the United States.

September 15: Lyndon B. Johnson reaches 92% approval rating, the highest out of any president.

February 2: L.B.J, sends American Troops to fight against Communist Insurgencies in Afghanistan and Thailand, funded by the Soviet Union.

March 6: The Kabul Incident occurs in which 20 US Tanks and 5 Planes are attacked by Soviet Forces. Congress gives L.B.J the right to send troops to these areas.

March 19: L.B.J approval rating falls to 65% due to Anti-War students, as they increase along with draft dodgers, L.B.J's approval rating falls down to 56%.

May 20: Vietcong forces intervene with the U.S.S.R in Thailand. L.B.J orders a United NATO Coalition of forces to be sent to Thailand and Afghanistan to fight against Soviet Insurgents.

June 5: USA sends aerial support to Israel against the coalition of Muslim Countries in the Middle East, it is a successful blow, as by June 10, the war is already over as Israel gains the Sinai Peninsula, Palestine and the Golan Heights. His approval rating goes up from 49% to 57%. L.B.J isn't so confident about his chances to get a 2nd term.

September 22: Despite this though, he still runs for re-election promising that if they allow him a 2nd term he would victoriously end the wars with the Soviet Union by the end of his 2nd term.

January 14: Lyndon B. Johnson becomes the front runner, it is not a huge lead tho , but by a slight margin he is ahead of both Edmund Muskie and Robert F. Kennedy.

January 19: Late in the race comes George Wallace, 6 days before the primaries end.

January 25: The primaries end with Lyndon B. Johnson receiving 3.194.688 votes. In 2nd being Robert F. Kennedy with 2.614.661 votes and then in 3rd Edmund Musky with 2.289.168 and then in 4th George B. Wallace with 1.049.677 votes.

August 1: Incumbent Lyndon B. Johnson with an approval rating of 55% has to fight against respected former Vice-President Richard Nixon, who lost to Kennedy in 1960.

August 3: George B. Wallace decides to run under the Dixiecrats this election hoping to win the south.

November 5: Election results are here. This was a very close election. With L.B.J receiving 292 electoral votes while Richard Nixon receives 212 electoral votes and George Wallace receives 34 Electoral Votes. In the popular vote, L.B.J received 45.9% while Nixon received 45.2%. George Wallace received just 8.9% of the popular vote.

January 21: Lyndon Johnson is sworn in for his 2nd term, defeating Nixon.

February 19: Lyndon Johnson signs the Recycling Act of 1969.

February 21: A fine of around 100 $ is made if you don't throw your garbage into a trash bin.

March 28: A carbon tax is also imposed to reduce Carbon Emissions and increases Solar and Wind Power.

October 15: Gallup polls put Lyndon B. Johnson at 62% approval rating.

December 2: Lyndon B. Johnson is able to successfully stop Soviet Insurgents in Thailand and Afghanistan, increasing his approval rating to 74%.

February 6: Lyndon B. Johnson signs Detente with the Soviet Union reducing arms race and increasing relations with them.

April 24: Lyndon B. Johnson goes on a tour of Vietnam and China to increase relations with the countries.

November 2: The world becomes more peaceful as USA and the Soviet Union sign a nuclear arms limit range treaty meant to decrease their limits to nuclear arms.

December 4: Lyndon B. Johnson allows African-Americans to do any stuff that a white American would do, making all men technically equal.

January 29: Lyndon B. Johnson makes gerrymandering illegal and any other way of congressional districting meant to favor only one party over the other.

August 22: As both democratic primaries and republican primaries begin, L.B.J endorses Hubert H. Humphrey for president as he runs against Nixon again.

December 3: Democrat Primaries come to an end as Hubert Humphrey easily beats out the other candidates George McGovern and George Wallace easily winning the nomination.

February 13: Lyndon B. Johnson supports Israel in the Yom Kippur War (started earlier this timeline).

November 7: Despite hard fought effort from Humphrey, Nixon defeats Humphrey, Nixon receiving 332 electoral votes while Humphrey just 206 electoral votes. In the popular vote, Nixon has 50.2% while Humphrey just 48.4%.

November 8: Humphrey concedes the election results and congratulates Nixon on his hard fought victory.

January 21: Nixon becomes the 37th President in American History.

February 3: Gallup polls show LBJ have a final approve rating of 67% and an average approval rating of 66%, ranking him as the 8th Best President.