History Podcasts

Supply II Str - History

Supply II Str - History

Supply II

( Str.: dp. 4,325; 1. 355'8; b. 43'4; dr. 19'5", s. 9.5
k.; cpl. 128; a. 6 6-par. R.F., 1-par. R.F.)

The second Supply, ex-lllinois, a schooner-rigged iron steamer, was built in 1873 by William Cramp and Sons, Philadelphia, Pa. Illinois was purchased by the Navy Department from the International Navigation Company on 30 April 1898 for $325,000.00 and commissioned as Supply, Lt. Comdr. R. Ingersoll in command.

Supply was used as the Supply ship for the fleet in Cuban waters during the Spanish-American War. The ship was decommissioned at the New York Navy Yard on 28 April 1899. She was refitted after the war, with better living quarters, and recommissioned on 1 August 1902. Supply was then ordered to duty on the Asiatic Station. She operated as the supply ship for the Asiatic Fleet and as Station Ship at Guam for many years. The ship was overhauled at the Puget Sound Navy Yard in July 1912 and again from November 1915 to March 1916.

Supply put to sea on 19 March 1916 and after embarking passengers at San Francisco for passage to Guam, sailed on the 29th. She called at Honolulu, T.H., in early April and arrived at Apra Harbor on 25 April. This was her home port while serving as a stores ship for the Asiatic Station. From 22 October to 7 December 1916, she cruised to the Philippine Islands China, and Japan. In January 1917 the ship was overhauled at Olongapo, P.I., and returned to Guam on 27 March.

The interned German auxiliary cruiser SMS Cormoran was in the harbor. The cruiser was in Asiatic waters at the outbreak of World War I and later operated in the southern Pacific. However, lack of provisions forced Cormoran to put in at Guam on 14 December 1914. The German captain accepted internment of the ship the following day, and the cruiser remained in that status until the United States declared war on Germany in April 1917. The morning of 6 April, Supply put a prize crew of 32 men afloat to board the German ship. Her captain offered to surrender the men but not the cruiser. At 0803, Co~noran was blown up by her own crew. Supply immediately lowered all boats to aid in recovering Cornzoran's crew and their personal effects from the water.

Supply remained on station in Apra Harbor until steaming for Manila on 21 May 1917. She departed there on 6 June en route to Japan, via Guam. After visiting various Japanese ports, the ship returned to Cavite, P.I., for drydocking and repairs. Upon completion, she returned to Guam on 29 August and resumed her duties until 28 November when she got underway for the United States. Christmas 1917 was celebrated at Pearl Harbor; the Panama Canal was transited on 19 January 1918, and Supply arrived at the Charleston Navy Yard on the 25th.

Upon completion of repairs Supply was designated flagship of the Train, Atlantic Fleet, based at Charleston. On 29 May 1919, she was reassigned to Guam for duty as Station Ship. However, upon her arrival on the west coast, she was ordered to Mare Island for repairs and placed out of commission there on 15 September 1919. Supply was struck from the Navy list and sold for scrap on 30 September 1921.

Strategic Petroleum Reserve

The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR), the world's largest supply of emergency crude oil was established primarily to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the international energy program. The federally-owned oil stocks are stored in huge underground salt caverns at four sites along the coastline of the Gulf of Mexico. The sheer size of the SPR (authorized storage capacity of 714 million barrels) makes it a significant deterrent to oil import cutoffs and a key tool in foreign policy.

SPR oil is sold competitively when the President finds, pursuant to the conditions set forth in the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA), that a sale is required. Such conditions have only existed three times, most recently in June 2011 when the President directed a sale of 30 million barrels of crude oil to offset disruptions in supply due to unrest in Libya. During this severe energy supply interruption, the United States acted in coordination with its partners in the International Energy Agency (IEA). IEA countries released altogether a total of 60 million barrels of petroleum.

Additionally, the Secretary of Energy may authorize limited releases in the form of exchanges with entities that are not part of the Federal Government. This authority allows the SPR to negotiate exchanges where the SPR ultimately receives more oil than it released thereby acquiring additional oil. With the exception of the 2000 Heating Oil Exchange, the SPR has entered into negotiated contracts at the request of private companies in order to address short-term, emergency supply disruptions to a refiner's normal operations on several occasions.

Classic and Vintage Auto Restoration Parts

Collectors Auto Supply was founded in 1992 with the goal of making it as easy as possible to find the classic car parts you need to complete your vintage car or truck restoration. We have classic and vintage auto restoration parts for almost every make and model of classic car ever made.

We make it easy to determine which vintage auto parts will fit your classic car or truck. Just use our Year Make Model vehicle search and we will put every part we have that fits your vehicle right in front of your nose. It can’t get simpler than that right?

Are you having trouble tracking down that hard-to-find old car part? Don't worry, we can help with that as well. Just contact us and we will get back to you within 24 hours or less.

With over 25 years in business and 100,000+ customer transactions, you can trust us to be the right choice for replacement auto parts to restore your classic car. Our style of business is just like the cars we love, old-fashioned. We remember when business was done with a handshake and we stand behind every classic auto part we sell.

Welcome to the WW2 US Medical Research Centre

We hope that your stay here is a long and enjoyable one. The site is a work-in-progress, designed to offer an excellent research utility to anyone interested in WW2 United States Army Medical history.

The founders hope that you find the site useful, and really would welcome any comments that you may have regarding the site. Please feel free to contact us with any comments, suggestions or questions.

Latest News

With the precious assistance of Jana J. Steed, daughter of First Lieutenant Frances C. Jones (ASN:R-676), we have now been able to complete the editing of her Mother's Testimony. First Lieutenant Frances C. Jones served as a Hospital Dietitian with the 50th General Hospital during WW2. The new texts can be found in the "Testimonies" menu of the main website navigation.

With the precious assistance of Isobel Carroll, widow of Private First Class Robert J. Carroll, we are pleased to announce the addition of a new Unit History to our website. This one looks at the service of the 60th Field Hospital in the European Theater of Operations during WW2. The new texts can be found in the "Unit Histories" menu of the main website navigation.

We are pleased to announce the addition of the 313th Station Hospital Unit History to our website. The new texts can be found in the "Unit Histories" menu of the main website navigation. The MRC Staff are still looking for additional material related to the unit's final operations in the European Theater of Operations, and would welcome any inputs from our readers.

We are pleased to announce that we have now been able to upload a new Document for our readers to access. This one is entitled "Victory Order of the Day" a small booklet printed in 1945. It contains a number of messages related to the Allied Victory (V-E Day) and signed by some very important Allied Officials. The Document can be found in the Downloads menu of the main website navigation.

We are pleased to announce the addition of a new Unit History to our website. This one looks at the service of the 200th Medical Hospital Ship Complement (and its operation of US Army Hospital Ship Louis A. Milne) during World War 2. The new texts can be found in the "Unit Histories" menu of the main website navigation.

With the precious assistance of the late Lynn F. McNulty, and Barbara Knipe Janssen, daughter of Lt. Colonel Herman G. Janssen, Jr. who served with the 189th General Hospital in the European Theater, we are pleased to announce the addition of our new Unit History. This one focuses on the WW2 service of the 189th General Hospital. The new texts can be found in the "Unit Histories" menu of the main website navigation.

"Ode to the Medics"

(Poem by Cpl John Readey, Cp. Stoneman, Calif.)
(Cp. Stoneman, Pittsburg, California, was a staging area for the San Francisco P/E during World War II)

"They give me shots for tetanus
For typhoid, I get three!
The yellow fever is an excuse
For one more hole in me."

"They stick the needle in me dry
They stick it in me wet.
They punch me full of holes, it seems,
At every chance they get."

"Typhus, measles, housemaid's knee,
There's shots for ev'ry thing
Fallen arches, leprosy:
Boy, those shots do sting!"

"Sometimes those vampires stick me good
Right in a vein of me,
And then they take a pint of blood
And smile with fiendish glee."

"Oh, I haven't been in battle, yet
In war I haven't starred.
But if you saw the holes in me,
You'd swear I'm battle scarred!"

Using Supply and Demand to Set Price and Quantity

So, if suppliers want to sell at high prices, and consumers want to buy at low prices, how do you set the price you charge for your product or service? And how do you know how much of it to make available?

Let's go back to our gas example. If oil companies try to sell their gas at $2.15 per liter, would it sell well? Probably not. If they lower the price to $1.20 per liter, they'll sell more as consumers will be happy. But will they make enough profit? And will there be enough supply to meet the higher demand by consumers? No, and no again.

To determine the price and quantity of goods in the market, we need to find the price point where consumer demand equals the amount that suppliers are willing to supply. This is called the market "equilibrium." The central idea of a free market is that prices and quantities tend to move naturally toward equilibrium, and this keeps the market stable.


Roman Cologne Edit

The first urban settlement on the grounds of modern-day Cologne was Oppidum Ubiorum, founded in 38 BCE by the Ubii, a Cisrhenian Germanic tribe. In 50 CE, the Romans founded Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium (Cologne) on the river Rhine [5] [7] and the city became the provincial capital of Germania Inferior in 85 CE. [7] Considerable Roman remains can be found in present-day Cologne, especially near the wharf area, where a 1,900-year-old Roman boat was discovered in late 2007. [8] From 260 to 271, Cologne was the capital of the Gallic Empire under Postumus, Marius, and Victorinus. In 310, under emperor Constantine I, a bridge was built over the Rhine at Cologne. Roman imperial governors resided in the city and it became one of the most important trade and production centers in the Roman Empire north of the Alps. [5] Cologne is shown on the 4th century Peutinger Map.

Maternus, who was elected as bishop in 313, was the first known bishop of Cologne. The city was the capital of a Roman province until it was occupied by the Ripuarian Franks in 462. Parts of the original Roman sewers are preserved underneath the city, with the new sewerage system having opened in 1890.

After the destruction of the Jewish temple in Jerusalem and the associated dispersion (diaspora) of the Jews, there is evidence of a Jewish community in Cologne. In 321 CE, Emperor Constantine approved the settlement of a Jewish community with all the freedoms of Roman citizens. It is assumed that it was located near the Marspforte within the city wall. The Edict of Constantine to the Jews is the oldest documented evidence in Germany. [9] [10]

Middle Ages Edit

Early medieval Cologne was part of Austrasia within the Frankish Empire. In 716, Charles Martel commanded an army for the first time and suffered the only defeat of his life when Chilperic II, King of Neustria, invaded Austrasia and the city fell to him in the Battle of Cologne. Charles fled to the Eifel mountains, rallied supporters and took the city back that same year after defeating Chilperic in the Battle of Amblève. Cologne had been the seat of a bishop since the Roman period under Charlemagne, in 795, bishop Hildebold was promoted to archbishop. [5] In the 843 Treaty of Verdun Cologne fell into the dominion of Lothair I's Middle Francia – later called Lotharingia (Lower Lorraine).

In 953, the archbishops of Cologne first gained noteworthy secular power when bishop Bruno was appointed as duke by his brother Otto I, King of Germany. In order to weaken the secular nobility, who threatened his power, Otto endowed Bruno and his archiepiscopal successors with the prerogatives of secular princes, thus establishing the Electorate of Cologne, formed by the temporal possessions of the archbishopric and included in the end a strip of territory along the left Bank of the Rhine east of Jülich, as well as the Duchy of Westphalia on the other side of the Rhine, beyond Berg and Mark. By the end of the 12th century, the Archbishop of Cologne was one of the seven electors of the Holy Roman Emperor. Besides being prince elector, he was Archchancellor of Italy as well, technically from 1238 and permanently from 1263 until 1803.

Following the Battle of Worringen in 1288, Cologne gained its independence from the archbishops and became a Free City. Archbishop Sigfried II von Westerburg was forced to reside in Bonn. [11] The archbishop nevertheless preserved the right of capital punishment. Thus the municipal council (though in strict political opposition towards the archbishop) depended upon him in all matters concerning criminal justice. This included torture, the sentence for which was only allowed to be handed down by the episcopal judge known as the "Greve". This legal situation lasted until the French conquest of Cologne. [ citation needed ]

Besides its economic and political significance Cologne also became an important centre of medieval pilgrimage, when Cologne's archbishop, Rainald of Dassel, gave the relics of the Three Wise Men to Cologne's cathedral in 1164 (after they, in fact, had been taken from Milan). Besides the three magi Cologne preserves the relics of Saint Ursula and Albertus Magnus. [12]

Cologne's location on the river Rhine placed it at the intersection of the major trade routes between east and west as well as the main south–north Western Europe trade route, Northern Italy to Flanders. The intersection of these trade routes were the basis of Cologne's growth. By 1300 the city population was 50,000–55,000. [13] Cologne was a member of the Hanseatic League in 1475, when Frederick III confirmed the city's imperial immediacy. [5]

Early modern history Edit

The economic structures of medieval and early modern Cologne were characterised by the city's status as a major harbour and transport hub on the Rhine. Craftsmanship was organised by self-administering guilds, some of which were exclusive to women.

As a free imperial city, Cologne was a self-ruling state within the Holy Roman Empire, an imperial estate with seat and vote at the Imperial Diet, and as such had the right (and obligation) to contribute to the defense of the Empire and maintain its own military force. As they wore a red uniform, these troops were known as the Rote Funken (red sparks). These soldiers were part of the Army of the Holy Roman Empire ("Reichskontingent"). They fought in the wars of the 17th and 18th century, including the wars against revolutionary France in which the small force was almost completely wiped out in combat. The tradition of these troops is preserved as a military persiflage by Cologne's most outstanding carnival society, the Rote Funken. [14]

The Free Imperial City of Cologne must not be confused with the Electorate of Cologne which was a state of its own within the Holy Roman Empire. Since the second half of the 16th century the majority of archbishops were drawn from the Bavaria Wittelsbach dynasty. Due to the free status of Cologne, the archbishops were usually not allowed to enter the city. Thus they took up residence in Bonn and later in Brühl on the Rhine. As members of an influential and powerful family, and supported by their outstanding status as electors, the archbishops of Cologne repeatedly challenged and threatened the free status of Cologne during the 17th and 18th centuries, resulting in complicated affairs, which were handled by diplomatic means and propaganda as well as by the supreme courts of the Holy Roman Empire.

From the 19th century until World War II Edit

Cologne lost its status as a free city during the French period. According to the Peace Treaty of Lunéville (1801) all the territories of the Holy Roman Empire on the left bank of the Rhine were officially incorporated into the French Republic (which had already occupied Cologne in 1794). Thus this region later became part of Napoleon's Empire. Cologne was part of the French Département Roer (named after the river Roer, German: Rur) with Aachen (French: Aix-la-Chapelle) as its capital. The French modernised public life, for example by introducing the Napoleonic code and removing the old elites from power. The Napoleonic code remained in use on the left bank of the Rhine until 1900, when a unified civil code (the Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch) was introduced in the German Empire. In 1815 at the Congress of Vienna, Cologne was made part of the Kingdom of Prussia, first in the Jülich-Cleves-Berg province and then the Rhine province.

The permanent tensions between the Roman Catholic Rhineland and the overwhelmingly Protestant Prussian state repeatedly escalated with Cologne being in the focus of the conflict. In 1837 the archbishop of Cologne, Clemens August von Droste-Vischering, was arrested and imprisoned for two years after a dispute over the legal status of marriages between Protestants and Roman Catholics (Mischehenstreit). In 1874, during the Kulturkampf, Archbishop Paul Melchers was imprisoned before taking asylum in the Netherlands. These conflicts alienated the Catholic population from Berlin and contributed to a deeply felt anti-Prussian resentment, which was still significant after World War II, when the former mayor of Cologne, Konrad Adenauer, became the first West German chancellor.

During the 19th and 20th centuries, Cologne absorbed numerous surrounding towns, and by World War I had already grown to 700,000 inhabitants. Industrialisation changed the city and spurred its growth. Vehicle and engine manufacturing was especially successful, though the heavy industry was less ubiquitous than in the Ruhr area. The cathedral, started in 1248 but abandoned around 1560, was eventually finished in 1880 not just as a place of worship but also as a German national monument celebrating the newly founded German empire and the continuity of the German nation since the Middle Ages. Some of this urban growth occurred at the expense of the city's historic heritage with much being demolished (for example, the city walls or the area around the cathedral) and sometimes replaced by contemporary buildings.

Cologne was designated as one of the Fortresses of the German Confederation. [15] It was turned into a heavily armed fortress (opposing the French and Belgian fortresses of Verdun and Liège) with two fortified belts surrounding the city, the remains of which can be seen to this day. [16] The military demands on what became Germany's largest fortress presented a significant obstacle to urban development, with forts, bunkers, and wide defensive dugouts completely encircling the city and preventing expansion this resulted in a very densely built-up area within the city itself.

During World War I Cologne was the target of several minor air raids but suffered no significant damage. Cologne was occupied by the British Army of the Rhine until 1926, under the terms of the Armistice and the subsequent Versailles Peace Treaty. [17] In contrast with the harsh behaviour of the French occupation troops in Germany, the British forces were more lenient to the local population. Konrad Adenauer, the mayor of Cologne from 1917 until 1933 and later a West German chancellor, acknowledged the political impact of this approach, especially since Britain had opposed French demands for a permanent Allied occupation of the entire Rhineland.

As part of the demilitarisation of the Rhineland, the city's fortifications had to be dismantled. This was an opportunity to create two green belts (Grüngürtel) around the city by converting the fortifications and their fields of fire into large public parks. This was not completed until 1933. In 1919 the University of Cologne, closed by the French in 1798, was reopened. This was considered to be a replacement for the loss of the University of Strasbourg on the west bank of the Rhine, which reverted to France with the rest of Alsace. Cologne prospered during the Weimar Republic (1919–33), and progress was made especially in public governance, city planning, housing and social affairs. Social housing projects were considered exemplary and were copied by other German cities. Cologne competed to host the Olympics, and a modern sports stadium was erected at Müngersdorf. When the British occupation ended, the prohibition of civil aviation was lifted and Cologne Butzweilerhof Airport soon became a hub for national and international air traffic, second in Germany only to Berlin Tempelhof Airport.

The democratic parties lost the local elections in Cologne in March 1933 to the Nazi Party and other extreme-right parties. The Nazis then arrested the Communist and Social Democrats members of the city assembly, and Mayor Adenauer was dismissed. Compared to some other major cities, however, the Nazis never gained decisive support in Cologne. (Significantly, the number of votes cast for the Nazi Party in Reichstag elections had always been the national average.) [18] [19] By 1939 the population had risen to 772,221 inhabitants.

World War II Edit

During World War II, Cologne was a Military Area Command Headquarters (Militärbereichshauptkommandoquartier) for the Military District (Wehrkreis) VI of Münster. Cologne was under the command of Lieutenant-General Freiherr Roeder von Diersburg, who was responsible for military operations in Bonn, Siegburg, Aachen, Jülich, Düren, and Monschau. Cologne was home to the 211th Infantry Regiment and the 26th Artillery Regiment.

The Allies dropped 44,923.2 tons of bombs on the city during World War II, destroying 61% of its built up area. During the Bombing of Cologne in World War II, Cologne endured 262 air raids [20] by the Western Allies, which caused approximately 20,000 civilian casualties and almost completely wiped out the central part of the city. During the night of 31 May 1942, Cologne was the target of "Operation Millennium", the first 1,000 bomber raid by the Royal Air Force in World War II. 1,046 heavy bombers attacked their target with 1,455 tons of explosives, approximately two-thirds of which were incendiary. [21] This raid lasted about 75 minutes, destroyed 600 acres (243 ha) of built-up area (61%), [22] killed 486 civilians and made 59,000 people homeless. The devastation was recorded by Hermann Claasen from 1942 until the end of the war, and presented in his exhibition and book of 1947 Singing in the furnace. Cologne – Remains of an old city [23]

Cologne was taken by the American First Army in early March 1945. [24] [25] By the end of the war, the population of Cologne had been reduced by 95%. This loss was mainly caused by a massive evacuation of the people to more rural areas. The same happened in many other German cities in the last two years of war. By the end of 1945, however, the population had already recovered to approximately 450,000. [26] By the end of the war, essentially all of Cologne's pre-war Jewish population of 11,000 had been deported or killed by the Nazis. [27] The six synagogues of the city were destroyed. The synagogue on Roonstraße was rebuilt in 1959. [28]

Post-war Cologne until today Edit

Despite Cologne's status as the largest city in the region, nearby Düsseldorf was chosen as the political capital of the federated state of North Rhine-Westphalia. With Bonn being chosen as the provisional federal capital (provisorische Bundeshauptstadt) and seat of the government of the Federal Republic of Germany (then informally West Germany), Cologne benefited by being sandwiched between two important political centres. The city became–and still is–home to a number of federal agencies and organizations. After reunification in 1990, Berlin was made the capital of Germany.

In 1945 architect and urban planner Rudolf Schwarz called Cologne the "world's greatest heap of rubble". Schwarz designed the master plan for reconstruction in 1947, which included the construction of several new thoroughfares through the city centre, especially the Nord-Süd-Fahrt ("North-South-Drive"). The master plan took into consideration the fact that even shortly after the war a large increase in automobile traffic could be anticipated. Plans for new roads had already, to a certain degree, evolved under the Nazi administration, but the actual construction became easier when most of the city centre was in ruins.

The destruction of 95% of the city centre, including the famous Twelve Romanesque churches such as St. Gereon, Great St. Martin, St. Maria im Kapitol and several other monuments in World War II, meant a tremendous loss of cultural treasures. The rebuilding of those churches and other landmarks such as the Gürzenich event hall was not undisputed among leading architects and art historians at that time, but in most cases, civil intention prevailed. The reconstruction lasted until the 1990s, when the Romanesque church of St. Kunibert was finished.

In 1959, the city's population reached pre-war numbers again. It then grew steadily, exceeding 1 million for about one year from 1975. It remained just below that until mid-2010, when it exceeded 1 million again.

Drug Supply Chain Security Act Product Tracing Requirements Frequently Asked Questions

The following questions and answers address the product tracing provisions of the Drug Supply Chain Security Act the agency receives most frequently.

1. Is the pedigree provision of the Prescription Drug Marketing Act still in effect?

No. Beginning January 1, 2015, the “pedigree” provision of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act) (added by the Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987) that required certain wholesale distributors to provide to the person who received the drug “…a statement…identifying each prior sale, purchase, or trade of such drug…” no longer exists and is no longer in effect. Section 204 of the DSCSA removed the drug pedigree language and replaced it with new language in section 503(e) of the FD&C Act, which pertains to new licensing requirements and uniform national standards for wholesale distribution of prescription drugs. The DSCSA also added product tracing requirements in section 582 of the FD&C Act.

2. Do the DSCSA requirements related to transaction information, transaction history and transaction statements apply to all prescription drugs?

No. The requirements in sections 582(b)(1)(A), (c)(1)(A), (d)(1)(A), and (e)(1)(A) related to transaction information, transaction history and transaction statements apply to transactions. The term “transaction” is defined in section 581(24)(A) of the FD&C Act to be a “transfer of product between persons in which a change of ownership occurs” subject to exemptions specified in section 581(24)(B). Please refer to section 581(13) of the FD&C Act for the definition of “product,” which excludes certain prescription drugs.

3. Does FDA have standardized forms for transaction information, transaction history and transaction statements that I can use?

No, FDA has not established standardized forms for such product tracing information. However, the Agency has issued a draft guidance, “DSCSA Standards for the Interoperable Exchange of Information for Tracing of Certain Human, Finished, Prescription Drugs: How to Exchange Product Tracing Information,” that establishes initial standards to help trading partners understand the methods available for exchanging product tracing information.

4. Do the DSCSA product tracing requirements related to transaction history, transaction information and transaction statements apply when pharmacies transfer/sell product to another pharmacy?

Section 582(d)(1)(A)(ii) of the FD&C Act states that “a dispenser . . . prior to, or at the time of, each transaction in which the dispenser transfers ownership of a product (but not including dispensing to a patient or returns) shall provide the subsequent owner with transaction history, transaction information, and a transaction statement for the product, except that the requirements of this clause shall not apply to sales by a dispenser to another dispenser to fulfill a specific patient need.” Section 581(19) of the FD&C Act defines “specific patient need” as the transfer of a product from one pharmacy to another to fill a prescription for an identified patient. Section 581(19) further states that this term does not include the transfer of a product from one pharmacy to another for the purpose of increasing or replenishing stock in anticipation of a potential need.

5. What if I meet the definition of more than one trading partner?

Section 582(a)(1) of the FD&C Act states that “Each manufacturer, repackager, wholesale distributor, and dispenser shall comply with the requirements set forth in [section 582] with respect to the role of such manufacturer, repackager, wholesale distributor, or dispenser in a transaction involving product. If an entity meets the definition of more than one of the entities listed in the preceding sentence, such entity shall comply with all applicable requirements in [section 582], but shall not be required to duplicate requirements.” For guidance on this provision, please refer to section III.A of “DSCSA Standards for the Interoperable Exchange of Information for Tracing of Certain Human, Finished, Prescription Drugs: How to Exchange Product Tracing Information.”

6. Can FDA advise me on my specific obligations under the DSCSA?

FDA generally does not provide advice to individual entities regarding their obligations under the DSCSA. We encourage those interested in learning more about the DSCSA to visit FDA’s main DSCSA web page. From there, you can navigate to a number of DSCSA-related materials FDA has developed, including our guidance documents, Implementation Plan, “Are You Ready for the Drug Supply Chain Security Act web page”, and other DSCSA tools and resources.

Supply chain due diligence.

In accordance with globally accepted guidelines and principles, the „BMW Group supplier sustainability policy“ sets out the core sustainability requirements for all suppliers of BMW Group as well as for their suppliers (sub-suppliers). The requirements are specified accordingly, e.g. in the purchasing conditions for direct and indirect material, which are legally binding.

Sustainability Risk Management is an important measure to ensure the implementation of our sustainability standards in the supply chain. Basically, it consists of three different steps:

1. Identifying risks.
The BMW Group uses a specific sustainability risk filter to identify risks. This filter considers regional as well as product-specific risks. These risks can be country specific social risks, e.g. child or compulsory labour. We also consider health and safety risks caused by dangerous process materials and substances as well as ecological risks like the harmful interference with nature and emissions.

2. Conduct self-assessment.
Every production- and delivery location of the supplier has to conduct a self-assessment before nomination by filling out an industry-specific sustainability questionnaire regarding the implementation of ecological-, social- and governance standards. Among other things, information about compliance with human rights, the prohibition of compulsory labour and resource-saving use of materials is collected. Furthermore, the existence of an environmental management system according to ISO 14001 or EMAS is examined. These and other aspects are relevant criteria for the awarding decision.

3. Conducting assessments and audits.
Sustainability violations can be identified at supplier locations through the sustainability risk filter, media-screening and/or the sustainability self-assessment questionnaire. These selected locations are then checked and qualified through independent sustainability audits or sustainability assessments of the BMW Group. Sustainability audits are conducted by external auditors while the sustainability assessments are executed by employees of the BMW Group.

Additionally, the BMW Group uses the following tools, to become aware of potential sustainability violations in the supply chain:

  • Media screening (e-listening): an IT-tool which continuously searches the web for sustainability violations in connection with (potential) BMW suppliers.
  • Human Rights Contact Supply Chain: a grievance mechanism available via phone +49 (0)89 / 382-71230 and email ([email protected]) to directly report sustainability violations in the supply chain of BMW Group.

Furthermore, we are conducting in-depth supply chain assessments to safeguard specific supply chains. These assessments are conducted around products, which have been defined as sustainability light house projects and have been prioritized in terms of risk. The goal of these supply chain assessments is to establish transparency from the BMW Group up to the suppliers of raw materials (supply chain mapping). In addition, we aim at evaluating and improving the sustainability performance along the entire n-tier supply chain by applying the above mentioned three-step sustainability due diligence process. Supply chain assessments enable us to react quickly to possible sustainability violations and detect supply risks early. The gained insights on e.g. specific sustainability industry initiatives or sustainability standards serve as input for commodity and nomination strategies, product and series strategies as well as communication and marketing strategies.

Improve supply chain performance.
The goal of our Due Diligence process is to avoid sustainability violations and to improve sustainability performance of our supply chain in the long run. Based on the corrective actions from self-assessments, audits and onsite assessments as well as its integration in our procurement process, we enhance the performance of our suppliers continously. Capacity building measures for supplier development like trainings and events support this development. A progress report based on selected key performance indicators is available under downloads.


Products Overview

Advanced microchips are in many of the familiar products we use every day – from mobile phones and computing devices to entertainment systems and increasingly “smart” cars. Electronic products are everywhere and life without them unimaginable.

Creating the tiny, complex chips used in these devices involves the repetition of a core set of processes and includes hundreds of individual steps. For successful production, semiconductor manufacturers require sophisticated processes and fabrication equipment.

Lam Research works closely with customers to deliver the products and technologies needed to enable their success. By offering critical chip-processing capabilities, our products provide a vital link between the visionary designs for the latest electronic devices and the companies that produce them.

Our Solutions

Market demand for faster, smaller, more powerful, and energy-efficient electronics is driving the development of new fabrication strategies that enable producing advanced devices with fine, closely packed features and complex 3D structures. Creating the cutting-edge microprocessors, memory devices, and numerous other product types in demand today is extremely challenging and requires continuous innovation to deliver capable processing solutions.

Through collaboration and drawing on multiple areas of expertise, Lam continues to develop the new capabilities required to manufacture these increasingly challenging devices. Our innovative technology and productivity solutions deliver a wide range of wafer processing capabilities needed to create the latest chips and applications – from transistor, interconnect, patterning, advanced memory, and packaging to sensors and transducers, analog and mixed signal, discretes and power devices, and optoelectronics and photonics.

Our Processes

Semiconductor processes used in the manufacture of today’s most advanced chips are challenged to literally push the limits of physics and chemistry with their nanoscale features, novel materials, and increasingly complex 3D structures. Meeting the ever-changing fabrication demands of new chip designs requires precision control at the atomic scale.

To ensure those new process technologies are production-ready when new chips head to the fab, Lam’s scientists and engineers stay abreast of our customers’ manufacturing needs. Our broad portfolio of market-leading products for thin film deposition, plasma etch, photoresist strip, and wafer cleaning are complementary processing steps used throughout semiconductor manufacturing. To support advanced process monitoring and control of critical steps, our product offerings include a line of high-precision mass metrology systems.

Sources [ edit | edit source ]

  1. ↑ and Speeders
  2. ↑ Wars: Rogue One: Death Star Deluxe Book and 3D Wood Model
  3. ↑ Wars: Absolutely Everything You Need to Know
  4. ↑ Wars: Card Trader
  5. ↑ Wars: Complete Locations
  6. ↑ Wars: Episode VI Return of the Jedi
  7. ↑ Star Wars
  8. ↑ 8.08.1Star Wars: The Rise of Skywalker: The Visual Dictionary
  9. Star Wars: Galactic Atlas
  10. ↑ 10.010.1Star Wars Character Encyclopedia: Updated and Expanded
  11. Star Wars Battlefront II
  12. ↑ 12.012.1Star Wars: Return of the Jedi junior novelization
  13. ↑ 13.013.1Star Wars: Episode IV A New Hope
  14. ↑ Target: A Princess Leia Adventure
  15. ↑ of the Jedi: Beware the Power of the Dark Side!
  16. Star Wars: The Rise of Skywalker: The Visual Dictionary
  17. Star Wars: Force Collection(Card: R2-Q5 (★★★))
  18. ↑  Star Wars: X-Wing Second EditionSkystrike Academy Squadron Pack (Card: Alpha Squadron Pilot )
  19. ↑ 19.019.1Aftermath: Empire's End
  20. ↑ Stars
  21. Shattered Empire 1
  22. ↑  Super Star Destroyer in the Encyclopedia(content now obsolete backup link)
  23.  Executor in the Databank(backup link)
  24. ↑ 24.024.1Aftermath
  25. ↑ 25.025.1Star Wars: The Force Awakens: The Visual Dictionary
  26.  Starkiller Base in the Databank(backup link)
  27. 'Here We Go Again!' Exciting Updates to Star Tours — The Adventures Continue on the Disney Parks Blog (backup link)
  28. ↑ 28.028.1Star Wars: Episode IX The Rise of Skywalker
  29. Star Wars: The Annotated Screenplays
  30. ↑ P., Ken. An Interview with Gary Kurtz (2002-11-11). IGN. movies.ign.com. Archived from the original on April 26, 2012.
  31. ↑ 31.031.1 Death Star II in the Databank(content now obsolete backup link)
  32. The Art of Star Wars: The Force Awakens

Watch the video: The Notorious. - Everyday Struggle Official Audio (January 2022).