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Customized Bronze Corinthian Helmet Found In Israeli Waters

Customized Bronze Corinthian Helmet Found In Israeli Waters

The Israeli Antiquities Authority (IAA) recently announced they were in possession of an ancient Corinthian helmet that had been worn by a Greek warrior in either the sixth or fifth century BC. Miraculously, the well-preserved helmet was scooped up intact off the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea by a Dutch dredging vessel working in the harbor waters of Haifa back in 2007. The Dutch were quite surprised by this unexpected retrieval, and they immediately turned the Corinthian helmet over to the IAA as required by Israeli law.

Archaeologists have spent the past decade-plus examining this unusual artifact, and at the end of February this year they put out a press release acknowledging this exciting discovery.

“The helmet probably belonged to a Greek warrior stationed on one of the warships of the Greek fleet that participated in the naval conflict against the Persians, who ruled the country [modern-day Israel] at the time," theorized Kobi Sharvit, the director of the IAA’s Marine Unit.

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The well-preserved Corinthian helmet that was found on the Mediterranean seabed in 2007, just off the coast of Haifa, Israel. ( IAA)

The Corinthian Helmet Was Underwater For 2500 Years!

While the bronze helmet was rusted through in spots, it was in remarkably good condition given that it had presumably been resting on the sea bottom for more than 2,500 years. Still maintaining its original form, the helmet was constructed from a single sheet of bronze, which had been heated, molded, and hammered into shape by skilled metalworkers .

The customized, lightweight, one-piece helmet had likely been manufactured to fit a specific individual and would have been made to fit snugly but not so snugly that it couldn’t be quickly and safely removed.

The archaeologists who studied the helmet were able to trace its precise origin based on its distinctive design. The helmet was designed and manufactured in Corinthian style , which was named after the city in ancient Greece where this type of headgear was made, beginning in the sixth century BC.

IAA officials point out that this is the only helmet of its kind to be found in Israeli waters , making it a rare discovery indeed. The helmet is now on display to the public at the National Marine Museum in Haifa, which is located along Israel’s northern coast.

Ancient Greek helmets: Top (from left to right): Illyrian type helmet, Corinthian helmet. Bottom (from left to right): Phrygian type helmet, Pileus, Chalcidian helmet. (Staatliche Antikensammlungen / CC BY-SA 4.0 )

Historical Background: The Greco-Persian Wars

Bronze Corinthian helmets made in this style were in use among the Greeks in the fifth and sixth centuries BC. During the latter part of the sixth century, and for the first 50 years of the fifth century, the Greeks were in constant conflict on land and sea with the mighty Persian Empire , which was also known as the Achaemenid Empire .

The Greco-Persian Wars lasted 50 years and the Greeks fought many sea battles with the Persians, who used ships like these. (Omicroñ'R / CC BY-SA 4.0 )

The trouble between the Persians and the Greeks began in earnest in 547 BC, when the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, Cyrus the Great , revealed the depth of his territorial ambitions when he sent his forces to occupy the Greek-populated region of Ionia, in order to subjugate previously independent Greek city-states in that area. This provocation was never forgotten, and in 499 BC a duplicitous Ionian tyrant named Aristagoras, who had been collaborating with the Persians, suddenly turned on his patrons and incited the Greeks in Ionia into open revolt .

This was the event that launched the Greco-Persian Wars, a series of tense confrontations, minor skirmishes, and bloody large-scale battles that kept the two warring powers at each other’s throats for 50 years. The ebb and the flow of those wars saw the Persians get the better of the Greeks in the early stages, while in the latter stages it was the Greeks who were most often on the offensive and winning.

The Greco-Persian Wars ended not with a bang but with a whimper. After the efforts of the Greek fleet to take control of the island of Cyprus in 451 BC met with failure, the Greeks withdrew and the intensity of the fighting between the two sides waned significantly. By this time, the whole five-decade experience for each of the participating powers had essentially degenerated into a prolonged and unbreakable stalemate, and the physically and emotionally exhausted Persians and Greeks mutually agreed to end the war via peace treaty in 449 BC.

The soldier who wore the Corinthian helmet during the Greco-Persian wars would have been dressed for battle like this. (Tilemahos Efthimiadis / CC BY-SA 2.0 )

Who Was the Helmeted Warrior? Likely Another Tragic Victim

The Greek warrior who wore the recovered bronze Corinthian helmet was likely active in the latter stages of the Greco-Persian Wars, specifically sometime during the last 25-30 years of the conflict when the Athens-led Delian League carried the action for the Greeks. The area that is now Israel and Palestine was a part of the Achaemenid Empire in the fifth and sixth centuries BC, and Greek ships would have been quite active in the waters near Haifa during the time when the Persians were often on the defensive.

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The helmeted warrior may have served on patrol ships that were assigned to secure the area. Or, he may have been assigned to a battleship that was attacking Persian vessel or seeking an opportunity to land on Persian soil to deploy its troops.

There is no way to know for sure how the warrior’s helmet ended up in the ocean, or when it left his possession. He may have met with some misfortune that ended his life prematurely, which led to the helmet falling into or being discarded into the water. Or, he may simply have thrown the helmet away on his own, because it had been damaged or because he found it uncomfortable to wear.

As a historical artifact, the bronze Corinthian helmet represents a forgotten time of great conflict and intense violence, in which tens of thousands of men lost their lives in a series of fierce battles that would ultimately produce no sustainable advantages for either side.

The owner of the helmet may very well have been one of the many senseless casualties produced by a half-century of pointless warfare, which would put him among the ranks of the hundreds of millions who’ve lost their lives in the tragic and usually pointless wars that have been fought by warring nation-states or their equivalent over the past several millennia.

Found: Ancient Warrior's Helmet, Owner Unknown

A Greek bronze helmet, covered with gold leaf and decorated with snakes, lions and a peacock's tail (or palmette), has been discovered in the waters of Haifa Bay in Israel. But how this helmet ended up at the bottom of the bay is a mystery.

The helmet dates back around 2,600 years and likely belonged to a wealthy Greek mercenary who took part in a series of wars, immortalized in the Bible, which ravaged the region at that time. Archaeologists believe that he likely fought for an Egyptian pharaoh named Necho II.

Dredging discovery

The helmet was discovered accidentally in 2007 during commercial dredging operations in the harbor. After it was discovered, conservators with the Israel Antiquities Authority went to work cleaning it and archaeologists began to analyze it.

They discovered that it is very similar to another helmet found in the 1950s near the Italian island of Giglio, about 1,500 miles (2,300 kilometers) away. That helmet has been dated to around 2,600 years ago, something which helped the researchers arrive at a date for the Haifa Bay helmet.

"The gilding and figural ornaments make this one of the most ornate pieces of early Greek armor discovered," writes Jacob Sharvit, director of the Marine Archaeology Unit with the Israel Antiquities Authority, and John Hale, a professor at the University of Louisville, in a summary of their research which was presented at a recent meeting.

This Greek warrior likely would have been a very wealthy individual, as few soldiers could afford such an ornate helmet. The researchers aren't sure where the helmet was made, though they suspect the warrior could be from one of the Greek colonies in Ionia, on the west coast of modern-day Turkey. [The History of Human Aggression]

Greek warrior loses helmet

At the time the helmet was made, circa 600 B.C., Greek colonies dotted the Mediterranean coast, stretching from the Black Sea to southern France. Even so, there is no evidence of Greek colonies in Israel, indicating the warrior who ventured into Haifa Bay was likely the leader of a group of Greek mercenaries.

This warrior was likely one of Egyptian pharaoh Necho II's troops, which he sent through Israel accompanied by a fleet of ancient ships. The pharaoh was heavily involved in military campaigns in the region for nearly a decade, operations in which this warrior and his group likely were involved. [Photos: Amazing Egyptian Discoveries]

"They were not fighting for the Greeks, they were fighting for Egypt," Sharvit told LiveScience in an interview.

The series of wars engulfed Egypt, Judah (a Jewish kingdom), Assyria and Babylon, with Necho II of Egypt intervening on the side of Assyria.

The end result of these conflicts was the conquest of Judah and the rise of a resurgent Babylon led by King Nebuchadnezzar II. These events would be immortalized in the Torah (the Christian Old Testament).

At some point, amidst all this history, the elite Greek warrior's helmet ended up at the bottom of Haifa Bay.

Bottom of the harbor

The simplest (albeit most embarrassing) explanation is as to how the helmet ended up at the bottom of Haifa Bay is that somebody dropped it while the warrior's ship was sailing into the harbor.

Another possibility is that the ship carrying the warrior sank, suggesting an ancient shipwreck awaits discovery. "We are planning to go back to the same site and to try to locate other (archaeological) material there," Sharvit said.

Yet another possibility (again, an embarrassing one for the warrior) is that the helmet was lost during a retreat after Necho II's armies were defeated by the Babylonians.

The results of the researchers' work were presented in January at the annual meeting of the Archaeological Institute of America. The helmet itself is now on display at the National Maritime Museum in Haifa.

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The corps of the Praetorian Guards were established more than two centuries after that battle, by Emperor Augustus. Praetorian helmets also sported a lion-shaped relief, and were sometimes adorned with real lion skin.

The helmet's dating is based, among other things, on pottery jars and other debris discovered on the sea floor at the site.

Recovered from the site of the Battle of the Egadi Islands (Aegadian islands), northwest of Sicily, the helmet is a Montefortino, a Celtic style-helmet that had been worn across Europe, also popularly known as a "Roman helmet". These are easily identified: they look like half a watermelon with a knob on top and cheek flaps down the sides that tie at the chin. But this one had a difference: the lion decoration.

"Montefortinos spread from central Europe, down through Italy then across into Western Europe. Variations were worn by the Roman and mercenaries on both sides of the conflict,” explains Dr. Jeffrey Royal. And indeed, say the archaeologists, all the helmets discovered thus far on the Egadi seabed were of Montefortino type.

However, the newly discovered helmet has a unique feature: what appears to be a relief of a lion's skin embracing the central cone adorning its peak. Only one Montefortino helmet is known to have a relief on top, that appears to show a stylized bird.

Possibly the lion-theme decoration can be traced back to a city allied with Rome where the influence of the myth of Hercules - who was often represented wearing lion skin on his head – was strong.

It is also possible that the lion insignia indicated a rank of authority within the Roman army at this time. “The helmets could have been worn by any number of mercenaries of South Italian or Sicilian origin. The problem is, both sides were hiring in the same areas," Royal told Haaretz. "The Romans also wore a version of this style. Hence, some helmets were likely worn by mercenaries in service of the Carthaginians, but some my also represent Roman soldiers lost in the battle."

Finding a Montefiorino helmet on the Egadi seafloor Jarrod Jablonski

The helmet, heavily encrusted after more than 2,000 years under the Mediterranean Sea, is undergoing cleaning and conservation that the archaeologists hope will reveal more details.

Other helmets discovered at the same site bore what appears to be Punic lettering engraved into the crest knob. The helmets could be a Libyan-Phoenician type, or worn by Greek mercenaries in Carthaginian employ, Royal suggests.

No, the Romans weren't afraid of water

The find is the latest in a string of discoveries made this year using unmanned submersibles as well as divers that have changed our understanding of naval tactics during the First Punic War (264-241 B.C.E.) , which knocked out Carthage, and made Rome lords of the sea.

“The myth of the Romans as a land-lubbing culture fearful of the sea must be put to rest once and for all. They managed to defeat the preeminent sea power of the day, at sea,” says Royal, who has been investigating this ancient sea battle for years.

Diving at depths as deep as 120 meters, the marine archaeologists are surveying an area of about five square kilometers, littered with the relics of this decisive war.

Bronze helmets, amphora, weapons and not least, ancient battle rams cast in bronze, were salvaged from the seabed.

Montefortino helmets found off the Egadi Islands, dating to the First Punic War between ancient Rome and Carthage. Rome won. Emma Salvo

(Rams were cast metal weapons attached to boat's prow of a vessel at the water-line or below. The intent was, as the name implies, to sink enemy boats by ramming them.)

It was on March 10 of the year 241 B.C.E. that a huge naval clash took place off the coast of Sicily, between the Romans and their archenemies, the Carthaginians. The struggle would put an end to the first Punic war and set the Roman republic on its road to empire. Historical documents place the battle near the island of Levanzo, west of Sicily.

According to the second-century B.C.E. Greek historian Polybius, the Carthaginian fleet, led by the famed general, Hanno, was heavily loaded with supplies of grain for the remaining Carthaginian colonies on Sicily, which the Romans had besieged with their superior land army.

But when Hanno passed the island of Egadi off Sicily, he discovered that the Roman navy was already there. It attacked.

Hanno lost hundreds of ships, escaping with just a few. Returning to Carthage, he was prosecuted for mishandling the fleet, and was convicted and sentenced to death by crucifixion.

Trading with the enemy

Previous attempts to find the exact location of this crucial battle had focused on shallow waters nearer the island. But stories told by old Sicilian divers of lines of ancient lead anchors lying on the seabed off the Egadi Islands to the west of Trapani guided Sebastiano Tusa, professor of pre-history and Soprintendenza del Mare, Sicily to the battle site.

“After reading the historical documents detailing rough and windy weather conditions on the day of the battle, the 10th of March, 241 B.C.E. I studied the placement of Carthaginian camps in the area. A convoy of Carthaginian ships had set out to supply the camps on Mount Erice, breaking the Roman sea and land blockade. Their route with the westerly wind would have taken them close to the smallest island, Egadi,” Tusa explains to Haaretz.

More convincing evidence was discovered in 2004 after Tusa listened to locals from the port of Trapani and to divers exploring the Sicilian coast, and discovered that fishermen had dredged up a large bronze ram near the Egadi that year, which they sold to a Trapani dentist.

This fit with the story that Roman admiral Lutatius Catulus had given orders that anchor ropes had to be cut instantly on his signal, freeing his ships to make a surprise attack.

Following the discovery of the first bronze sheathed ram, the nonprofit organization RPM Nautical Foundation was called in and a search for ancient artifacts commenced. Using their research vessel Hercules, equipped with a multibeam echosounder and a small robotic underwater submersible, the seabed was combed.

Among the finds were hundreds of amphoras. One of the interesting points is that the manufacturing areas and graffiti found on some of the amphoras show that trade continued between the Italian mainland and North Africa, through Sicily and the smaller interceding islands, though the regions were theoretically at war. It is not uncommon throughout history for commerce to continue between areas under adversarial control.

War is expensive, and the sides each been supplies, Royal explains simply, adding, “Overseas trade and shipment was a primary mechanism to sustain these. In general, these events also highlight the importance of overseas transport for maintaining military operation far afield of a home state's territory."

Small and powerful

Dr. Royal, Prof. Tusa and the RPM Nautical Foundation have also discovered that the ships that were participating in the battle were much smaller and more powerful then previously thought.

Their new evidence is the discovery of 13 bronze battering rams, the main maritime weapon of the warship situated at the prow. These were cast to custom-fit the bows, ergo their size reveals the dimensions of the keels.

Based on those measurements, the researchers believe the ships were triremes, the principal type of warship in the Roman-era Mediterranean, which boasted three decks of oarsmen.

The archaeologists calculate that the ships could not have been more than 30 meters long and just 4.5 meter in beam, far less than the 36 meters previously estimated for the Athenian trireme. (The size of Athenian triremes had been estimated based partly on ship sheds excavated in Piraeus, and the reconstruction of a full-scale ancient Athenian trireme, the Olympias).

However, that reconstructed Olympias wouldn't even have fit into many of the ancient ship-sheds, based on archaeological surveys, Royal explained to Haaretz. "Requirements in shipsheds are not tight fits rather, they are spaces where room is needed to work – to perform maintenance, repairs, refits, etc.,” he said.

The reconstructed configuration of the ship's bow was also based on the famous ram found in 1980 at Atlit, a bay in northern Israel, one of the biggest bronze casts ever discovered.

In battle, the trireme was propelled solely by its 170 rowers. These wooden ships are believed to have been able to achieve a speed of 10 knots at the critical moment of impact.

Rams mounted below the waterline had three horizontal planes that would slice into their targets’ timbers, cracking the enemy ship. The dispersal of amphorae and other goods on the seabed indicates that ships were indeed sunk, but did not break up.

Roman ships in the Punic fleet

Since the Carthaginians lost the sea battle, the researchers suspect that most of the sunken ships found so far belonged to the Punic fleet.

However, since only two of the rams discovered carried Punic inscriptions. The rest were of Roman origin, as we know from the Latin inscriptions on them, Tusa tells Haaretz. ("Two are fragment of rams where the inscriptions was lost and one is still covered by concretions, impossible to define," he added.)

A Punic inscription on a ship's ram, found off the Egadi Islands of Sicily Emma Salvo

The archaeologists therefore postulate that the battleships found on the Sicilian seabed had been captured by the Punic fleet from the Romans at the Battle of Drepanum in 249 B.C.E.

Polybius mentions that 97 Roman ships were captured there. Also, additional ships were captured afterwards further south. “These were sent back to Carthage and folded into their fleet. This was hardly the only instance of this: both sides captured the other's warships whenever possible," Royal says. "As they were communicating warship construction technology through through capturing, the state of warship configuration and development would have remained relatively close."

Which led to an interesting conundrum. "The issue is, we have at least two Roman building programs represented in the battle remains," Royal explains. "If we assume both were operated by the Romans, then the ratio of sunken vessels points to a Carthaginian victory. However, assuming ships from one of the programs were those captured at Drepanum, then we solve the ratio of the remains dilemma. This would also explain why the Carthaginian ships were in worse shape - they were older.”

This first Punic War, characterized by some of the largest naval battles of antiquity, would drag on for more than 20 years. The battle of Egadi, in 241 B.C.E., was a turning point: the Carthaginians were defeated and forced to abandon Sicily. Rome also snatched Corsica and Sardinia from their grasp. The amphorae, the bronze rams and the helmets represent the loss of human life, and provide a direct and tangible link to the people who participated in this event that put Rome on the road to Empire.

Carthaginian bronze helmet from First Punic War, found on the seabed off the Egadi Islands of Sicily. This bit shows a lion on the top. Salvo Emma

Corinthian Warrior’s helmet dated to Persian Wars found in Israel

Archaeologists dated a Corinthian helmet to the sixth century BC, a time when the Greek city-states clashed with the mighty Persian Empire.

According to the Israeli Antiquities Authority (IAA), the Corinthian helmet was made in the Corinthian style, named after the Greek city of Corinth.

Although it is cracked and rusted after spending about 2,600 years in the water, you can still make out an intricate, peacock-like pattern above its eyes.

Corinthian Warrior's helmet dated to Persian Wars found in Israel 6

Archaeologists claim it is the only complete helmet of its kind ever found along Israel’s coast.

The IAA, which shared the discovery on Facebook, posted: “Have we shared with you just how excited we get when we find artefacts deep in the sea?”

“Here’s a discovery we’re excited about: A bronze helmet, in an excellent state of preservation, was discovered in 2007 in the Haifa Harbour.”

Have we shared with you just how excited we get when we find artifacts deep in the sea?Here is one story that we are…

Posted by Israel Antiquities Authority on Sunday, February 28, 2021

The helmet uncovered by a Dutch dredging ship in the port city in northern Israel.

The ship’s owner, Mr Hugo van de Graaf, handed the discovery over to the IAA.

It is now on display at the National Marine Museum of Haifa.

Kobi Sharvit.

Kobi Sharvit, director of the Marine Unit of the Israel Antiquities Authority, said:

“The helmet probably belonged to a Greek warrior stationed on one of the Greek fleet’s warships that participated in the naval conflict against the Persians who ruled the country at the time.”

The IAA added: “This helmet is the only complete example ever discovered along the coast of Israel. Do you love this as much as we do?”

The Greco-Persian wars lasted for some 50 years in the fifth century BC, lasting from 499 to 459 BC.

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Helmets are among the oldest forms of personal protective equipment and are known to have been worn by the Akkadians/Sumerians in the 23rd century BC, Mycenaean Greeks since the 17th century BC, [1] [2] the Assyrians around 900 BC, ancient Greeks and Romans, throughout the Middle Ages, and up to the end of the 17th century by many combatants. [3] Their materials and construction became more advanced as weapons became more and more powerful. Initially constructed from leather and brass, and then bronze and iron during the Bronze and Iron Ages, they soon came to be made entirely from forged steel in many societies after about 950 AD. At that time, they were purely military equipment, protecting the head from cutting blows with swords, flying arrows, and low-velocity musketry. Iron helmets were deployed into the cavalry of the Mali Empire to protect the cavalrymen and their mount. [4]

Military use of helmets declined after 1670, and rifled firearms ended their use by foot soldiers after 1700 [3] but the Napoleonic era saw ornate cavalry helmets reintroduced for cuirassiers and dragoons in some armies which continued to be used by French forces during World War I as late as 1915. [5]

World War I and its increased use of artillery renewed the need for steel helmets, with the French Adrian helmet and the British Brodie helmet being the first modern steel helmets used on the battlefield, [6] [7] soon followed by the adoption of similar steel helmets, such as the Stahlhelm [8] [9] by the other warring nations. Such helmets offered protection for the head from shrapnel and fragments.

Today's militaries often use high quality helmets made of ballistic materials such as Kevlar and Twaron, [10] which offer improved protection. Some helmets also have good non-ballistic protective qualities, against threats such as concussive shock waves from explosions. [11] [12]

Many of today's combat helmets have been adapted for modern warfare requirements and upgraded with STANAG rails to act as a platform for mounting cameras, video cameras and VAS Shrouds for the mounting of night vision goggles (NVG) and monocular night vision devices (NVD).

Beginning in the early 20th century, combat helmets have often been equipped with helmet covers to offer greater camouflage. There have been two main types of covers—mesh nets were earlier widely used, but most modern combat helmets use camouflage cloth covers instead.

By the late 20th century, starting in the 1970s and 1980s, new materials such as Kevlar and Twaron began replacing steel as the primary material for combat helmets, in an effort to improve weight, ballistics protection, and protection against head injuries caused by blasts. This practice still continues into the 21st century, with further advancement and refinements in the fibers used, design and shape of the helmet, and increased modularity. Early helmet systems of this new design are the American PASGT, the Spanish MARTE, the Italian SEPT-2 PLUS, and British Mk6.

Was This Helmet Worn by an Ancient Greek Soldier During the Persian Wars?

In 2007, the crew of a Dutch ship crossing the Mediterranean Sea unearthed a well-preserved ancient Greek helmet near the Israeli city of Haifa. As required by local law, the dredging vessel’s owner promptly handed the find over to archaeologists from the Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA).

Now, reports the Greek City Times, researchers have offered new insights on the object, which is the only intact helmet of its kind found along Israel’s coast.

Crafted in the sixth century B.C., the Corinthian armor was likely used during the Persian Wars, which pitted Greek city-states against the Persian Empire in a series of clashes between 492 and 449 B.C.

“[It] probably belonged to a Greek warrior stationed on one of the warships of the Greek fleet that participated in the naval conflict against the Persians who ruled the country at the time,” says Kobi Sharvit, director of the IAA’s Marine Archaeology Unit, in a statement.

After spending 2,600 years on the seafloor, the helmet’s cracked surface is heavily rusted. But scholars could still discern a delicate, peacock-like pattern above its eyeholes. This unique design helped archaeologists determine that craftsmen made the armor in the Greek city-state of Corinth.

According to Ancient Origin’s Nathan Falde, metalworkers would have fashioned the piece to fit tightly around the head of a particular person—but not so tightly that it couldn’t be swiftly and safely removed in the heat of battle.

“The helmet was expertly fabricated from a single sheet of bronze by means of heating and hammering,” notes the statement. “This technique made it possible to reduce its weight without diminishing its capacity for protecting the head of a warrior.”

As Owen Jarus wrote for Live Science in 2012, archaeologists excavated a similar helmet near the Italian island of Giglio, which is about 1,500 miles from where the crew found the recently analyzed artifact, during the 1950s. That headgear—also around 2,600 years old—helped modern scholars determine when craftspeople manufactured the Haifa Bay armor.

Depiction of Greek hoplite and Persian warrior fighting during the Persian Wars (Public domain via Wikimedia Commons)

Experts speculate that the headpiece’s owner was a wealthy individual, as most soldiers wouldn’t have been able to afford such elaborate gear.

“The gilding and figural ornaments make this one of the most ornate pieces of early Greek armor discovered,” wrote Sharvit and scholar John Hale in a research summary quoted by UPI.

One theory raised by researchers speculates that the helmet belonged to a mercenary who fought alongside the Egyptian Pharaoh Necho II, per the Express’ Sebastian Kettley. Another explanation posits that a Greek soldier stationed in the Mediterranean donned the headpiece, only to drop it into the water or lose it when his ship sank.

Though archaeologists aren’t sure exactly who owned the artifact, they do know that the warrior sailed the seas at a time when Persia controlled much of the Middle East. As Live Science’s Jarus explains in a more recent article, the Persians attempted to invade Greece around 490 B.C. but were defeated near Athens during the Battle of Marathon.

A second attack by the Persians culminated in the Battle of Thermopylae, which saw a heavily outnumbered group of Spartans led by King Leonidas mount a doomed last stand against Xerxes’ Persian forces. (The 480 B.C. clash is heavily dramatized in the film 300.) But while Thermopylae ended in a Greek loss, the tides of war soon turned, with the Greeks forcing the Persians out of the region the following year.

In the decades after the Persians’ failed invasions, the Greek military continued the fight by campaigning against enemy troops stationed in the eastern Mediterranean. Ancient Origins notes that the helmet’s owner was likely active during this later phase of the war—“when the Persians were often on the defensive” rather than offensive—and may have served on either a patrol ship or a battleship.

Ancient Dress in General

In ancient times men did not wear trousers, and women did not wear skirts. There were no shirts or blouses such as we wear today, either. Both sexes usually wore flowing garments comparable to the modern woman's dress. (1) In the Greek language the basic article of clothing was called the chiton ( χιτών ), and in the Latin language it was called the tunica. (2) In general, women wore a long chiton that reached all the way to the ankles. Over the chiton another garment, called the himation ( ἱμάτιον ), was worn (see figure 1). In the Latin language this was called the palla (for women) or the pallium (for men). The toga was a garment like the pallium, more elaborately draped, and worn only by Roman citizens. These upper garments (himation, pallium, toga) were just large oblong pieces of cloth wrapped around the body in various ways.

Often a man would wear only the chiton. Working men would typically wear a short chiton which did not reach the knees (figure 2). This was to give free movement to their legs while running or working. The length of the chiton was adjusted by pulling it up over a belt. Sometimes a man would wear only the himation, without the chiton, but this manner of dress was unusual &mdash it was associated with philosophers and religious ascetics. In general, it should be noted that women were more fully covered up with clothes than men were, and women's garments were often dyed in brighter colors.

There are a number of ancient texts and artifacts which clearly indicate that headcovering customs varied from time to time and from place to place. Some of these customs pertained specifically to religious cults, ceremonies, offices, and exercises. Some of them pertained to women, and others to men. I will discuss the customs of the Greeks, Romans, and Jews separately below. But it is important to recognize that in the first century there was a mixture of cultures throughout the Mediterranean lands: many Jews even in Palestine had become "Hellenized" (imitating the Greeks) several cities on Greek soil were founded or refounded as Roman colonies in Rome there was a great influx of people from Greece and other regions, and much of the population there spoke Greek. Greek-speaking Jews had spread all over the ancient world. So it is likely that in any given city there were various customs connected with different ethnic groups, and this is especially likely to have been the case in a city like Corinth.

Греческий шлем Древняя коринфская каска греческий спартанский шлем Древняя Греция Броня Шлем Ларп Шлем Косплей Шлем Греции Античная броня маска

Мы не просто торговая площадка для необычных вещей, мы сообщество людей, которые заботятся о малом бизнесе, людях и нашей планете.

Мы не просто торговая площадка для необычных вещей, мы сообщество людей, которые заботятся о малом бизнесе, людях и нашей планете.

Материалы: полиэфирная смола, Патина, латунный порошок, Стекловолокна

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Древнегреческий коринфский военный шлем с длинным гребнем.
Шлем в коринфском стиле появился в конце 8-го века до н.э.
и остаются в использовании до классического периода.

Способ его настройки ручной работы. Скульптура модели, создание формы и литья из бронзового порошка, полиэфирной мизины, стекловолокна и патины для завершения.
Этот шлем является частью авторской коллекции Bird Art Studio Bulgaria и вдохновлен артефактами и частью древней истории.
Мы не создаем копии древности, мы интерпретируем древние артефакты и создаем искусство.

Срок строительства составляет около 1- 2 недель, но может варьироваться в зависимости от количества заказов в настоящее время в нашей очереди на строительство. Пожалуйста, не стесняйтесь связаться со мной о текущем времени ожидания.
Дополнительная информация

Рост - 46 см. - 18,1 дюйма.
Ширина - 38 см. - 15 дюйма/ 26 см. - 10,2 дюйма.

Шлем имеет внутреннюю крышку войлока или кожи для большого комфорта и регулировки размера.

Афинский шлем может быть декоративным элементом в вашем офисе, доме, и впечатляющий подарок для ваших близких или деловых партнеров.
Афинский шлем можно носить и быть частью вашего реквизита.

Пожалуйста, обратите внимание, что товары, отправленные во все другие страны за пределами Болгарии, доберутся до вас от 10 до 25 рабочих дней.
Каждый деталь послан с Приоритетной перевозкой груза и ваши детали обычно прибывают в:
✈ США - Канада - 10-25 дней
✈ ЕС 5-10 дней
✈ Австралия, Новая Зеландия 10-25 дней

Студия птичьего искусства не просто воссоздает древность, они интерпретируют исторические артефакты и делают искусство. Эти антикварные шлемы являются копиями, но и оригинальные художественные интерпретации, с помощью которых авторы показывают эстетику эпохи. Воины в шлемах являются центральными фигурами в древней мировой истории - Элла, Фракия, Римская империя. Все эти эпические эпохи имеют свои военные аксессуары, которые до сих пор проводятся в археологических слоях.
ЭТО КАЛАНД оригинальная интерпретация древнего коринфского шлема USED BY Warriors Древней Греции и Спарты является частью Bird COLLECTION ART STUDIO BULGARIA.

Plate 1.34: Bronze Head of Sulis Minerva Found at Bath

1 2018-08-28T17:16:50+00:00 Crystal B. Lake b7829cc6981c2837dafd356811d9393ab4d81adc 31 47 Scholarly Commentary with DZI View for Vetusta Monumenta, Plate 1.34. Commentary by Elizabeth J. Hornbeck. plain 2021-04-23T14:55:28+00:00 Ariel Fried f6b6cec26c5a46c3beae9e3505bac9e8799f51de Plate: Plate 1.34 shows in profile a gilded bronze head that was discovered in Bath (Aquae Sulis) in 1727. The date of 1730 appears in the lower right corner below the name of the engraver, George Vertue (1684-1756). In the lower left corner is the name of the delineator, A. Gordon (probably Alexander Gordon (c. 1692-1754), who became Secretary of the Society of Antiquaries of London in 1735). The engraved caption indicates that the object was buried for sixteen centuries, implying a Roman provenance but this inscription does not suggest the identity or even the gender of the figure represented. The plate shows that the head was crudely broken off at the neck it also shows two of the rivet holes along the top of the head, which would have been used to attach a tall Corinthian helmet (now missing). Apart from the inscription, there is no visual indication of the material it appears as much like stone as like bronze.

Object: The gilded bronze Head of Sulis Minerva, unearthed in 1727 during the construction of a new sewer below Stall Street in Bath, most likely dates from the late first century and belonged to the cult statue of the goddess in the Roman temple that stood next to the sacred spring. After its discovery it was displayed in the town hall, and it has never left Bath. Today the head is displayed at the Bath Museum. It is approximately life size, and has six layers of gilding, according to the Roman Baths Museum.

Identification of the sculpture is based on context: it was found at the site of the Temple of Sulis Minerva, and probably belonged to the cult statue that was worshipped there. The earliest textual reference to this temple and its patron deity is by the third-century Latin author Solinus. The Temple of Sulis Minerva was built soon after the Roman Empire successfully subdued Britain (Provincia Britannia) during the first century. Even before the arrival of the Romans, the thermal springs found here were considered to be sacred and to have healing powers. The Iron Age ancient Britons (Celts) worshipped the deity Sulis here, and the Romans subsequently equated Sulis with Minerva, the goddess of wisdom and of healing. Thus Sulis Minerva is a syncretic deity who could be worshipped by both the native populace and the Roman colonists at the site which the Romans called Aquae Sulis. In addition to this temple, the Romans constructed bathing facilities fed by the thermal springs. The central bathing establishment at Aquae Sulis was constructed in the late first century and continued in use into the fifth century. The temple and associated structures were destroyed &ldquoarguably around AD 450 and certainly before AD 500&rdquo (Gerrard 2007, 160).

Transcription: CAPUT hoc, ex ӕre inauratum, antiquo opere summoque artificio conflatum, Urbis inter rudera multis jam seculis excisӕ sepultum, AQVIS SOLIS in agro Somersetensi XVI tandem sub solo ped. effossum A.D. [M]DCC XXVII. Ӕternitati consecravit Soc. Antiquar. Londinensis.

Translation: This gilded bronze head, a product of ancient workmanship and the highest craftsmanship, buried among the ruins of a city demolished many centuries ago now, Aquae Sulis in Somerset, eventually excavated 16 ft. underground in 1727. The Society of Antiquaries, London preserved it for posterity.

Commentary by Elizabeth J. Hornbeck: This impressive gilded bronze head created great excitement among antiquaries when it was unearthed on 12 July 1727 during the construction of a new sewer below Stall Street in Bath. Antiquarian interest in Bath reflected the long-standing awareness of Bath as a Roman settlement, despite Geoffrey of Monmouth having created for it, in the twelfth century, a mythical British founder called King Bladud. Aquae Sulis was mentioned both in Solinus&rsquos Collectanea rerum memorabilium and in the Antonine Itinerary, a Roman catalogue of roads and towns. In his third-century Collectanea, Solinus mentions a hot springs in Britain presided over by Minerva, &ldquoin whose temple burns a perpetual fire&rdquo (Cunliffe 1966, 199).

In the twelfth century, Geoffrey of Monmouth firmly believed that Solinus was writing about Bath, as do modern scholars (Cunliffe 1969, 7). His claim that the Temple of Minerva lay under the Norman cathedral was perpetuated in the writings of later antiquarian travelers William Camden (1551-1623), Dr. Thomas Guidott (1638-1706), and William Stukeley (1687-1765) (Cunliffe 1984, 8). The actual position of the temple&mdashclose to the find spot of the gilded bronze head&mdashwas not determined until archaeological excavations undertaken in 1790, which were confirmed a century later during further excavation and rebuilding work in 1867-69 (Cunliffe 1969, 8).

Bath was known to have had a rich Roman history, owing not only to Solinus but also to extensive inscriptions and carvings that were included in the medieval city wall (possibly begun in the Roman period) (Cunliffe 1969, 5) these had been documented by antiquarian visitors like John Leland (c. 1503-1552), who visited Bath between 1536 and 1542 Samuel Gale (1682-1754), who visited Bath in 1705 and Stukeley, who visited the city in 1723. The miniature painter Bernard Lens, who happened to be in Bath at the time (20 August 1727), drew the remains of a Roman hypocaust that had been uncovered by the builders in Stall Street and then (on 23 August) made a colored drawing of this head, originally found nearby, which by then was installed in the town hall (SAL Harley Collection, vol. 2, fol. 12 Green 1890). Lens identified the head as that of Pallas Athena, and thus female. In 1728, Gale sent a drawing of the bust to Sir John Clerk (1676-1755), who replied that the head was male and speculated that it represented &ldquoa court favorite or officer among the Romans in Britain for heads, bustos, and statues, were so common, that every family possessed some hundreds of them both in metal and stone&rdquo (Nichols 1781, 146). Clerk&rsquos Romantic belief in the abundance of such statues has not, however, been borne out by subsequent finds.

Stukeley, the first secretary of the SAL, had visited Bath in 1723, four years before the head was discovered. In Stukeley&rsquos Itinerarium Curiosum he describes his visit and, following Geoffrey of Monmouth, mistakenly asserts that the Roman temple of Minerva, &ldquopatroness of the Baths,&rdquo once stood where the medieval cathedral currently stands (Stukeley 1776, 146). It was not until excavations in 1790 that the temple&rsquos actual location was confirmed to be adjacent to the find spot of the bronze head. Stukeley included a footnote about the head in the second edition of Itinerarium Curiosum (published posthumously in 1776). Probably referring to a paper of Gale&rsquos that remains untraced, Stukeley writes:

A most noble busto in brass found at the bath, anno 1727. Mr. Gale says it is not easy to know whether it be a man&rsquos or a woman&rsquos: I suppose it is the Genius of the city, buried there for luck sake. Such another found in the middle of Paris, very deep, with a mural crown on and such a one had ours, the holes being visible where it was fastened. (Stukeley 1776, 146)

Although Stukeley was aware that a Roman temple of Minerva, &ldquopatroness of the Baths,&rdquo had stood in the city, he did not connect the gilt bronze head with Minerva. Stukeley&rsquos note on the head suggests that Gale&rsquos identification of the head as Minerva was still unsettled when he read his paper for the SAL. Stukeley believed the missing headgear to have been a mural crown, i.e., a crown representing the walls or towers of a city these were common in ancient representations of patron goddesses of cities. It is worth noting that deities who protected cities in antiquity were typically female, so Stukeley must have, on some level, believed the head to be that of a woman. Stukeley&rsquos supposition that the head had been deliberately buried to bring luck, rather than having been created for religious worship, reflects the fact that archaeological excavation and interpretation were still quite new in Britain in 1727.

Recognizing the significance of the find&mdashwhich remains one of only three works in bronze recovered from Roman Britain&mdashthe Society of Antiquaries of London (SAL) sought to document it almost immediately. The SAL voted to order the engraving on three separate occasions, over a period of more than two years, before Vertue finally executed the order. The first vote was taken on 8 November 1727, when the Society ordered &ldquoa Profile and full face of the Head dug up lately at Bath.&rdquo Two weeks later, on 22 November 1727, &ldquoThe president brought several draughts of the Head lately found at Bath&rdquo (SAL Minutes I.215). Seven preparatory drawings of the head survive in the Society&rsquos archives (SAL Drawings, vol. 1, fols. 84, 88). Three are drawn in red chalk one of these shows the left side of the head in profile, and the other two show frontal views of the face. The other four drawings are done in charcoal they show the left side in profile, the right side in profile, a three-quarter view of the right side, and a frontal view of the face. None of these drawings includes a signature, and they could be the work of one or two artists, one of whom, A. Gordon, is credited in Plate 1.34. Vertue&rsquos engraving could be based on either of the two left profiles, but the engraving shows two rivet holes along the top edge of the head, while none of the seven preparatory drawings shows the holes.

Vertue began work on the engraving soon after it was balloted and ordered for the third time on 19 February 1730 (SAL Minutes I.244) and distributed copies of the finished print to members on 26 November 1730 (I.252). He may have worked partly from a cast of the head, since the order calls for the use of &ldquoSuch Drawing or Caste as the Lord Colerane, Mr R Gale, & Mr Vertue shall approve of&rdquo (I.244). Rather than the two engravings approved in 1727, only one&mdashthe profile&mdashwas ultimately executed.

Stylistically, the Head of Sulis Minerva appears typical of Greco-Roman sculpture of the first century. The face and hair are highly stylized, with symmetrical features the face lacks expression or emotion. Cunliffe describes the face as &ldquodull but competently modelled&rdquo (1969, 34). Altogether seemingly bland, her appearance is idealized and heroic, which is appropriate for an all-powerful, superhuman deity. A notable feature of both the drawings and the engraving is the use of &ldquosilent restoration&rdquo&mdashi.e., the head is represented as being in better condition that it actually was. The Roman Baths Museum&rsquos website describes the head&rsquos modern condition:

[T]he head has a number of imperfections. There is corrosion which has affected it in parts where it lay in the ground for over a thousand years. There is also a strange rectangular cut beneath the chin. It is thought this may result from a flaw in the original casting process in which a bubble on the surface may have been cut out and filled with an inserted plate. When gilded over it would not have been visible. This plate has subsequently fallen out as a result of corrosion whilst in the ground. (Roman Baths Museum)

None of the eighteenth-century descriptions of the head comments on the corrosion or the rectangular cut, both of which are plainly visible today. The corrosion and the rectangular hole are most noticeable on the lower right side of the face, which could account for Vertue&rsquos decision to use the left profile for the Society&rsquos project&mdashthough Vertue might not even have been aware of the corrosion, since he was probably working from the idealized drawings and not the object itself. The jagged line at the bottom, showing where the bust was broken at the neck, adds a touch of documentary realism, however.

Correspondence between antiquaries further demonstrates the high level of interest in the head. On 23 April 1729, Maurice Johnson (1688-1755) wrote to Samuel Gale:

I hope the Antiquarian Society have determined upon engraving the Bath-head of Apollo, which I cannot but imagine is part of the very image of that deity, represented upon that coin of Constantine so very frequently found in England, naked, et radiato capite, with this inscription, SOLI INVICTO COMITI. (Nichols 1781, 146)

Johnson may have seen the drawings presented at the SAL meeting on 22 November 1727. He seems to have concurred with Clerk on the matter of the statue&rsquos gender, and he seems certain about its identity being Apollo.

By 1730, when the engraving was made, there was still debate over whether the head represented a male or a female figure. When Vertue made the engraving, his inscription identified it simply as &ldquoa gilded bronze head.&rdquo Among the prominent antiquaries who weighed in on this question, Gale is the most likely to have studied the head in person, or he may have had drawings sent to him from Bath. Clerk based his view on drawings that Gale sent to him, and Stukeley also learned about the head from Gale, probably from a paper Gale read at the SAL sometime between 1727 and 1730. Clerk replied on 1 August 1728:

I return you many thanks for the draught you sent me. I take it to be the head of a man, and not of a woman, for the Nasus Quadratus, a beauty in men much commended, and followed by statuaries, especially the Grecian, is here very remarkable. The forehead is likewise too short for a female deity, where the Perfectissimum Naturae was always observed. (Nichols 1781, 146)

Clerk&rsquos evaluation of the figure&rsquos gender, based on connoisseurship, is primarily speculative little was really known about Greco-Roman aesthetics at the time.

In his &ldquoTour through Several Parts of England,&rdquo Gale identifies the head as that of Minerva, despite opinions to the contrary expressed by both Clerk and Johnson. He writes, &ldquoAnd lately, anno 1727, as the workmen were digging to lay a new drain about the middle of the town, they dug up a fine head, in cast brass, 1 and washed over with gold, of the goddess Pallas [Athena], and is now to be seen preserved by the worthy magistrates in their town-house, as a most venerable antiquity&rdquo (Nichols 1781, 19). Gale added this account in 1730 when revising his manuscript &ldquoTour&rdquo of 1705, but since the text remained unpublished until 1780, it is not clear to what extent contemporaries were aware of his opinion that it was indeed Minerva: the Roman equivalent of the Greek Athena.

Arguments that the gilded bronze head belonged to Apollo were supported by antiquarian descriptions of the many Roman inscriptions and carvings found in the city wall. Apollo figured prominently among these Roman relics. Perhaps as early as 1705 Gale asserted that the Romans &ldquoattribute[d] the heat and medicinal qualities of the baths to the Sun, or Apollo, who was esteemed and worshipped by them as the God of Physic&rdquo (Nichols 1781, 18). He went on to describe a relief in the wall:

And I have in the wall of the city observed, on the inside westwards, a conspicuous bass-relief of Apollo laureated, and a flame coming out of his mouth thereby plainly intimating the fire and genial heat with which these waters are so intensely endowed, to proceed entirely from the influences of this deity another bass-relief I have also seen here, representing the sun, irradiated, pleno vultu [full face]. (Nichols 1781, 18)

It is interesting to note that Gale himself eventually identified the head as that of Minerva, despite his own observations of Apollo&rsquos importance to Bath. Modern archaeology leaves little doubt that the head most likely belonged to the cult statue of Sulis Minerva or another statue of the goddess, as it was discovered within the temple precinct. She would have worn a tall Corinthian helmet, not a mural crown as speculated by Stukeley.

Sixty years later, in 1791, some antiquaries still identified the bronze head as belonging to Apollo. Sir Henry Charles Englefield, in his &ldquoAccount of Antiquities discovered at Bath 1790,&rdquo read on 3 March 1791, described new excavations around the Roman temple, including the now-famous Gorgon&rsquos Head pediment. He wrote: &ldquoThis probably was a temple of the Corinthian order, dedicated to the deities who presided over the springs of Bath and which an altar formerly dug up here, tells us were Apollo and Minerva. The ornaments in the pediment of the temple seem to refer to the latter divinity while the fine bronze head formerly dug up near this spot, and now preserved in the town-hall, seems evidently to have belonged to a statue of the former&rdquo (Englefield 1792, 326-27). In 1799, though, in a letter to the SAL, Englefield identified the head as &ldquoprobably&rdquo belonging to Minerva.

This 1799 letter accompanied a cast of the head, which Englefield made and gave to the SAL the cast is now missing (LDSAL 39). Englefield also commented on the state of the original in this letter: &ldquoWhen first discovered, traces of ancient gilding appeared on it and from accurate inspection I am convinced that the gold still visible on the left cheek is a part of that gilding, for though it was new gilt some years ago, it must have been merely what is called water gilt, as it is now entirely taken off, and the ancient surface of the metal does not appear to have been injured&rdquo (SAL Minutes XXVII.358-59). We have no further evidence concerning the re-gilding of the head, but it must have seemed an appropriate measure to one of the curators in charge of it during the mid-eighteenth century.

Englefield wrote this in 1791, sometime after the posthumous publication of Gale&rsquos &ldquoTour through Several Parts of England&rdquo in which Gale identified the head as belonging to Minerva. Both the discovery of the bronze head in 1727 and excavations leading to the discovery of the temple of Minerva (its altar, façade, and location) in 1790 resulted from the extensive rebuilding of the city of Bath in order to improve its infrastructure for the ever-expanding numbers of fashionable visitors to the city. By 1813, according to Sweet, &ldquoa taste for British Roman antiquities had become fashionable amongst the social elite,&rdquo with a focus on prestigious objects like the bronze head. But brick architecture was another matter. &ldquoThe baths and hypocaust sustem which were discovered. in 1755 provoked comparatively little attention from the antiquarian world: the Society of Antiquaries received reports from its member on the spot, Mr. Mundy, but no publication was forthcoming&rdquo (Sweet 2004, 184-185). An important fragment of a solid fluted shaft was found in 1879, allowing for a reconstruction of the temple&rsquos plan (Cunliffe 1969, 11). Antiquarian and archaeological interest in Bath&rsquos Roman remains continued in the twentieth century. According to Barry Cunliffe, who directed excavations in Bath from the 1960s through the 1980s, there is no doubt that Sulis Minerva was the presiding deity at this site. He says that &ldquoof the thirteen dedicatory inscriptions known, ten are to Sulis or Sulis Minerva&rdquo (1969, 4). The prevailing opinion now is that this gilded bronze head definitely belonged to a statue of Minerva, probably the main cult statue.

The significance of the find for eighteenth-century antiquaries was quite different, however, as illustrated by Vertue&rsquos print. The bust provided evidence that Greco-Roman bronze statuary&mdasha rarity even on the classic ground of the Grand Tour&mdashcould be numbered among the &ldquoBrittish Antiquitys&rdquo to which the SAL dedicated its labors. At the same time, the appearance of the bust in the print (as in the drawings) is reminiscent of marble, creating a kinship between the head and the famous marble sculptures that inspired neoclassical accounts of ancient art. The resulting speculations on Roman religion, culture, and aesthetics by Gale, Stukeley, Clerk, and others reflect both the uniqueness of the find and the forms in which it circulated through antiquarian visual culture.

[1]: &ldquoBrass&rdquo and &ldquobronze&rdquo were used interchangeably in the eighteenth century.

Works Cited:

Cunliffe, Barry. 1966. &ldquoThe Temple of Sulis Minerva at Bath.&rdquo Antiquity 40: 199-204.

------. 1969. Roman Bath. London: Society of Antiquaries.

------. 1984. Roman Bath Discovered. 2nd ed. London: Routledge.

------. 2000. Roman Bath discovered. Stroud: Tempus, pp 24-6.

Englefield, Henry Charles. 1792. &ldquoAccount of Antiquities discovered at Bath 1790.&rdquo Archaeologia 10: 325-33.

Evans, Joan. 1956. A History of the Society of Antiquaries. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Gerrard, James. 2007. &ldquoThe Temple of Sulis Minerva at Bath and the End of Roman Britain.&rdquo The Antiquaries Journal 87: 148-64.

Green, Everard. 1890. &ldquoThoughts on Bath as a Roman City.&rdquo Proceedings of the Bath Field Club 7, part vii: 114-126.

Henig, Martin. 1995. The Art of Roman Britain. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Mattingly, D.J. 2007. An Imperial Possession: Britain in the Roman Empire, 54 BC to AD 409. London and New York: Penguin.

Nichols, John, ed. 1781. Bibliotheca Topographica Britannica. No. II. Part. I. Containing Reliquiae Galeanae or Miscellaneous Pieces by the Late Brothers Roger and Samuel Gale. London: J. Nichols.

Society of Antiquaries of London. Prints and Drawings, Drawings: Volume 1 [197h]. "Head of Minerva," fols. 84, 88.

------. Prints and Drawings, Harley Collection, Volume 2: Monuments, English Antiquities, Etc. [196h]. "Head in Brass, Found at Bath, Drawn by Lens," fol. 26.

------. 1718-. Minutes of the Society&rsquos Proceedings.

Stukeley, William. (1724) 1776. Itinerarium Curiosum. 2nd ed. 2 vols. London: Baker and Leigh.

Sweet, Rosemary. 2004. Antiquaries: The Discovery of the Past in Eighteenth-Century Britain. London: Hambledon and London.

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